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Full text of "Grecian antiquities; or, An account of the public and private life of the Greeks... chiefly designed to explain words in the Greek classics, according to the rites and customs to which they refer. To which is added, a chronology of remarkable events in the Grecian history, from the foundation of the kingdom of Argos under Inachus, to the death of Alexander"

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BATHS, &c. &c. 

Chiefly defigned to explain Words in the GREEK CLASSICS, 
according to the Rites and Cuftoms to which they refer. 




From the Foundation, of the Kingdom of ARGOS under INACHUS, to the 




Ira refponfum volo, omnem elegantem do&rinam, omnem cognitionem dig- 
nam hominis ingenui Audio, uno verbo, quicquid ufquam eft politiorum dif- 
iplinanim nullis aliis quam Graecorum libris ac literis contineri. 




Luke Hanfar<3, Printer, 
.Great TurnftUj?i L'mcoln's-Iuu 



IT was fuggefted, fome years ago, to the 
compiler of the following pages, that a work, 
containing an account of the Manners and 
Cuftoms of the Greeks, upon a plan fome- 
what fimilar to that of Dr. Adam, in his 
very ufeful book on the Roman Antiquities, 
would be a profitable companion to the ftu- 
dents of literature. 

On this fubject, the work of Archbifhop 
Potter has been much confulted ; but it is 
found to be fo encumbered with historical and 
mythological digreffions, and with long quo- 
tations from the claffics, that the labour of 
inquiry is not always without difficulty re- 
paid. The work alfo of Lambert Bos, pro- 
feflbr of Greek in the Univerfity of Fra- 
a 3 neker^ 



neker, although enriched with the notes of 
Frederick Leifner, is executed upon a plan 
too compendious to fatisfy the inquiiitive 
fcholar. It is hoped, however, that the 
prefent compilation will be deemed equally 
free from thefe objections; comprehending 
much that will iiiftruct, as well as amufe. 

To render the perufal of the ancient Greek 
claffics more profitable and delightful, a pre- 
vious acquaintance with the cufroms and 
manners of that celebrated people is obvioufly 
neceffary: and, in thefe refearches, it cannot 
be doubted but that the fcholar will contem- 
plate with admiration, their magnificent edi- 
fices, their naval and military affairs, the 
myfterious folemnities of their religion, the 
variety of their games and feftivals, their ma- 
jeftic and flowing drefs, the peculiarity of 
their entertainments, and whatever has dif- 
tinguifhed them from other nations. 

The compiler of the prefent work has 
therefore endeavoured to introduce what is 
moft inftruclive and interefting in the cuftoms 

and manners of the ancient Greeks ; with- 




out the knowledge of which, the ftudy of the 
Greek claffics would be dull and unprofitable. 
The Greek words are added to the particular 
cu/tom to which they relate; and thus, by 
connecting words with things, the ftudent 
may at once unite his knowledge of the 
country by the language, and of the language 
by the country. 

It would be ufelefs to enumerate the va- 
riety of learned authorities to which he has 
referred : he will only acknowledge, that in 
the long catalogue of authors which he has 
confalted, he has freely borrowed, from every 
quarter, whatever could be fele&ed for the 
utility and illuftration of the fubjeft. 

In the account of the coins, weights, and 
meafures, Arbuthnot has been his chief 
guide. But M. D'Anville's " Mefures Itine- 
raires" may be confulted with great advan- 

The Chronology of remarkable events has 
been felefted from the " Fafti Attici," from 
Archbifhop Ufher's " Annales," and from 
Dr. Blair's " Chronology." 

a 4 Whatever 


Whatever may contribute to affift the 
fcholar, and to facilitate the acquifition of 
knowledge, cannot be unacceptable to the 
friends of literature. To promote this ufe- 
ful obje6l has been the endeavour of him, 
who now fubmits his labours to the public* 

Auguil 24, i8or. 



A CHRONOLOGY of remarkable Events, &c. - xvii 

GREECE - - i 

ATHENS - ib. 

Divifan of the inhabitants - - 2 

Description of the city of ATHENS - 3 

The citadel^ or upper city 4. 

Lower city - 7 

Gates - - ib* 

Streets ~ 9 

Buildings of the hwer city - - ib. 

Gymnafia - - 14 

Theatres *; - - 17 

Harbours iS 

Citizens * ~ J 9 

Sojourners . - . . ^ . 22 

Athenian magiftrates - - - 27 

Archons - - 29 

i - /ta/V authority - - 30 

fnferiour magiftrates - " - 33 

Public revenue - - - - 35 


Public treasurers - . 36 

- expenditure - . 38 

d'lftr'ibuters - - - . - ib. 

Officers in the markets - - - ~ 39 

Maritime officers - - - . - 40 

Various officers in the -public fervice - - ib: 


Council of the Amphittyons - - - -46 

Public ajfemblies - - . - 47 

Time of meeting - - - - 48 

Places of meeting - - - . -49 

Manner of holding the ajjemblies - - - ib. 

Senate of five hundred - - - " 5 2 

Areopagus - ... - ^ 56 

zVx power - - 57 

i time and manner of meeting - - 58 

Courts of ' jujlice for criminal offences - 6 1 

Other courts of jujlice - ib. 

Courts of juflice for civil affairs - ... 64 

Judicial procefs - - 66 

Witneffes - - 71 

Jnferiour magistrates - - - - "74 

Public judgments - - - - - 76 

Private judgments - - 79 

Criminal pttniftmients - - - - - 84 

Public honours and rewards - - 88 

LAWS o/*/^ ATHENIANS - - - 89 

. relating to divine ivorjbip - - 94 

- - - fejlivals - - 95 

ganuS) and plays - 96 



Laws relating to thofe who officiated m holy rites 98 
the laws - - "99 

. . . the decrees of thefenate and people \ o I 
citizens - - - - 102 

children and parents - - 103 
fojourners - 1 04 

Jlaves and freed fervants - 105 
the fenate of five hundred - ib. 
magiftrates - - 106 

a pfephlfm - 107 

orators - - 1 08 

various offices - - - ib. 
honours conferred by the common- 
wealth - - - - ib. 
the gymnafia - - - no 
phyftcians and philofophers - ib. 
judges . - - ib. 

lawfuits - - - IH 

preparatory to judgments * ib: 

relating to judgments - - . - ib. 

' arbitrators - - - n-> 
1 oaths - - - ib. 
1 witnejfes - - - ib. 
, ., judgments already pa/l - - 114 

punijhments . ib. 

" receivers of public money - Ii6 

_ ////2/V.r *;/ land-marks - - ib. 

herds, and flocks - - 117 

and felling . 1 1 8 

money and ufury - - - ib. 

importation and exportation of 

wares - - - 119 
---- 120 



Laws relating to corporate fodetles - - - 120 

' marriages - - - - 12 1 

dowries - - 122 

divorces - - - - 123 
> . adulteries - - - - ib. 

. boy s^ procurers^ and harlots - 124 

wills-) and fuccejfion of property 12$ 

guardian/hip - - - 126 

fepulchres and funerals - - ib. 

robbers and ajjajjins - - 127 

/*// - - 129 

Jlander - "ISO 

matters ofbujinefs - - 1 ib. 

entertainments - - ib. 

military affairs - - ~ 131 

__^_. i rewards and punijhments - ib. 

^ various matters - - - 132 


Priejis and religious minifters - - - - 134 

Temples - - 137 

Grecian idols - - - - -I 39 

Statues - - 140 

Altars - - ib. 

Sacred f elds - 145 

Sacrifices - - - - - ib. 

Matter of their facrifices - - - - 146 

Rites preparatory to facrifices - - 152 

Ornaments ufed at facrifces - - * 155 

Time and manner of offering facrifices - 156 

Ceremonies after the facrifices - - - 160 

Prcjents to the gods - - - - 1 6 1 



Prayers and imprecations - - - 162. 
Oaths - - I 6 5 
Manner of fw ear ing - - -167 
Reverence paid to oaths^ and punijbments attend- 
ing the violation of them - - - -169 
Divination and oracles - - - - 170 
Oracle of Dodona^ and other oracles of Jupiter - 171 
Oracles of Apollo - - - 174 
Other Grecian oracles^- ~ - - - 184 
Theomancy - - - 189 
Divination by dreams - - - - 190 

i facrifices - 193 

.. /rdk - - 197 
. infetts and reptiles . - - - 20O 
the figns in the heavens - - ib. 

i lots - - 202 

prefages - 204 

Magical divinations - 207 



Running - - 260 

Leaping - - - 262 

tT/fo? difcus - - - 263 

Boxing - 264 

W^reflling -*- - - - - 265 

Races^ and other exercijes - '- 266 

Olympic games - - - - - -267 

Pythian games - * - 271 

Nemean games - - - * - ~ 2 73 

JJlbmian games ~ - - - - -274 

- - - - - . - ib. 





Soldiers - . - . . -281 

Armour and weapons - - . -285 

Jflhenian officers - - - - 204 

Lacedemonian officers - - - - -296 

&iv fans, forms, and diftinflions of the army - ib. 

Peace and iuar> ambaffadour^ &c. - - 305 

Camps . . - 307 

Guards - . ^ o g 

Battle - _ 309 

Signals and Jlandards - - - - ib. 

- - - 3,3 

Funerals and treatment of the (lain - - 3 1 7 

Military booty - - . . -72O 

Trophies - - - . . -?2I 

Military punijhments - - o 2 ^ 

Military rewards - - - . - -224. 

Manner of fending intelligence - -325 


Sea fervice - . . - ib. 

Part-s and ornaments of Jhips - - - - 320 

Naval injlruments - 330 

Naval injlruments of ivar - - - - o og 

Mariners and fea forces - - - 33^ 
Naval officers ---_._ 2 

- - 344 

Defence of harbours - . _ 346 

Naval engagements - 347 

Naval fpoils - or O 

Naval punijhments - - - - ib. 





Funerals - ' - - - - - - 352 

Treatment of the fick and dead - 355 

Ceremonies before funerals - - - - 357 

Funeral procejfions - - - - 360 

Mourning for the dead - - 362 

Interment and burning of the dead - 365 

Tombs and monuments - 368 

Honours paid to the dead - - - 37 1 

Privileges of youth - - - "37^ 

Tokens exprejjive of love to women - - 37 8 

Marriage - . - - - 382 

Divorces - - 396 

Adultery - - - "397 

Concubines - 398 

Employments of women - - 400 

IVomen in child-birth - - - 402 

Infants - - 404 

Children - - ... 408 

Jfyg-fo of inheritance - - 409 

Ttflamentary wills - - - - 4It 

Inheritance of honours - - 412 

Filial duties - - - - ib. 

.&f7/f - - 414 

Entertainments - - - -415 

- - 416 

Liquors - .... 420 

Invitations to entertainments - 422 

Bathing - . - - - 42$ 

jfctffo - - ib. 

Anointing the body - . . . - 426 
Cuftoms at entertainments - - . - 427 



Hofpitality to Jlrangers * - 445 

Education ----- 449 

Art of painting ------ 450 

ofmufic - - - - - - 452 

Z>fY> - 455 

Money - - 459 

Weights - - 4 6 * 

Meafures - - 4^^ 

INDEX of Greek words - - - - - 464 
INDEX of remark able things - - -499 

















The kingdom of Argos under Inachus ^as eftablifhecl. 
Before the i ft Olympiad 1080 years. 

Inachus, the firft king of Argos, died. 

The deluge of Ogyges, from which Attica lay wafle for 
above 200 years, till the coming of Cecrops. He died 
this year. 

Phoroneus, king of Argos, died. 
Apis, king of Argos, died. 
Argus, king of Argos, died. 

About this time the chronology of the Arundelian marble* 
begins, which fuppofes Cecrops to arrive in Attica. 

Cecrops founds the kingdom of Athens, 780 years before 
the ift Olympiad. 

Cranaus, king of Athens. 
The deluge of Deucalion in Thcflaly. 
Amphi&yon, king of Athens. 

The Panathenaean games firft celebrated at Athens. 
Cadmus arrived in Greece, and built Thebes. 

b Erichthomu* 





i35 6 













Srichthonins, king of Athens. 

The firit Olympic games celebrated in Elis by the Idsi 

Pandion, king of Athens. 

Danaus, the Egyptian, afterwards king of Argos, died. 

Minos gives laws to the Cretans; and iron is found by 

the Idaei Dadlyli, from the accidental burning of the 

woods of Mount Ida in Crete, 
.'.richtheus, king of Athens. 

Eumolpus firft introduced the Eleuiinian myfteries at 

Cecrops II. king of Athent. 

The kingdom of Argos is divided, and the moft confider- 
able part of it is called Mycena?. 

The Ifthmian games firft inftituted by Sifyphug king of 
Corinth. Creon, king of Thebes, died. 

II. king of Athens. 

;geus, king of Athens. Orpheus, and Linus, poets, 

The Argonautic expedition under Jafon. The firft Py- 
thian games celebrated by Adraftus, king of Argos. 

Thefeus, king of Athens. 

Thefeus collects the twelve villages of Attica into one 

city, fettles a democracy, and renews the Ifthmiaa 


CEdipus, king of Thebes, died. 
The Theban war of the feven heroes againft Etecclcs, 

king of Thebes. 

The Olympic games celebrated by Hercules. 
The rape of Helen by Thefeus. Neftor of Pylos, the 

Grecian general, flouriflied. 
Meneftheus, king of Athens. 
The rape of Helen by Paris. 
The Trojan war begins. Heftor, the Trojan general. 

Achilles and UlyiTes, Grecian generals. 
Troy is taken, and burnt, by the Greeki. ^Eneas fails for 


Demophoonjking of Athcaj. 





The Lydians are the firft after Minos, who acquire tht 
maritime power of the Mediterranean. 

Oxyntes, king of Athens. 
Aphiclas, king of Athens. 
Thymsetes, king of Athens. 
Melanthus, king of Athens. 
The migration of the vEolian colonies. 

The return of the Heraclidse into Peloponnefus, eighty 
years after the taking of Troy. 

The Heraclidae divide Peloponnefus, upon which the king- 
dom of Lacedaemon begins, under Euryfthenes and 
Procles, the two fons of Ariftodemus, general of the 

Codrus, king of Athens. 
The kingdom of Sicyon ends. 

The kingdom of Athens ends in Codrus; after which they 
are governed by archons. 

The Pelafgi acquire the maritime power of the Mediter- 

VIedon, the firft archon of Athens, died, 

The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece, and 
their fettlement in Afia Minor. 

Acaftus, the fecond archon of Athens, died. 

Thracians acquire the maritime power of the Medi- 

Archippus, the third archon of Athens, died, 
vledon, king of Argos, died. 

he city of Samos is built. 
Therfippus, the fourth archon of Athens, died. 
^ycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, is born. 

horbas, the fifth archon of Athens, died. 

lie Rhodians acquire the maritime power of the Mediter- 

Homer and Hcfiod, according to the Arundelian marbles, 
flourifhed about this time. 

he Phrygians acquire the maritime power of the Medi- 





^ * 

884. Lycurgus eftablifhes his laws in Lacedasmon ; and, with 
Iphitus and Cleofthenes, reftores the Olympic games at 

869. Phidon, king of Argos, is faid to have invented fcales and 
meafures, and to have coined filver at 

868. The Cyprians acquire the maritime power of the Mediter- 

854. Phidon, king of Argos, died. 

846. Pherecles, the eighth archon of Athens, died. 

826. The Phoenicians acquire the maritime power of the Medi- 
terranean. Ariphron, the ninth archon of Athens, 

814 The kingdom of Macedon begins, and continues 646 
years, till the battle of Pydna. 

799- Thefpieus, the tenth archon of Athens, died. 

797- The kingdom of Lydia begins, and continues 249 years. 

787. The Egyptians acquire the maritime power of the Medi- 

779* Agameftor, the eleventh archon of Athens, died. The 
monarchical government ceafes at Corinth, and the 
pry tan es defied. Automenes was the firft cf the pry- 
tanes at Corinth. 


776. I. i. In this year, Coraebus obtained the prize 

of the ftadium ; which has fmce been 
made the principal sera of chronology*. 

770. II. 3 Theopompus, the nephew of Lycurgus, 

afcends the throne of Lacedasmon. 

76- V. i. The five Ephori introduced into the go- 

vernment of Lacedtemon by Theopompus. 
Elatus, the firft of the Ephori. 

757- V. 4. Foundation of Syracufe by the Corinthians. 

756. VI. i. Jifchylus, the twelfth archon of Athens, 


3. Alcmaeon, the thirteenth archon of Athens, 
died. The authority of the archons of 
Athens ceafes to be for life, and is limit- 
ed to ten years. Charops is die firft 
decennial archon. 

VII. i.Daicles. 

Each Olympiad crnta'ns four years ; each of which, beginning at the new 
t'xat folJows the fummer foljtke, correfponds to two Julian years, and 
includes the fix laft months of the &cil t and she fix firft month* of iht foi- 



VII. I. Daicles is crowned at the Olympic games ; 
being the firft who had that honour The 
people of Naxos in Sicily fend a colony 
to Catana. 

IX. I. JEfimedes, the fecond decennial archon at 

IX. 2. The firft Meffenian war begins, and con- 
tinues nineteen years, to the taking of 

XI. 3- The Carians acquire the command of the 
Mediterranean. CEdicus, the third de- 
cennial archon at Athens. 

XIII. 3. The Lacedaemonians being defeated by 
Ariftodemus, allow their wives to profti- 
tute themfelves in their abfence. 

XIV. i. The firft MefTenian war ended, after the 
taking of Ithome, by which they become 
vailals to the Lacedaemonians. The ^avAo? 
is added to the Olympic games. Hip- 
pomenes, the fourth decennial archon at 

XV. 2. The 3oA%o? was added to the Olympic 
games. They firft run naked in the 
ftadium the year before. 

XVI. 3. Leocratcs, the fifth decennial archon at 

XVIII. l. The wwTaGto*, and the w^, wreftling, 
added to the Olympic games. 

_ 2. Phalantus, a Lacedaemonian, conducts a 

colony to Tarentum. 

XIX. 2. Corcyra built by the Corinthians. Apfan 
der, the iixth decennial archon at Athens. 

XXI. 3. Eryxias, the feventh decennial archon at 

XXIII. 4. The fecond MefTenian war begins, and 
continues fourteen years. About this 
time the poets Tyrtaeus and Archilochus 

XXIV. i. The archons of Athens become annual. 
Creon, the firft annual archon. 

b 3 XXV. i. The 












XXV. I . The chariot race introduced at the Olympic 

XXVIII. I. The fecond Mefienian war ended by the 
taking of Ira ; and the MefTenians are 
expelled Peloponnefus. 

XXIX. I . Some of the Mefienians fettled at Zancle 
in Sicily, which city afterwards takes 
the name of Meflma. A fea -fight be* 
tween the Corinthians, and the inha- 
bitants of Corcyra. 

XXX. 2. Crypfelus ufurps the throne of Corinth, 
and reigns thirty years. 

3. Byzantium founded by the people of Me* 

XXXIII. i. The srayxamov and the twos xi?u?$ were 

both iniUtuted at the Olympic games. 
XXXIV. i. Terpander, poet and mufician of Lefbos, 

XXXV. i. Thales of Miletus is born, the founder of 
the Ionian fc 

' 3. Solon is born. 

XXXVII. i. The r^ y wot^uv, and the 

running an , wreitiing of children, are 

trouuced at the Olympic games. 
630. ... 3. Cyrene is built by Battus; who begins that 

629 4. Crypfelus, tyrant of Sicyon, dies. His 

fon Periander fucceeds him, and reigns 

44 years. 




XXXVIII. X. The smrafiAoit voti^av is added to the 
Olympic games, but it was afterwards 

XXXIX. I. The Scythians invade Afia Minor; and 

keep poffeffion of it 28 years. 
2. DraCo, the archon and lawgiver, efia- 

sblifhes his lav/s at Athens. 

- 4. A war between the Lydians and Milefians, 
which continues eleven years. 

XLI. i. The wyiw wot^M, boxing between chil- 

dren, is inllituted at the Olympic games. 



XLII. I. The adherents of Cylon at Athens are 


3. Anaximander, the philofopher of Miletus, 
is born. 

XLIV. i. Alcajus and Sappho, poets, flourimed. 

XLV. i. About this time Pythagoras is born; he 
lived ninety years. 

t 4, Eclipfe of the fun predicted by Thales^ 

which took place during the battle be- 
tween Cyaxeres, king of the Medes, and 
Alyattes,king ofLydia,onthe 9th of July. 
Epimenides of Crete purifies the city 
of Athens from the pollution incurred by 
the murder of the adherents of Cylon. 

XL VI. I. The Scythians expelled from Upper Afia? 
by Cyaxares. Solon induces the council 
of the Amphyftyons to refolve to attack 
the people of Cirrha, accufed of impiety 
towards the temple of Delphi. 

i.. 3. Solon, lawgiver and archon of Athens-. 

. 4. Solon travels into Egypt, Cyprus, Lydia,&c. 

XLVJI. 2. The Pythian games firft celebrated at 

Delphi, and continued on the fecond year 

of every Olympiad. 
mm 3. The Lydian war begins betwixt Cyaxaret 

and Halyattes, and continues fix years. 

Pittacus begins to reign at Mytelene; 

and retains lovereign power for ten years. 

XLVIII. 4. Competition of mufi:ians inftituted at the 
Pythian games. 

XL IX. i. Periander dies. The Corinthians recover 
their liberty. 

3. The I'-hmian games reltored, being cele- 
brated the firit and third year of every 
Olympiad. Mi'op, the mythologift, flou- 

.. 4. The fi; ft Pythiad, ferving to calculate the 

years in which the public games were 
celebrated at Delphi", $tefichorus, the 
poet, flouriihed. 

LIT, 3. Pittacus of Mytelene died. 



b f. 















LIV. 3. The firft comedy at Athens afted upon a 
moveable fcaffold by Sufarion and Dolon. 
Some years after Thefpis begins to act in 
tragedy. Anaximander of Miletus flou- 

-LV. i. Pififtratus ufurps the Sovereign power at 
Athens ; and holds it two years. 

I 2* Cyrus afcends the Perfian throne. Anaxi- 

menes of Miletus, Bias of Priene, Pha- 
laris, and Cieobulus, flourifh. 

4. Pififtratus, after an expulfion, recovers the 
tyranny of Athens, and holds it one year. 

L VI. i. Pififtratus is expelled Athens, and conti- 
nues in banifhment for eleven years. 

LVIII. i. Craefus conquered by Cyrus. Theognis, 
the poet, and Pherecydes the Syrian, 
flouriflied. Thales died. The burning 
of the temple bf Delphi. 

LIX. 2. Battle of Thymbra. Cyrus takes the city 
of Sardis. 

LXI. i. Prizes infiituted for tragedy. Simonides 

Anacreon, and Xenophanes flourifti. 
LXII. 4. Cyrus dies ; and is fucceeded by his fon 

LXIII. I. Pififtratus, the tyrant of Athens, dies: 
Hippias and Hipparchus, his fons, fuc- 
ceed him. 

3- Learning is encouraged at Athens, and a 

public library built. 

4. The birth of ^Efchylus, the poet. Chce- 

rilus, the tragedian, flourifhed. 

LXIV. 3. Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, put to 
death, after a reign of eleven years. 

4. Darius, fon of Hyftafpes, begins to reign 

in Perfia. 
LXV. 4. Birth of the poet Pindar. 

LXVI. 4. Hipparchus, the tyrant of Athens, put to 

LXVII. 3. The tyranny of the Pififtratidac aboliftied 
at Athens, Clifthenes increales the num- 
ber of tribes at Athens from four to ten. 

LXVIII. i. Ex. 



LXVIIT. i.. Expedition of Darius againft the Scythians. 
LXIX. i. Ionia revolts againft Darius. Sardis taken 
and burnt by the Athenians. Heraclitus, 
Parmenides, and Ariftagoras fiourifhed. 
LXX. I. Race for chariots drawn by two mules in- 
troduced at the Olympic games. Birth 
of Anaxagoras, the philosopher, .^fchy- 
lus was a competitor for the prize in tra 
gedy with Pratinas and Choerilus. 

- 4. Birth of Sophocles. 

LXX1. i. Miletus taken and deftroyed by the Per. 
fians. Phrynicus, thedifcipleof Thefpis, 
makes it the fubjeil of a tragedy. He 
firft introduced female characieis on the 
frage. Birth of Democritus ; who lived 
ninety years. 

2. Birth of Hellanicus, the hiftorian,of Lefbos, 

LXXI1.2. Gelon, king of Syracufe. 

3. The Perfians defeated by Miltiades, in the 

battle of Marathon. 
4. Miltiades, having been unfuccefsful in the 

fiege of Paros, is profecuted, and dies. 

LXXIII. I. Chionides, of Athens, brings a comedy on 
the ftage. 

4. Death of Darius, king of Perfia. Xerxes, 

his fon, fucceeds him. 

LXXIV. l. Xerxes recovers Egypt, and give? the 
government of it to his brother Achxme- 
nes. Ariitides banifhed by oftracifm* 
Birth of Herodotus ; and Euripides. 
4. Xerxes winters at Sardis, and in the fpring 
crofTes the Hellefpont, and begins his ex- 
pedition againft Greece. 

LXXV. I. Battle at Thermopylae, and Salamis. Xerxes 
arrives at Athens in Auguft. Birth of 
Antiphon, the orator. Charon, the 
hillomn, and Zeuxis, the painter, f*ou- 

2. The Perfians defeated at P!at:ca, and M>'- 

cale, ou the fame day. 

LXX VII. a. The. 



bef. Olympiads. 


471. LXXVII. 2. Themiftocles banifhed for confpiring with 
Paufanias againft the liberty of Greece. 
Birth of Tiiucydides. 

470. 3. Victory of Cimon over the Perfians near 

the river Eurymedonin Pamphylia. 

469. 4. Cimon removes the bones of Thefeus to 

Atticus. Birth of Socrates, ^fchylus 
and Sophocles difpute the prize of tra 
gedy, which is adjudged to the latter. 

468. LXXVIII. i. The death of Simonidss. 

467. - 2. The death of Ariftides. 

465. 4. The third MefTenian war begins, and con- 

tinues ten years. The deaih of Xerxes; 
who is fucceeded by Artaxerxes Longi 
man us, who reigns forty years. 

464 LXXIX. i. Earthquake at Lacedaemon. 

463. 2. Egypt revolts from the Perfians, under 

Inerus, who procures them the affifiancc 
of the Athenians. 

462. 3. The Perfians defeated by the Athenians in 

a naval engagement. 
461 . -" ' 4. Cimon leads an Athenian army to the aflift- 

ance of the Lacedaemonians ; who fufpetl- 

ing them of perfidy, fend them back. 

Bam foment of Cimon. 

460. LXXX. i. Birth of Hippocrates. 

459' 2. The Athenians begin to tyrannize ever the 

other Grecian ftates. Birth of Lyfias, the 
orator. Plato, the comedian, Ariftarchus, 
the ^ tragedian, Leocrates, Thrafybulus, 
Pericle:, &c. flourifhed. 

455. LXXXI. 2. The Athenians, under the conduct of Tol- 
mides, and afterwards under Pericles, 
lay wafte the coafts of Laconia. 

454 3. The Romans fend to Athens for Solon's 


452, LXXXII. i. Ion brings his tragedies on the ftage, Pin- 
dar died. 

450. . 3. Truce for five years between the ftates of 

Pelopoimtfus and the Athenians, con- 





eluded by Cimon, who had been recalled 
from banifhment, and who foon after led 
an army into Cyprus. A war between 
the Perfians and Athenians at fea, which 
continues two years. 

,i 4. Cimon obliges the king of Perfia to fign a 

treaty with the Greeks difaonourable to 
that monarch. Death of Cimon. Death 
of Themiflocles, aged 65. 

448. LXXXIII. i. The firft facred war concerning the temple 
of Delphi. 

2. The Athenians defeated by the Beeotians 

at Chaeronasa ; and Tolmides, the gene- 
ral, killed. 

3. The Eubceans and Megareans feparate from 

the Athenians, who reduce them, under 
the conduft of Pericles, The truce of 
five years between the Lacedaemonians 
and Athenians expiring j another truce is 
made for thirty years. 

. 4. Herodotus reads his hiftory at the Olympic 
games, and receives public honours. 
Meliffus, Protagoras, Empsdocles, &c. 

444. LXXXIV. I. Pericles remains without a rival for power, 
He had taken part in the government for 
25 years before, and continued to enjoy 
almoft ablolute power during 15 years 
after. A colony fent to Tim/ium by the 
Athenians : Herodotus, Thucydides, and 
Lyfias were of the number. 

44*. * * 3- Euripides, aged 43 years, obtains the prize 

for tragedy for the firft time. 

440. LXXXV. I. Comedies prohibited at Athens, which con- 
tinued for three years. 

2. A war begins between Corinth and Cor- 

4. The Athenians fend a colony to Amphi- 
polis. Building of the Propylaea in ths 
citadel of Athens. 

436. LXXXVI. I. Birth of Ifocrates. At this time flourifhed, 
Gorgias, Hippias, Prodicus, Zeno of 
Bleu, &c. 

LXXXVII. i. Me- 







4 2S- 









LXXXVII. i. Meton begins his EmaSWajr^K, or nine 

teen yeats cycle of the moon from the 
new moon of July 6th, being eighteen 
days after the fummer foiftice*. 

2. The Peloponnefian war begins May 7th, 
and continues about 27 years. 

, - . 3. A plague ?t Athens for five years. Eupolis 
begins to write comedies. 

- 4. Birth of Placo, in May. Birth of Pericles, 

about October. 
LXXXVIII. i. Death of Anaxagoras. 

- - 2. The Leontines fend a,n embafly to Athens 

for ailiftance againft the Syracufians, 
which is granted them. The Athenians 
fei'/e on Mytelene, and divide among 
them the lands of Lefbos. 
. - - 3. The Athenians purify the Ifls of Delos. 

. - 4. The Athenians take Pylos in Peloponnefus. 
Death of Artaxerxes Longimaaus. Xerxes 
the 2d fucceeds him. 

LXXXIX. i. Anftophane.:,' comedy of the clouds, a&ed 
firft at Athens againit Socrates. The 
Sicilians make peace, and the Athenians 

_ 2. Death of Xerxes II. king of Perfia. Da- 

rius Nothus fucceeds him, and reigns 19 
years. The temple of Juno at Argos 

3. Battle of Amphipolis, in which Brafidas 
the general of the Lacedaemonians, and 
Cleon, the -general of ihe Atheniaas, are 

> . - ^. Truce for fifty years concluded between 
the Athenians and Lacedaemonians; which 
is kept only during fix years and ten 

XCI. l. Alci'oiades gains the prize at the Olympic 

XCI. 2. The 

* The civil rear, before, b??an with the new moon wh'ch followed the winter 
foiftice. It afterwards commr!,c:d with that *hich follows the funnier lolftice ; 
at which tims aifo the new auhoas uavcied on their otftce. 



XCI. 2. The Athenians reduce M ;1os. Expedition 
of the Athenians into Sicily. The ftatues 
of Mercury thrown down at Athens. 

- 3. The fecond part of the Peloponnefian war, 
called the Decclean, begins. The Lace- 
dasmonians feud an army into Sicily. 

4. The Athenian army defeated in Siciljr. 

Nicias and Demofthenes put to death in 

XCII. 2. Alcibiades forfakes the Lacedaemonians. 
Four hundred citizens placed at the head 
of the government. 

3. The four hundred are depofed, and the de- 

mocracy re-eilablilhed. Baniiljment of 
Hyperbolus. The oftracifm laid afide. 

XCII1. 2. Alcibiades returns to Athens. Death of 


4. Dionyfius the elder afcends the throne of 
Syracufe. Death of Sophocles. Battle 
of Arginufae, in which ths fieet of the 
Athenians defeats that of the Lacedae- 
monians. Lyfander gains a fignal viftory 
over the^Athenians near JEgos-Potamos. 

XCIV. I. Death of Darius Nothus. Artaxerxes 
Mnemon fucceeds him. Athens taken by 
the Lacedaemonians. Lyfander eftablifhes 
at Athens thirty magiilrates, known by 
the name of the thirty tyrants. Their 
authority ceafed in eight months. About 
this time flourished, Parrhafius, the paint- 
er, Protagoras, Lyfias, Agathon, Euclid, 
Teleftes, Cebes, &c. 

3. Archonmip of Euclid. Amnefty. Demo- 
cracy re-eftablilhed at Athens. 

. 4. Expedition of the younger Cyrus. 
XCV. i. Socrates is put to death by the Athenians. 

XCVI. i. The expedition of Agefilaus againft the 

- 3. Conon defeats the Lacedaemonians near 

Cnidus. Agefilaus defeats the Thebans 
at Coronea. Conon rebuilds the walls 
of the Pirseus. 

XCVII. 1. The Athenians, under the conduct of Thra- 
fybulus, obtain a part of Lefbos. 

XCVII. 2. Death 





XCVII. 2. Death of Thucydides. 

288. XCVI1I. i. Dionyfius begins the fiege of Rhegium, 
wl.tch is taken after a defence of eleven 
months. About this time flourished, 
Plato, Philoxenus, Damon and Pythias, 
Iphicrates, &e. 

387. ' ' 2. Peace of Antalcidas between the Perfiana 

and Greeks. 

' 4. The war of Cyprus finiflied by treaty, 
having continued two years. Birth of 

XCIX. I . Birth of Ariftotle. 

C. 3. Pelopidas, and the other exiles from Thebes* 
leave Athens, and feize the citadel of 
Thebes, which had been taken by the 
Lacedaemonians a fhort time before. 

-4. Naval battle near Na<xos, in which Cha- 
brias, the Athenian general, defeats the 
Lacedaemonians. About this time flou- 
rifhed, Ifeus, liberates, Philiftus, Arete, 
Philolaus, Diogenes the Cynic, Eudoxus, 
Ariftippus, &c. 

CI. i. Eubulus of Athens, the comedian. 

., . 2. Tirnotheus, the Athenian general, take* 
Corcyra, and defeats the Lacedaemonians 
at Leucas. 

> j. Artaxerxes Mnemon, king of Perfia, gives 

peace to Greece. The Lacedaemonians 
preferve the empire of the land, and the 
Athenians that of the fea. Death of 
Evagoras, king of Cyprus. 

CII. I. Appearance of a comet in the winter of 
373 and 572. Earthquakes in Pelopon- 
neius. The cities of Helice and Bura 
deitroyed. Platzea dellroyed by the 

_ 2. Battle of Leuftra, the 8th of July. The 

Thebans commanded by Epaminondas, 
defeat the Lacedaemonians under the 
command cf their king Cleombrotus, who 
is flan. Foundation of the city of Mega- 
lopolis in Arcadia. 

_, 3. The Mefleniar.s, after a bammment of 500 

s, return to Pejoponnefus. 

CII. 4, Death 














CII. 4. Death of Jafon, tyrant of Pherae. 

CIII. I. Expedition of Epaminondas into Laconia* 
Foundation of the city of Meflene. The 
Athenians, under the command of Iphi- 
crates, come to the afliftance of the Lace- 
daemonians. Alphareus, the adopted fon 
of Ifocrates, begins to write tragedies. 

.' ' . 2. Death of Dionyfius the elder, king of Sy- 
racufe. His fon of the fame name fuc* 
ceeds him. 

3. Ariilotle comes to refide at Athens. 

CIV. I. The Pifaeans prefide in this Olympiad, 
having excluded the Eleans. Pelopidai 
is killed in a battle he gained over Alex- 
ander of Phenea. 

' 2. Battle of Mantinea, and death of EpamI* 

. 3. Death of Agcfilaus, king of Lacedamon. 
Death of Artaxerxes Mnemon; who is 
fucceeded by Ochus, The third voyage 
of Plato into Sicily, where he remained 
1 6 months. 

CV. i. Philip afcends the throne of Macedon. 
4. Expedition of Dion into Sicily : he em- 
barks at Zacynthus in Auguft. The 
fecond facred war, begins from the Delphic 
temples being attacked by the Phoceans. 
The cities of Chios, Rhodes, Cos, and 
Byzantium detach themfeives from the 

CVI. i. Birth of Alexander: Philip, his father. 
crowned conqueror at the Olympic games. 
3. Dion is put to death by the Zacynthian 
mercenaries ; and Syracufe is governed 
feven years by tyrants. Iphicrates and 
Timotheus profecuted, and deprived of 
the command of the army. Demoilhene* 
afcends the roitrum for the firft time. 
4. Death of Maufolus, king of Caria. Arte- 
mifia, his wife and iiiter, fucceeds him, 
cr . reigns two years. The Phoceans 
are defeated in TheiTaly by Philip. About 
this time flourifhed Lycurgus, Ibis, Theo- 



Years ' 









S3 2 ' 

33 1 - 
3 2 3< 


pompus, Ephorus, Datames, Philomelus, 

CVII.4. The Olynthians, befieged by Philip, im- 
plore afTiilance from the Athenians. 

CVIII. i. The facred war finiftied by Philip Baking 
all the cities of the Phoceans. 

2. Dionyfms recovers Syracufe, after ten years 

banifhment. Death of Plato. 

CIX. 2. Timoleon drives Dionyfius from Syracufe, 
and fends him to Corinth. 

. 4. Birth of Epicurus. Birth of Menander. 

About this time flouriflied, Speufippus, 
Protogenes, jiEfchines, Xenocrates, Pho- 
cicn, Mamercus, Icetas, Stilpo, Demades, 
Apelles, the painter, Califthenes, Dino- 
crates, Calippus, Hyperides, Theophraf- 

CX. 3. Battle of Chacronea, in Augufl. Death of 
Koc rates. 

4. Death of Timcleon. 

CXI. i. Philip of Macedon killed by Pau&nias, 

4. The fecond battle gained by Alexander at 


CXII. I. Tyre and Egypt conquered by Alexander; 
and Alexandria built. 

2. The battle of Arbela. 

CX1II. i. Philemon begins to produce his comedies. 
* 2. Alexander's expedition into India. 

CXIV. 2. The death of Alexander, April 21 ft. His 
empire is divided into four kingdoms. 
Death of Diogenes. 

3. Demofthenes put- to death by Antipattr, 
Death of Arifiotle. About this time 
flou rimed, Praxiteles, Crates, Bagoas, 
Parmenio, Philotas, Memnon, Philetus, 
Lyfippus, Menedemus, Pinarchus, Pole- 
mon, Neoptolemus, Perdiccas, Leofthenes, 
Megafthenes, &c, 




GR^ECIA was anciently called HELLAS * and 
comprehended Peloponneius, Grsecia Propria, 
ThelTalia, Epirus, and Macedonia. It was bounded 
on the north by Dalmatia arid Thrace ; On the 
eaft, by the ^gean ; on the weft, by the Io- 
nian feaj and, on the ibuth, by the Mediterra-* 
nean Tea. The Greeks were called lonians, (tie- 
rodot. lib. i. Pompon, MeL i. cap. 2.} Danai, 
Achseans, Argivi, &c 


the city of Athens, the feat of tlie Grecian 
empire, was founded about 1556 years before the 
birth of Chrift, by CecropS. It was called from 
its founder, Cecropia; and afterwards Athene, ra 
honour of Minerva; and by way of eminence ^-oXtf 
or a?u> the city : (Strabo, lib. 9j f. 396.^ When 
the inhabitants became numerous, the lower grounds 
were built on, and the citadel Was called Acro- 
polis, or aw TroAK, the upper citys and th$ 
buildings in the plain, u XTW TroAif, the lower city* 



The Athenians were originally called 
produced from the fame earth, which they inha- 
bited > yyyiwS) fons of the earth $ (Hefyckius) and 
TfTTj^f?, grafshoppers. They occafionally wore 
golden grafshoppers in their hair, as an ornament 
of diftinclion, and a badge of their antiquity, 
becaufe thofe infects were thought to be fprung 
from the ground : (Thucyd. lib \.) The govern- 
ment was originally monarchical ; and the chief 
power of the king confided in doing juftice ; 
(Cicer. de Off. lib. 2. cap. \^.JuJlin, lib. \.) 
declaring, and conducting his fubjeclis to war, 
(Horn. Iliad) p. v. 310^ and in performing facri- 


Cecrops divided the people into four tribes, 

named K.X07n;, A-jTop^wj*, Axrat,.aild IlagoiXKZ j be* 
ing about twenty thoufand in number ; (SchoL in 
Find, Olymp. od. 9.} They were taught trade* 
navigation, and the ufe of letters, by the Phoeni- 
cians, religion, laws, arts, and fciences, they re- 
ceived from the JEgyptians. Cecrops the fecond 
divided his dominions into twelve cities, (Etymolog. 
.Aitft.) with diflincT: courts of judicature, and ma- 
giflrates of their own. With little alteration it 
thus remained, till Thefeus eflablifhed a common- 
wealth, or popular government, which underwent 
no alteration till the death of Codrus ; (Cicer. 
Tufcitl. Qx<tft. Jit/tin, Hb. i, z.Eufibius.F'ell. 
Pater c. lib. 2.J when the Athenians were governed 
by Archons, whofe power was hereditary in the 
fame family, who were obliged to deliver an ac- 
count of their adminiflration to the people. In 
6 the 


the firft year of the feventh olympiad, the power 
of the Archons was limited to ten years $ and 
feventy years afterwards they became immediately 
dependent on the favour of the 'citizens ; and their 
authority was made annual) (Clmem Alex. Strom* i.) 
which regulation commenced in the third year o 
the twenty-fourth olympiad. Lie tie alteration wag 
made* till the third year of the forty-fixth olym- 
piad, when Solon was Archon ; who was inverted 
with power over magiflrates, ailcmblies, fenates, 
and courts : (Plutarch. Solon.} He divided the 
Athenians into four ranks, according to every 
one's condition and circumiiances : thofe who were 
worth five hundred medimns of commodities were 
in the firft rank, and called t^^w^>j*iAjw'w : the 
next were the horfemen, iTtirxf* TMSVTS.C, tjiofc who 
were worth three hundred medimns, or could fur- 
nifh a horfe : the third rank confined of thofe who 
were worth two hundred nK'li.-y.p.s, v-d called 
Zzuyirou : the lad rank, called UTS?, was compofed 
of the reft, who had power to vote in the public 
aflemblies, but were incapable of bearing civil of- 
fices : (Plutarch Solon.) Pififtratus afterwards 
feized upon the government, which again, in fe- 
venty years, reverted to its liberties, which th5 
people enjoyed till the invafion of Xerx.j?. ; after 
which, Athens was reftored to the full po.... 
of the government, which it retained with few in- 
terruptions, and was fully eftabliihed in the L ..,_;> 
year of the ninety-fourth olympiad* 


Athens was in circumference about \*% Jlctdia, 
or rather more than twenty-two Roman i: 

% ' according 


according to Ariflides, it was a day's journey round 5 
(Panathen.) It was feated in a pleafant plain, and 
built on a rock : (Eujlathius.) When the inha- 
bitants increafed, the city extended over the plain, 
on that account called n xocru TTCTU?, or the lower 
city ; and the original buildings were called n <**<* 
or axooTroAif, the upper city. 


The citadel was 60 ftadia in circumference, 
fenced with wooden pales, and planted with olives. 

It was fortified on the fouth-fide with a ftrong 
wall, part of it built by Cimon, from the fpoils 
taken in the Perfian war, called xipuvtov r^x * 5 
(Plutarch, in Cimone.) 

The north wall was built long before, by 
Agrolas ; (Paufanias.) or by -the Tyrrhenian bro- 
thers, Euryalus and Hyperbius - r (Plin.) It was 
called n^airyixov or n^afyixor, from Pelafgi, the 
founders of it ; fo called from tfiAa^yo;, ftorks, 
becaufe, like birds of paffage, they were perpetu- 
ally changing their habitations : (Strabo. 9. Plin. 
lib. 7. 56. Paufanias Atticis.) They who built 
houies under this wall were execrated, becaufe the 
Peiafgi confpired againil the Athenians : (^hucy aides. 
Schol. lib-. 2.J Whoever digged a ditch or fowed 
corn here, he was apprehended by the Nomothttcf, 
brought before the Archon, and fined three 
drachms : (Pollux, lib. 8, c. g.J It was adorned 
with nine gates ; hence called EmaTruAcv. There 
\vere many fmall gates, but the grand entrance 
was built by Pericles, at the expence of more than 
1000 drachms: (P hit arch. PericL Pan/an. At- 
iicis.-HarpQcrat & Suidas, in V. UpoTruAaia.) 



The infide was ornamented with edifices, fta- 
tutes, and monuments : (Ariftides in Panathenaica. 

In the citadel was the temple of MINERVA, 
called Nxn, or Vidory. She was reprefented with 
a pomegranate in her right hand, and a helmet in 
her left, without wings, (viftory being ufually re- 
prefented with wings ; Suidas & Harpocrat.) in 
commemoration of the fuccefs of Thefeus in Crete, 
the report of which had not reached Athens before 
his arrival. It was conflruded of white marble, 
and placed at the right hand of the entrance of 
the citadel. 

Another temple of MINERVA, called Parthenion, 
becaufe (he preierved her virginity inviolate ; or 
becaufe it was dedicated by the daughters of Erec- 
theus, who were called IL^Ofi/c* : (HeJ'ychius.) It 
was called alfo, Exaro/xTrsJW, becaufe it was one 
hundred feet fquare. It was burnt by the Per- 
fians, but again rebuilt by Pericles, and enlarged 
Hfty feet on each fide : (Paufanias.) It was 
built of white marble, and yet remains, a noble 
monument of antiquity, 229 feet long, 101 feet 
broad, and 69 feet high. 

The temple of NEPTUNE, furnarned Erecktheus, 
was a double building, and contained the fait 
fpring, called E^p^rii?, which was fuppofed to 
have iprung out of the earth, from a ftroke of 
Neptune's trident y in his conteft with Minerva. 
This part of it was {acre4 to NEPTUNE. That 
which belonged to MINERVA was firnamed JTcA<a?, 
flic protedrefs of the city ; and riaj/^oo-of, from 
C>ne of the daughters of Cecrops. Here was the 
yljve produced by Minerva; and her image, faid to 

B 3 have 


have fallen from Heaven in the time of Erichthonius. 
It was guarded by dragons, called CJH^OJ <jp$ ; it 
had a lamp always burning with oil, and an owl 
bcf - it: 'Apo/lod. 7.3. Plutarch. Symp. I. 9. 
j. 6.y The Irnaller edifice, .whkh is an entrance to 
the other, is c , :-:t long, and 21 feet 3 inches. 
l;-<-cid t The larger is 63 feet and a half long, 
and 36 feet bro.'d- The roof is fupported by 
ionic pillars Vd, nut the chapiters are a 

mixture- betv it ai '- the d 

Behind the temple of Minerva flood the public 
treafury, c.-l! :! OTHC^O/AC*, Here the names of all 
the crediiors ro die flaie v/ere regiftered, called 
tyytyoapftwoi sv TV\ axcoTroAf* ; and when they had 
paid their debts, they were called s axfosroAfws 
i^x^A^a^&u The tutelar gods of this treafury 
Were Jupiter Swrtjp, or the Saviour? and Plutus, god 
of wealth, whom they reprefented with wings, a.nd 
(what was not uiua!) as having recovered hia 
fight : (Ariftopk. Schol. Pint.- Thucydid. L 2. 
Phtfojlhat* 5ixo!'. lib. 2, Demofih. Schol. Or at. 3. m 
Vimocrat.) Here were depofited a thoufand talents, 
to be uf;ci on any emergency; which, whoever wan- 
tonly expended, was put to death. Here were the 
chapels of Jupiter ^corup, and of Minerva ZqtticK : 
(Lycurg. Or at in Leocratem.) The temple of 
Agraulos, daughter of Cecrops, or Minerva, con- 
fecrated to that name : (Herodotus L S.) The 
temple of Venus, IVTroXvTfKfc, confecrated by Phsdra, 
when in love with Jiippotytus ; (Enripid. Scho!< m 

L O W E R C I T Y. G A T E S. 


THE lower city contained all the buildings fur- 
rounding the citadel, encompaffed with a ftrong 
wall built by different people at different times. 
The Max^a Tfj;^, called Maxf a <rxX : (Plutarch. 
Cimone)', and brachia longa, (Propertius E/eg. L $) ; 
it was about 5 miles long, and joined the harbour 
of Piraeus to the city. The north fide was built by 
Pericles, containing 40 ftadia : (Plutarch. Pericle.) 
The fouth fide was built by Themiftocles, of 
fquare ftones cemented by iron and lead; it 
was 40 cubits high, and 35 ftadia in length; it 
Was called NOTIV ri^of, or vagx, pt<rx rtix*, Or NOTIOV 
|t*<ra T t ^o?, to diftinguiih it from the fouth 
wall of the citadel ; and TSI%OS <ptx.Xviaiy.ov, becaufe 
it included the port Phalerum ; turrets were creeled 
upon them, which were afterwards inhabited: 
(Plutarch. Themiftocl.Appian. in Mithridatico. 
Vhucyd. lib. I and 2.) 

XheM*i/uxiov, the wall that encompaffed the fort 
Munychia, and joined it to the haven Pyraeus, 
contained 40 ftadia ; the exterior wall on the 
other fide of the city was in length 43 ftadia: 
thus the circumference of the city contained 
178 ftadia, rather more than twenty-two Roman 


IluXai Dfiacriai, afterwards called Ain-uXov, becaufe 
they were larger than any of the reft. 

UvXxi Kfa,uxs, are fuppofed to be another 
na,ine for the former gates : (PhihJlrMitsin Philavro 

3 4 


SopJiift. I. 2. XenofhonHiJl. Grxc. 1. 2. Plutarch 
Pmcle et Sylla.) 

XI-j,\i IIf^atxa, leading to the Piraseus ; near to 
which was the tempie of dalcodoon, and th$ 
tombs of tbofe that died in defence of their country 
when the Amazons invaded Attica under Tiiefeus : 
(Plutarch, in Pit. Thef.) 

IffTra&f, near to which Hyperides and his family 
Were buried: (Hefychiu$.) 

H^jflH, where they carried forth dead perfons to 
their graves ; from ygw a grave: CTheophrqftus 
Charaft. Ethic.) 

lif&i, the gate leading to ELEUSIS, through 
which they, that celebrated the feilival of Ceres 
Eleufinla, made a foiemn proceflion $ from ^o*, 

, the gate of CEgeus, whofe houfe 
flood where afterwards the Delphinium was built ; 
the flatue of fyfqrfury at the eaft end of that 
temple was called Eppw it? Atytw? ?ruAat j : (Plutarch* 

, the gate of DIOCHARES. 

a that gate that looked towards 
ACHARNA, a borough in Attica. 

Ato/xaa, that which lay towards the borough of 
the Diomians. 

0g#x*i, the THRACIAN gate. 

Irwi/iat, the IxoNiAN gate, near which was 
the piiiar erected in memory of the Arriazons : 
(JLjchin. Philojopk. in AxiocJio.) 


xatai, the SC^EAN gate. (Hilduinus in 
Vit. Dionys. Areop.) 

Atyavs -TruAat, the gate of ADRIAN, by which 
they entered, into that part of the city which Adrian 
re-built, called 


The Streets of Athens are called by Homer 
fu^uaywa; (Odyff. j.) Yet they were not very 
uniform or handfome; (Dicaarchus in Defcrip. 
Gratis.) Few of their names remain, as T^ SI-IMI, 
the way to Eleufts ; O<fo? Qwua 3 between the long 
walls leading to the Piraeus, or >j c^ 

H TWV noXf/xiwv, near the Academy. 

H T 


J, a way near the Prytaneum, In which 
were ftorehoufes flocked with tripods of brafs ; 
where was the fatyr called n^iSouTo?, one of the 
jiiaflerpieces of Praxiteles : (Harpocr. 


i. rio/ATrfiov, was an edifice in which were kepi the 
facred utenfils ufed at feftivals; it was at the 
entrance of the old city which looked towards 
Phalerum, and adorned with the ftatues of Athenian 

2. The 


2. The temple of VULCAN, or of VULCAN and 
MINERVA, not far from Ceramicus within the city, 
and was a public prifon. 

The temple of the HEAVENLY VENUS, called 
Ou^ai/;*, who prefided over chafte love, in oppofi- 
tion to IIanJV)/xo? Venus, who was the patronefs of 
debauchery. Venus had other temples, fome 
erected on account of Demetrius Poliorcetes, to 
Venus Lamia, and Lezena, in honour of two cour* 
tezans of thofe names : (Plutarch, in Demetrio.) 

The temple of THESEUS was erected by Conon, 
in the middle of the city, near to which the young 
men performed their wreftlings. It was a fanctuary 
for flaves, and thofe who fled from perfecution, in 
commemoration of Thefeus, the guardian and pro- 
tector of the diftrefled. Many temples were 
dedicated to him while alive, all, except four, 
he dedicated to Hercules, and called them *]<ma 
inftead of H^nAsia, being refcued by his afliftance 
from the king of the Molofiians: (Plutarch, in Pit. 
yhtf.) The form and order of architecture re- 
fembled the temple of Minerva in the citadel. 
Magifbrates were created in one of thefe temples 
by the Thefmothetse; (JEfchines Orat.inCtefiphon.). 
Cnfes were alfo heard there; and it was alfo a 
public prifon. 

the temple of CASTOR and POLLUX, 
calL J A?*x;, where flaves were expoied to fale. 

or OXuftTTjfiov, was a temple in honour of 
JUI-ITER the OLYMPIAN ; this was the moil mag- 
nificent ftructure in Athens; it was four ftadia in 
circumference, and fupported by pillars ; (Plin. 36. 


*. 6 .) The foundation was laid by Pififtratus, but 
it remained unfinished till the time of Adrian, leven 
hundred years afterwards. 

The temple of APOLLO and PAN was on the 
north fide at the bottom of the citadel, in a grotto 

Called Max^cu irtrgxi or KEX^OTTKX; Tm^ou ; where 

Apollo was fuppofed to have deflowered Creufa, the 
daughter of Erechtheus. (Euripides Lone.) 

The temple of DIANA, furnamed Autn^wvoy, 
where women, after the birth of their rirfl ciiiid, 
dedicated their girdles to her: (Apollonii SchoL 

was a temple dedicated to all the GODS, 
Xvho were honoured with a feftival called Qsofevitz. 
It was fupported by 120 marble pillars, The 
hiftory of the gods was engraven on the outfide; 
and two hori'es were carved upon the great gate by 

The temple of the EIGHT WINDS, was a tower 
of eight fquare of marble, on every fide of which was 
the figure of a wind, according to the quarter from 
which it blew, carved after a model by Andronicus 
Cyrrhaftes. On the top was erected a little pyramid 
of marble, on which was placed a brazen triton, 
directing with a wand to that point it then blew, 
AH the winds anfwered to the compafs, and were 
reprefented by fuitabie figures, above which their 
names were written; Eu^?, fouth-eaft; 
eaft; Kai>ua?, north-eafl; Bo^a^, north; 
north-weft; Zspupo?, weft; NOTO^ fouth; 


3. Zrogi, Porticos; the moft remarkable was 
IlfKnai/axTio?, afterwards called newAn, from its 
variety of pictures, drawn by the moft eminent 
matters of Gieece. Here Zeno taught philofophy, 
and inflituted that fed which .received their names 
from this place 

4. Mao-fioy, was a fort near the citadel, fo called 
from Mufeus the fcholar of Orpheus, who ufed to 
repeat his verfes in this place ; and here he was 
buried. It was obliged by Antigonus to entertain 
a garrifon ; and Demetrius furrounded it with a 

5. l$nov ; a mufic theatre, built by Pericles; it 
was filled with feats, and ranges of pillars in the 
infide; and the outfide roof was bent gradually 
downwards ; fo conftructed in imitation of the king 
of Perfia's pavilion : (Plutarch, in Pericle.) Here 
was a tribunal ; (Ariftoph. Vef-p.) It was beauti- 
fied by Lycurgus ; (Hyperid. pro Ly cargo) ; being 
deftroyed in the mithridatic war, (Appian. in 
Mithridatico,) it was rebuilt by Herodes Atticus 
with fuch fplendour as to furpafs all other buildings 
in Greece : (Paufamas.J It was fituated in the, 

6. CERAMICUS; there were two places of this 
name, fo called from Ceramus fon of Bacchus and 
Ariadne ; (PatifaniasSuidiis Pirn. L 7. c. $6.) 
or probably ro TJJ wz*pitiws Ttxm?, from the 
potter's art, which was firfl invented in one of them 
by Conebus. One of them was within the city, 
and contained temples, theatres, porticos, and the 


like ; *.he other was in the fuburbs, and was a public 
burying place, and contained the academy and 
other buildings. 

7. Ayo^ai ; thefe were very numerous ; but the 
old and new forum were the mod remarkable : 

The NEW Forum was called EgsTpa, : (Strabo. 
lib. g.) It was near the portico of Zcno : 

The OLD Forum was in the Ceramicus within the 
City, called A^aia a-yo^a. Here the public af- 
femblies of the people were held. Here tradefmen 
expofed their goods to fale; each trade having a 
feparate market : (Menexen. Plato, p. 234. torn* 
1. edit.Serran. Schol. Eurip. Hecat. tin. 288, m 


where Haves were fold : (Hefychius.) 
a,vthe bakers market. 
, the fifhmongers market. 

the market for women's ap- 

, the wine market. 

ir, the oil market ; and many others : (Pollux 
L 9. c. 5 .) 

The time of fale was called irA(Wa ayo^a, full 
market; different hours being appointed for the 
fale of different commodities : (Suidas.) 

8. BsXfUTu^a, public halls for companies of tradef- 
men, where they deliberated on things relating to 
their trade. 

Trade was much encouraged at Athens ; and if 
any one ridiculed it he was liable to an aftion of 

ilander : 


flander : (Demofji. Or at. in Eubulidem.) ^Solon 
applied himfelf to merchandize; the founder of 
the city Maflilia, was a merchant ; Thales, and 
Hippocrates the mathematician, traded -, and Plato 
fold oil in Egypt. (Plutarch. Solone.) 

9. Aqueducts, were few before the Roman times ; 
the want of them was fupplied by wells. It was 
enacted by Solon, that where there was a publiq 
well within four furlongs, it might be ufed , but 
thcfe at greater diftance mould be obliged to 
provide a well. If they dug ten fathoms without 
finding water, they were allowed ten gallons a day 
from their neighbours : (Plutarch. Solone.) Adrian, 
laid the foundation of an aqueduct fupported by 
ionic pillars, which was finimed by Antoninus. 


Public edifices for the ufe of philofophers, rheto- 
ricians, and other profeffors ; for wreftlers, pugililts, 
dancers, and others > confifled of many divisions, 

Sroai, Porticoes filled with fj^aj, and fidefeats : 
here the fcholars probably met. 

i/, where the ephebi or youths exercifed. 

aTroJuTnotoi', yvpi/awgiov, the unclreffing 

EAaio0<noi/, aAfiTrrr^oi/, where the combatants were 

Koi/i?riov, xon?^, where the dull with which 
they fprinkled thofe who had been anointed, was 


where the exercifes of the wjvmOAov, 
and the Trayx^cmov were performed. The floor of 
it was covered with duft, that they might not 

2p*iffifiov, where particularly they exercifed 
with the ball. 

The area of the n^ipuXtov, piazza, a fquare or 
oblong place in the middle of the gymnalium, for 
walking, leaping, or the coit. 

oi, places covered at the top, for wreftlers. 

or vsftofopihs, were walks open at the 
top, for exercifes in the milder part of the year. 

The Baths, where were waters of different degrees 
of heat and cold. They were ufed after the termi- 
nation of a war, or any laborious enterprife : (Ar- 
lemidorus Oneirocrit. lib. i .) 

The Stadium, a large femicircle, built with fieps 
above each other for the accommodation of fpecta- 
tors. The mofl remarkable was that built near the 
river Iliffus, by Lycurgus, and enlarged by the 
powerful Athenian citizen, Herodes Atticus. It 
was built of pentelick marble, and was very mag- 
nificent : (Paufanias.) It was about 125 geome- 
trical 'paces long, and 26 or 27 broad. It thus 
afTumed the name of Stadium, being the eighth 
part of a Roman mile. 

Auxfioi/, Lyceum, on the banks of the IlifTus, fo 
called from Apollo, Auxwrow;, or Auxio?, to whom it 
was dedicated : (Plutarch, in Symp. /. 8. q. 4.) 
Some afcribe tile building of it to Pififtratus, fome 
to Pericles, and fome to Lycurgus. Here Ariftotle 
taught philofophy$ walking every day till the 



hour of anointing, which was before meals. Thus 

Called n^iTrarn-nxot, OS.TTQ ra Tr^iTrarm, pcnpateticks : 

(Suidas, Cicero, &c.J 

was part of the Geramicus without the 
city, from which it was diftant about fix fladia, or a 
quarter of a league ; thus called from Academus, or 
Echedemus : (Dicxarckus Plutarch.<Thefeo Horal. 
lib. 2. ep. 2.} Plato read his lectures in this place. 
At its entrance was the altar and flatue of Love : 
(PauJ'an. lib, i. cap. 30.) It was (urrounded by a 
wall (Suidas) built by Hipparchus, the fon of 
Pififtratus, and the expence of it was defrayed by a 
tax upon the people ; hence the proverb Iirirufx* 
TEi^toy. It was adorned with covered walks : (Plut. 
in dm.) 

Kuw<ray^ was in the fuburbs near the Lyceum, 
from xuwv a^yo?, a fvvift dog, that when Diomus was 
facrificing to Hercules, fnatchedpart of the victim : 
(HefychhtSy &cj Here were lhady and folitary 
walks ; (Horat. lib. 2. ep. 1.) and temples to 
Hercules, Hebe, Alcmena, and lolaus. Here 
was the gymnafium for the ufe of flrangers : (Phi-* 
torch. Themifiocle.) Here was a court of judica- 
ture, where caufes concerning illegitimacy were 
heard : and concerning thofe who falfely inferted 
their names among the native Athenians : (Non* 
nus Monachus in Collett. Hijl.) Here Antifthenea 
inftituted a feet of philofophers, called Kwxoi,- 
Cynicks, from the name of the place: (Diog. Laert* 



Theatres were dedicated to Bacchus and Venus ; 
(Laclant. I. 6.) From the former they are fuppofed 
to have cUted their origin j (Poly dor. Virg. L 3. 

' '3 ) 

ftage plays, were fo called. 

sxyirai, workmen employed in build- 
ing theatres, were fo called. 

The moil antient theatres were temporary; 
formed of boards, gradually placed above each 
other, for the accommodation of fpedators, and 
therefore called *x^a ; (Hcfychius.) This being 
the caufe of much danger, they were built of ftone, 
commonly of marble. They were nearly femicir- 
Cular, as amphitheatres were ovaL 

SXTJI/TI, was a partition, affigned for the actors^ 
reaching- acrofs the theatre. It fometimes turned 


found, and then was called verfaiilis ; or drawn 
up, and then called duftilis ; (Pollux ', ltb< 4^ 
cap. 19 .) 

B>OJ/TICV, Xvas a place under tlie floor, where 
were brazen veflels, filled with ftones and other 
things, to imitate the noife of thunder. 

E7rnc7jnoj/, a place on the top of the fcene, m 
which the machines and reprefentations were 

Ila^ao-xriviov, behind the fcenes* where the ac- 
tors dreiTed themfelves. 

n^oo-xtjuoi', the ilage, on which they a&ed* 

Op^nr^a, where the chorus danced and fungi 
in the middle of which was the hoyuov or 
the pulpit* 



TTTOO-XJJVIOI/, a place under the pulpit for the 

cavea, was appointed for the fpe&ators, 
in three divisions, one above the other. The low- 
eft belonged to perfons of quality, and magiftrates ; 
the middle to the commonalty ; the uppermofl to 
the women. Porticos were creeled behind the 
cavea, where the fpeclators retired for fhelter in 
rainy weather. 


tlipftisuc, Pirseeus, which belonged to the tribe 
of Hippothoontis, was about 40 fladia from the 
city, before the building of the ^ax^>a T^U. Ife 
contained three o^oi or docks; one called KavSa^y 
from a hero of that name ; another ApoJ<noR, from 
Affohn, Venus, who had two temples there -, the 
third Z*, from na, bread corn. Here was /xaxf a 
?oa, one large portico formed from five fmaller ones. 
Here were two forums ; one near the long pwtic* 
and the fea ; the other more diflant from it. 

Mau^flf, Munychia, a promontory not far from 
Piraeus 5 the name was derived from Munychus, 
who in this place dedicated a temple to Diana, 

Phalerum, belonged to the tribe An- 
tiochis, and was about 35 ftadia from the cityj 
or 20 fladia. (Paufanias Arcadich.) 



The inhabitants of Attica were of three forts ; 
the number of citizens in the time of Pericles was 
hot twenty thoufand ; (Plutarch, in Pericle.) The 
number of ftrangers was ten thoufand ; and of 
Haves four hundred thoufand ; (Athenxus Deip*. 
I. 6.) It was enacted, that all ftrangers who in- 
tended to live at Athens, fliould be compelled, 
after a fhort refidence, to enrol their names among 
the free citizens ; (Ariftoph. Ran.) It was after- 
Wards decreed that none but eminent and merito- 
rious characters fhould be citizens ; (Demqfth. in 
Ne*r.) The citizens, thus admitted, were called 
Ati/xoTTottiToi, and this privilege was conferred only 
by the popular aflembly. Six thoufand were re* 
quired to be prefent to ratify it. Their votes 
were privately taken by the Prytanes, and were 
fignified by calling fmall Hones into an urn 5 and 
thofe who petitioned for this honour, were not 
admitted into, the place of the aflembly. If it 
at length appeared to have been conferred on an 
unworthy perfon, an appeal might be made to 
another tribunal, and their election might be fet 
afide ; (Demqfth. in Near.) It was alfo enacted* 
that none mould refide as free citizens at Athens, 
except thofe who were banilhed from their own 
country, or voluntarily fettled there with their 
whole families ; (Plutarch^ Solon.) They were ad- 
mitted to their rights by certain ceremonies, and 
enrolled in a certain tribe; (Demofth. in Ne<cr.) 
In the ninetieth olympiad, an inquifition was ap- 
pointed to be made into the preteniions of thofe 

c 2 


who claimed the rights of freedom, which was 
called {hasten?; (Harpocrat.) When any one- 
was accuied of making a falfe claim, the fyua^of 
or prefect of the borough, to whofe care was com- 
mitted the \^^x, lKOV yf /AJA*TIOIS public regifter 
of the citizens, affembled the members of his 
^/xorat, borough. The names of all the citizens 
were then recited out of the regifter; the perfon 
accufed named the particular p^ar^a, ward, to 
which he pretended to belong, and was obliged to 
prove his right of fuccefiion by proper witnefles. 
If he claimed his freedom from the gift of the 
people, the decree of the popular aflernbly to his 
appointment was to be produced. The JV^o-rat, 
after taking an oath to determine honeftly, and de- 
liberating upon the evidence, privately delivered 
their opinions, in expreffing which they commonly 
ufed leaves or beans. If the number of white beans 
was greater than of the black, he was acquitted; 
if the black beans prevailed, he was deprived of his 
freedom, and called a.7ro^r,tp urpsvos, and the act of 
condemnation was called a7ro\J^pj<n? ; (Demqflh. in 
EubuL Pollux lib. 8. Suidas Hefychius.) The 
verdict was given before fun-fet ; and the perfon 
deprived of his freedom was reckoned among the 
^rroncoi, fojourners. If he was not fatisfied with 
his fentence, he might appeal to the Thefmothetae, 
who, if his appeal was juft, reftored him to 
his family ; if unjuft, he was fold for a flave. 
.Hence, to prevent fuch difputes, fathers were 
obliged to enrol their fons in the regifler of their 
0&Tia, borough, termed xou/ov ^aa^a-mov, at 
which time they iwore that the child was lawfully 
born or lawfully adopted j (fyeus de Apollod* hared.) 



The fgxrofss, members of that ward, had the 
power of rejecting any one againft whom Sufficient 
evidence appeared, concerning which they voted 
by private Suffrages ; (Demnfth. in Macart.) Ap- 
peal might be made from their fentence to the 
magistrates ; (Demofth. in Near. Ifaus de Apoll. 
hared.) The adopted fons were regiftered upon 
the feftival Oa^yiAia ; the natural fons upon the 
third day of the feftival Apaturia, called, x^swrif, 
in the month Pyanepfion. Some fay they were 
regiftered at one year, others at three or four years 
old ; (Etymol. AuEt. v. Airr^. Proclus in 
Platon. *imaum. Heliodor. lib. i.~ Ariftoph. Ran. 
aft. i. fc. j.) Young perfons were enrolled a 
fecond time in a public register, in which they 
were admitted of the number of the s<pnoi ; 
(Pollux lib. 8. cap. 9.) when their hair was fhaved 
and confecrated to fome of the gods. They were 
regiftered a third time before the feftival Pana- 
thenaea, when thofe who were twenty years old 
were introduced at a public meeting of the faporwt 
men of the fame Jii/AOf, tribe, and entered in a re- 
gifter, called Arjia^xov y^a^ucmiov ; (Pollux lib. 8% 
cap. 9.9 this was called i*f*i^af ty-y^a^to-Oat, to be 
regiftered among the men. The inhabitants were 
of three kinds, the woXira 5 or freemen; /xsreixo*, or 
Strangers; &TOI, or Haves. The people were divid- 
ed by Cecrops into four <puAa, tribes ; each tribe 
was Subdivided into three parts, called, T^ITTUJ, 
c9i/of, or ^ar^ia ; and each of thefe into 30 yjyj?, 
families, and called r/uaxaJW ; they were alfo called 
^/en/rjTa and o/xoyaAaxroi, and 

lib. 3. c. 4. /. 8. c. $.} 

C 3 


The names of the tribes were different in dif* 
ferent asras : at firft they were called 
from Cecrops -, AVTQ%QU>V ; Axraia, and 
they were afterwards called K^ai/a 
AiaxfK. Erichthonius called them, 
JIoG-fi^awas- $ and H^ainaj, from different deities. 
Afterwards they were called Ttfaovrtf j OTTXITOH, ; 
Atyixotf ; A^ya&y j (Herodotus, L S. c. 44.^) Thefe 
names they received from the fons of Ion ; (Eu- 
Ion.- Herodotus, L 5. c. 66.) Oirhir&i $ 
j Ffw^yot ; and Aiyixo^ai ; (Plutarch. So- 
km.) They were afterwards augmented to ten, 
and then to twelve ; (Plutarch. Demetrio.) and 
again changed their names ; (&tcphan ArraXi? et 
Btf ?ixjaf.) Thefe tribes had public feads, at which 
they met to promote friendfhip and good neigh- 
bourhpod ; ( Athena^ lib. 15 .) If the whole 
tribe aflembled, the feaft was called oinrvov ^uATxoj 
if only one, ^ar^ia, it was called, jhiww fi^aT^ixcv, 
if of a J"i3/Af> it was efifirwp ^^ortxtK* 

Aupoi were little boroughs in Attica, feveral of 
them belonging to every tribe j their number was 
174; (Euftath. in I!, p. Strabo, I. 9 J xaOurr^* 
pr u?rv^0ev, upper or lower : There were other 
boroughs, belonging to no particular tribes. 


Miroixct, thofe were called fo who came from a 
foreign country and fettled in Attica, being ad- 
mitted by the council of Areopagus, and publicly 
regiftered; ( Arijlophanes Schol. in Aves.) They 
were confidered as an ufelefs part of the common- 
wealth, becaufe of their incapacity to vote in any 

affembly \ 


aiTembly ; (Arijlophan. In Suidas.) They were in- 
truded to the care of one perfon, called Tr^ora-njf, 
who was to protect them from oppreffion; (Terent. 
Ewmchus. aft ulu fc. ult.) If they refufed to ap- 
point a protector, they were liable to an action 
before the Polemarchus, called aTr^rao-^ to, when 
their goods were confifcated. The commonwealth 
alfo demanded of them feveral fervices. The men 
were obliged to carry trxapai, little {hips, as emblems 
of their foreign extraclion, in the Panathen^ea, a 
feftival in honour of Minerva, They were hence 
called <rxapt?, or trxapjipo^. The women carried 
u^iaj, veflels of water, or cnuaJWa, umbrellas, to 
flicker the free women from the weather, and are 
hence called vfyiKtpogoi and oLiad-nQofsci ; (&liani 
vari* Hijloritsjib* 6. c. i.J The men paid an an- 
nual tax often, (Hefychius), or twelve drachms, and 
the women who had no fons, fix. This was called 
JJ.ZTOIXIOV ; (Lyjias Oraf. in Phihmm) and was re- 
mitted in the time of Themiilocles ; (Diodor. Siculm 
/. ii.} Upon the failure of paying this imposition, 
the delinquent was immediately feized by the tax- 
maflers, and carried to the market called 
(Plutarch. Ffaminio.) and TrwAjiTt^iov r 
(Demqflk. Or at. I. in Ariftogit.) where they were 
xpofed to fale by the TrwAnrat, officers of the public 
revenue ; (Plutarch. Flaminio. Diogenes Lsertms 9 
Xenocrate*) Thofe who had been ferviceable to 
the public, were honoured with an exemption from 
the payment of all impofls, except what were de- 
manded of free-born citizens; this was called 
jinmAna, and the perfons enjoying it, jr<mAfjf, be- 
caufe they did ury, rtXtw TO*; roK, pay an equal pro- 
c 4 portion 


portion with citizens. They had if tarcf ;?, who en- 
tertained them. 


There were two forts of Jlaves, the mod nume- 
rdus of the inhabitants of Attica. One became 
fo from poverty, from the chance of war, or from 
the perfidy of thofe who trafficked in them, and 
were called Gum and TrfXarat; ( Pollux, lib. 3. c. 8.} 
but were at liberty to change their mailers, or 
releafe themfelves, if they could, from fervitude. 
The other flaves were fuch as were at the abfolute 
difpofal of their matters. 

Slaves were not allowed, to imitate the freemen in 
their drefs or manners. They were not to wear long 
hair ; (Arifloph. Avibus). The form in which they 
were to cut it was called 0i cnfyuiFduoM -, (Eu- 
Jlath. mil. &,.) The coats of freemen had two fleeves, 
^/A^t^ao-^aAot; thofe of flavesonly one, T^o/xa(rp/aAc; 
(Pollux. /. 7. c. 13.^ They were not allowed 
commerce with boys, or to anoint themfelves ; (Plu- 
tarch. So/one. J They were not permitted to plead 
for themfelves, or to be witneffes in any caufe ; 
(Cerent. Phormio, afl, 2. fc. i.J Confeffion was 
extorted from them by torture ; and whoever de^ 
manded any Have for this purpofe (which was called 
II^cxaAnv, and the aclion TT^OXAJJO-K) was obliged 
to indemnify the matter if he fhould die; (De- 
moftL Oral. adv. Pant^netum.Ariftoph. Ranis, aft z. 
fc. 6.) Slaves were not permitted to worfhip fome 
of the deities. They were reduced to obedience 
by corporal feverities. No man was allowed to call 
his flaves by the name of celebrated characters ; 



(Alex, ab Alex. L 3. c. 29.) or of any of the folemn 
games; ( Athenaw Deipnofoph. L 13.) They were 
called after the name of their native country, or 
of other familiar names in ufe; (Strabo,lib. j.) 
which were chiefly of two fyllables. They were pro- 
hibited from bearing arms, and feldom ferved in war; 
(Virg. JLneid. 9. v. $4-$.) except upon particular 
occalions ; (Paufanias. Plutarch, Cdeomene.) when 
they fometimes obtained their liberty by defertion ; 
(Ariftoph. Equit.) and this was called au-ro^oAai/ ; 
but if they were taken, they were bound to a wheel, 
and beaten; (Ariftoph. Pace.) If they were de- 
tected in theft, they fuffered the fame punifhment; 
(Terent. Andria Horat. Ep. lib. \.) They were 
fometimes racked upon the wheel to extort a con* 
feffion ; (Arijloph.) They were beaten with whips 
for common offences, as ^ry*av implies ; during 
which they were fometimes tied to a pillar ; (Pol- 
lox. Onomaft. /. 3. c. 8.J When convidled of any 
notorious offence, they were condemned to grind 
at the mill, a toilfome and laborious tafk ; (Cicero 
de Orator.) They were fometimes marked on the 
forehead ; or ftigmatized in the offending member ; 
(Ga/en, Lib. 6.) Hence they were called 
andrywj>; (Pollux* lib. 3. c. S.J and iroi 
from a bird of various colours ; (Ariftoph. Av.) and 
infcripti', (Pirn. lib. 1 8. c. 3.) and literati-, (Plautus 
P hit arch. Pericle.) It was confidered not as a mark 
of infamy, (Pkocylides, v. 212.} but of honour in 
Thrace ; (Herodotus, lib. 5. Claitdian, lib. \ . in Ru- 
/Lnum.) They were allowed at Athens to, take 
refuge in the temple of Thefeus, when they were 
opprefied, and it was facrilege to force them from 



it j (Plutarch. Thejco.) They might bring an action 
againft their matters for ill-treatment, which was 
called u^swf <r*K, when they had violated their chaf- 
tity ; it was called at***; ^x, when it was com- 
menced on account of feverity. If the complaints 
werejuft, the mafter was to fell his flave; (Pollux, lib. 
7. c. 2. Pollux, ex Enpolis UoX.) They might com- 
mence an action againft any one who had injured 
them ; (Athen<sus Deipn. lib. 6.J Their condition 
was preferable to Haves of other places ; (Demofth. 
Philip. 2. Plant. Stic ho.) They might purchafe 
their freedom ; (Plant. Cajina.) While they were 
under a mafter they were called otxirat ; when they 
had regained their freedom, <5Aoi; (Chryjippus de 
Concord. I. 2.) They were fometimes advanced to 
the dignity of citizens ; (Ari/topb. Ranis, act 2. 
pen. 6.) Whence the public criers were forbid to 
proclaim the freedom of a Have in the theatre, that 
other nations might refpect the privileges of Athens, 
(ALfchintt in CteJrpJiGutem ;) and they who procured 
their freedom, aTrsAfuS^ot, were called vofioi, illegi- 
timate citizens -, (Nonnus in Nazianzeni G-T^AJT. a..) 
When they became free they were to pay a tax of 
twelve drachms and three oboli, ( Harpocrat -,} and' 
were alfo obliged to chufe a ^orai-iK, who was the 


mafter from whofe fervice they were releafed. If 
they behaved improperly, he might arreft them, and 
carry them before a judge $ who if guilty, might de- 
prive them of their liberty. If they were acquitted 
they became TSASUJ tAcuO^ o, entirely free ; this ac- 
tion was called aTr^orao-ta &xn ; but if they fhould 
receive any injury from their patron, they had the 
privilege of electing an HnTaowo;, curator,, who was 

5 ^ 


to defend, to appeal, and to plead for them ; (Sui- 
das Harpocrat.) The Helotse, Haves of Sparta, 
(fo called from Helos, a Laconian town, conquered 
by the Spartans) were treated with great rigour; 
(Strabo, L 8. Harpocrat. Plutarch. Lycurgo.) 
There were alfo the Prenefbe in Theffaly ; the Cla- 
rotae arid Mnoitse in Crete ; the Gymnitae at Argos; 
the Corynephori at Sicyon, and many others. 

On the firfl day of every month the merchants, 
called ai/^aTT^oxaTnjAoi, expofed them for fale in the 
Have market ; (Ariftophan. Schol. Equit.) the crier 
iftanding on a flone, called w^aru^ AjOoj, and afTem- 
bling the people; (Pollux, /. 3. c. 8. Cicero Oral. 
in Pifonem.) At Athens the new-bought Have was 
.entertained, and fweetmeats poured upon his head, 
which were called xaTa^uo-jwaTa ; (Ariftoph* Pluto 
Pollux, /, 3. c. S .) The Thracians bought their 
flaves with fait, hence they were called ^o; aAoj 
vyofxc-piva. The Chians were the firfl who paid 
money for them, (C#L Rhod. Antiquitat. L 2$. c. $.J 
Homer's heroes exchanged their captives for pro- 
vifions; (Iliad, H. 47 2. J In the time of Adrian, 
mailers were prohibited from putting their Haves to 


By the law of Solon, no man who had not a good 
eftate, could bear the office of a magistrate ; but by 
the law of Ariilides, every man was admitted a (hare 
in the commonwealth ; (XenopJwn de Rep. Athen.) 
Before he was admitted, he gave an account of his 
pad life before judges in that part of the forum 
called <foxj)ua<n; (Lv/ias Oral, in Evandr. JEf chines 



contr. Timar chum.) In the firil afTembly, xu^a, be 
again appeared, and if any charge was fubftantiated 
againft him, he was deprived of his honours ; (De- 
mofl. in Theocr.) It was a capital crime to enter 
on his office in debt ; and fuch actions were heard 
by the Thefmothetee ; (Demqfthen. Leptinea, et 

The magiftrates of Athens were divided into 
three forts ; 

1. Ks<OTci'73Toi, who were elected by the people, 
and fo called, becaufe they were elected by holding 
up of hands. They affembled in the Pnyx. 

2. KA*3&)Tot, were promoted by lots, drawn by 
. the Thefmothetae in the temple of Thefeus. The 

name of every candidate was infcribed on brafs, 
put into an urn, with beans ; and thofe were elected 
whcfe tablets were drawn out xvith white beans. 
Any perfon putting more than one tablet into 
the urn fuffered capital puniihment ; (Demofthiin 
Eocotum de nomine.) Whoever was deprived after 
bis election, was excluded the aflembly, and forbid 
to make orations to the people ; (Demqfth. in Arif- 

3. Atrci, were extraordinary officers, appointed 
by particular tribes* to fuperintend public affairs. 

At the expiration of their offices they were obliged 
to give an account of their management to the no- 
taries, y^aa/^cmir, and u9uj/j, the logifta. If they 
failed to do this, they were refufed a crown, the 
\afual reward of their labours ; and till their conduct 
was approved, they were not allowed to accept any 


A R C H O N S. 2* 

other office ; (Suidas Hefy chins &Jchines Orat. dt 
Emen. Icgat* Efchin. in Ctefiphontem.) 

There were ten Xoyirai, who examined their ac- 
counts. If the accounts were refufed, an action 
was commenced againft them, called aAc}/* ^nn ; 
{Hefychius Ulpianus in Demofth. Orat. defalf. legal.) 
The proclamation was, rt; SaArrat xarayof EI, who 
will accufe ? (JEfchines contra Ctefiphont.) The 
limited time for complaint was thirty days. Who- 
ever refufed to appear, he was fummoned before 
the fenate of 500 ; and not then appearing, puniftied 
with TA*, infamy. The nine Archontes in every 
xu^( inquired whether the magiftrates had done 
their duty ? If any were then accufed, the accufa- 
tion was pronounced juft by holding up their hands, 
which action was called xaraj^oTovia. Afterwards 
thofe who thought him innocent held up their 
hands, which was called 7re^f^Tov. The ma- 
jority decided the caufe. 

The magiftrates entered on their office on the 
firft of Hecatombseon. It was a feftival called 
Eir5Tr)^a, Sacrifices were offered by the fenators 
and other magiftrates, and prayers made for the 
profperity of the city in the chapel of Jupiter and 
Minerva the counsellors ; (Suidas Ulpian in Me- 
dian -Ant iphon. Orat. ds Chor.) 


, There were nine Archontes, elected by lots : be- 
fore they entered on their offices they were examin- 
ed in the Senate-houfe, which was called owotxpffis ; 
and in the Forum, whi:h was called Jcxj<*a<na; where 



queftions were afked them concerning their anceftry, 
their tribe, whether they were related to Apollo 
Patrius, and Jupiter Herceus ; (Ariftoph. Nubibus et 
Avibus.) their eftate, their fervice in war, and their 
parental duty ; (Demofth. in Rubulid. Pollux Onom. 
I. 8. c. 9.) and whether they were a<pAi?, without 
perfonal defect ; (Dicxarchus contr. Ariftogit.) ille- 
gitimate citizens and foreigners were afterwards 
eligible; (Xiphilinus Adriano, Phlegon. Trallianus 
Plutarch. Sympos. lib. i. prob. 10. lib. 10. prob, 

They were admitted by an oath to obferve the 
laws, to aclminifter juftice, to be incorruptible, or 
if corrupted, to dedicate a ftatue of gold of equal 
weight with themfelves to the Delphian Apollo ; 
(Plutarch Solone- Plato.) The oath was delivered 
in the Portico, |3a<nAtos roa, or at the ftone tribunal 
in the Forum, TT^O? TW AiOw ; they then repeated the 
oath in the Citadel. 


They puniflied malefactors with death j they 
had a joint commiffion to appoint the Aixa?*, and 
A0Ao9Tat, by lots, electing one from each tribe ; of 
conflicting the Iirnu^o*, 4>uA^oi, and Sr^aT^yoi ; 
of inquiring into the conduct of other magifhates ; 
and of depofing the unworthy : (Pollux Onom. I. 8, 

c. 9 J 

They wore garlands of myrtle ; (Pollux, ibid.) 
They were exempted from the payment of taxes 
for the building of (hips. Any perfon ftriking 
them, when wearing their garlands, was punifhed 
with a-n/xK*, infamy : (Demtfh. in Midiana.) 

A R C H O N S. 31 

, was chief of the nine ; and fometimes 
called ETTWVUJUO?, becaufe the year was denominated 
from him. Kis power was over ecclefiaflical and civil 
affairs. He determined all caufes between married 
people, (Plutarch. Alcib.) concerning wives delivered 
of poilhumous children ; wills and teftaments, dow- 
ries and legacies ; he had the care of orphans ; he 
was to redreis injuries, and punifh drunkennefs j to 
take the, firfl cognizance of fome public actions- 
He kept a court of judicature in the Odeum, where 
trials concerning provifions and the like were 
brought before him. He appointed E^n/A^ra*, 
curatores, to provide for the celebration of the 
feafts, called <Wu<na, and 6a^yjX<a; to regulate 
flage plays : (Pollux Onomaft. Lyjias in A lei bi ad. 
Demqftk. in Macar. Suidas. Harpocration.) He 
iuffered death, if guilty of drunkennefs during tiie 
adminiftration of his office. 

Eao-iXfu?, decided difputes among the priefts and 
families lacred by inheritance, as the Ceryces, and 
Eteobutadze. Accufations of impiety, profanation 
of myfleries, or temples, were perfonally brought be- 
fore him. He affifled in the celebration of the Eleu- 
linian and Lensean feftivals, (Pollux, lib. %.) and 
of the Panathansea, Hephreflia, and Promethea r 
where they ran races with torches in their hands. 
He offered public facrifices for the profperity of the 
commonwealth. His wife, called Ba<nAio-cr*, was 
to be a legitimate citizen of Athens, and a virgin ; 
(Demojlh. in Ne#ram.) His court of judicature 
was in the royal portico. He took accufations of 
murder, and referred them to the Areopagites, 
among whom he had a right of fuffrage ; but laid 



aiide his crown, a badge of his office, during the 
trial y (Demojlh. in Lacritum et In Ne^ram.) 

IIoAf/xa^cf, exercifed authority over ftrangers and 
fojournersin Athens, as the Archon did over the citi^ 
zens ; (Schol. Ariftoph. ad Vefp. 1037.^) He offered 
facrifice to Enyalius, who was Mars, or one of his at- 
tendants, and another to Diana, named A-y^r^a, 
from an Athenian borough. He celebrated the exe- 
quies ofHarmodius; and took care that the off* 
fpring of thofe that died in the fervice of their 
country Ihoukl be maintained from the public trea- 
fury. Thefe magiftrates were affifted by the fla^ei, 
affefTors, who were admitted into office in the lame 
form, and under the fame redactions; (Harpocraf. 
Pollux, lib. 8.) 

<rpoQsTcu were the fix other Archontes ; who re- 
ceived complaints againft falfe accufers in writing* 
Difputes between citizens, ftrangers, fojournerSj 
Haves, and merchants, were brought before them 5 
(Harpocrat.) They preferred the appeals to 'the 
people; (Pollux, lib.%.) they publicly examined 
feveral of the magiftrates, and took the votes in the 
affemblies. They ratified public contracts, appoint- 
ed days of bufmefs for the judges, and profecuted 
thofe who attempted to miilead the unwary into 
any ad injurious to the commonwealth. They 
were accuftomed to walk about the city by night, 
and correct thofe who committed any diforder^ 
(Ulpian in Oral. adv. Med.) 

The Archontes were affifted by the Ey9ui/ot, in ex- 
amining the accounts of the magiftrates ; and in 
fining thofe who were guilty of maladminiflration. 
They were fometimes called E%ITK$<M and Suwjy^o* : 
(Artftot. Polit. /. 6. c. ult.) 




Oi EjJsxa, were elected from the ten tribes, one 
from each. To which was added, r^^/*aT5ur> 
a regifter. They were fometimes called No/AopuAaxs j, 
keepers of the laws. They fuperintended public 
prifoners, and conducted criminals to execution. 
They had power to feize fufpecled perfons ; and, 
upon their confefTion, to put them to death : 
otherwife, to profecute them, 

$yAa^o, prefided over the Athenian tribes* 
one being allotted to each. This was afterwards a 
military term, and the governors of tribes were 
called Hiripfrnrui puAwv. They took care of the 
treafure of each tribe ; and fummoned them toge- 
ther, as occafion required. 

$uAotrA?, an office with refpeft to particular 
tribes, refembling that of the Bao-iXf u?, to the com- 
monwealth. They were elected from the evirottfdai, 
nobility ; they had the care of public facrifices, 
and other religious ceremonies peculiar to their re- 
fpective tribes j and held their court in the 
and fometimes in the 

oi, had in the feveral ^ 
and TITTU?, the fame power that the fcuAa^o? exer- 
cifed over the whole tribe, 

Au/Aa^oi, had the fame ofHces in the Aujuw, 
managed the revenue, aflembled the people in the 
boroughs under their jurifdiflion, whofe names 
were regiftered, and prefided at the election of 
fenators, and magiftrates chofen by lots. Some- 



times they were called Nux^o, and the boroughs 
Nauxii, being obliged, befides two horfemen, 
to fit out one (hip for the public. 

An^x^oij fix officers, a (lifted by 30 others ; they 
laid the fines on thofe who did not attend the 
public aflemblies ; and took the votes of thofe 
who were prefent : They kept the Af *a^xov y^p- 
'pa.reioi> or AUXO>//., public regifter of the city, where 
were written the names of thofe citizens who were 
old enough to enter on their patrimony, which 
they called AUI?. Thofe who were bufy in the 
market, they compelled to attend public bufinefs, 
in which they were affifted by the Toorat, fervants, 
who lived in tents in the Forum, and afterwards 
in the Areopagus. There were a thoufand of 
them in Athens. They received their name from 
the arms they wore ; as the Ao^upo^oi, the guards 
of kings. They were alfo called Anaccnci cTroTrrai, 
from their offices ; fometimes Ilfu(n*oi, from Peu- 
linus, who probably inflituted the office; and 
fometimes 2xu0o, from Scythia; people of that 
country being generally chofen : (Ariftoph. Scho? 
Haft. Acarn. et Thtfmoph.) 

NopoqsvhKKtg, were to obferve that the magif- 
trates or people made no innovation in the laws, 
and to punilh the refractory : (Cicero de Leglbiis^ 
lib. 3. Columella de Re Riiftica, lib. 12. c. %.) 
They were feated with the n^ OE^OI -, wore a white 
ribband : and had chairs for them oppofite to the 

NopOera*, one thoufand in number, elected by 
lot from the judges in the court Heliaea ; they were 



to infped the old laws, and prepare them for 
the revifion of the people. They were to fee that 
no ditches or furrows were made under the Pelaf- 
gian wall, to apprehend the offenders, and fend 
them to ihe Archon. 


Tf^, were thofe revenues which arofe from 
lands, mines, woods, and other pofleflions, ap- 
propriated for the ufe of the commonwealth > the 
tributes paid by the fojourners, and freed fervants ; 
the cuftoms required upon certain arts and trades, 
and of merchants, for the exportation and impor- 
tation of their goods. 

Qogoi, were the annual payments exacted from 
tributary cities, which were firfl levied by the 
Athenians, to carry on the war in cafe of another 
invafion of Xerxes. The fum collected by Arif- 
tides amounted to 460 talents ; (Plutarch, in Arif- 
tide.) In the beginning of the Peloponnefian war, 
it amounted to 600 talents; (Plutarch. Pericle. 
Thucydides.) It afterwards arofe to 1,300 talents. 

E;<rpoa/, were taxes impofed on the citizens, 
fojourners, and freed fervants, by the aflembly and 
fenate for extraordinary purpofes. 

T\u!^aTa, were fines and amercements; a tenth 
of which was given to Minerva, and a fiftieth to 
the other gods and the heroes j this was called 

: (Sigonius.) 

D 2 OF 



wrTj?^ was electee! by lot from the Prytanes, 
and kept the keys of the! treafury ; which office 
none could enjoy more than once, or longer thai> 
one day , (Pollux, lib. 8. Ulpianus in Androti- 
anam.) He was keeper alfo of the public feal> and 
of the keys of the citadel -, and lie was the preil- 
dent of the Proedri. 

were ten in number; ( Ctefiph.) 
they were empowered to let out the public money, 
to fell and eonfifcatcd eftates. Thefe contracts were 
confirmed in the name of their prefident. They were 
to convicl thofe who had not paid the tribute called 
MfTotxtw, and fell them byaaclion. Under thefe were 
the ExAoysij, who collected the public money, from 
thofe who leafed the city eftates, who were called 
TsAwvai, who were to give their own fecurity, 
and that of others, for the payment of the money 
due on their leafes. If they failed to do this, 
any longer than the 9th Prytanea, they were fubject 
to forfeit twice the principal $ if this was neglected, 
they were imprifoned, and their property confif- 
cated: (Suidas. Ulpian, in Demqfth.) After the 
expulfion of the thirty tyrants, officers called 
Eyv&xoi, were created ; authorized to take cog- 
nizance of all complaints concerning the confifca* 
tion of goods j (Lyfias pro Nic.) 

ETnypps;?, were afleflbrs of all the taxes and 
contributions ; they kept the public accounts, and 
profecuted thofc who Were in arrears. 


were ten general receivers, to whom 
.all the public revenues, contributions, and debts 
v/ere paid. They registered all their receipts ; and 
thofe who had paid before the whole fenate, were 
cra.fed from the debt books. Difputes arifing from 
the payment of taxes were fometimes (decided by 

JK p8/\K, was a public notary, at 
firft appointed by election, afterwards by lot, as a 
check upon the An-oJ^ra^ to prevent fraud and 

i, or Fx^uvora/AiOiot, held the fame 
ofMces in the tributary cities that belonged to the 
in their own jurisdiction. 

ff, thofe who received money for the 
city, arifing from fines impofed on criminals. 

Tapiou T8 , xj ruv Ofwv, thofe who received that 
part of the fines due to Minerva, and other gods. 
This was done before the fenate. They were ten 
in number, elected by lot, from the UivToixoa-iopt- 
<frfApo, nobles; they might remit any fine, if it 
appeared unjuftly impofed. Thefe were the fame 
with thofe called, 

KwXax.^Tat, who were priefts, that claimed the 
relics of facrifices, amongft which were the fkins 
and the KwXai ; (Arifto^h. SchoL Avibus. Fefpis. - 
Suidas. Ulpienus in Demofllu) They received the 
Tw6oXa, which were diftributed among the judges, 
and called A*>car*xo? ^ 9 C? . 

ZT?5Tai, were appointed, upon extraordinary 
:Cafes, to enquire after public debts, when the fums 
become confiderable. 

D 3 er 



The public money was divided according to the 
various ufes to which it was employed. 

Xgyp&Ttx, rvi$ <^oi>c?3<rw?, means what was expended 
in civil ufes. 

iSrfarifcmxa, were thofe who were commiffioned 
to pay the expences of war. 

&> txa, money confecrated to pious ufes, in 
which were included the expences of plays, feftivals, 
and public exhibitions ; which were chiefly cele- 
brated in honour of fome god, or in remembrance 
of fome hero. That which was given to the judges, 
and the people, in public affemblies, was thus called; 
(Pollux.) When the expences of war could not 
otherwife be defrayed, this money was appropriated 
to that ufe; (Demqfth. Or at, in Ne<gram.) This 
edict was repealed by Eubuius, and it was a capital 
crime for the JiiXf* ^n^ara to be applied for the 
fer vice of war; (Ulpianus in Olynth. a.J 


Ta/xja? ruff $unMig-itot 9 called fometimes Evi/^Afrns 
vuv xowuv vgoa-QJuv ; a principal treafurer, created by 
the people ; he continued in office five years, in 
which, if he conducted himfelf honourably, he was 
elected a fecond and a third time. 

, one who kept a dupli- 
cate of the principal treafurer's accounts^ to prevent 
mifbakes, or detect fi*ayd 


TGM 2TTiwn>cv, was the paymaflcr of the 

Ta ( am? ruv Ofco^ixwi/, OF O tin TV Osw^ixw, had the 
difpofal of the 0w^x p^uara, which were diftri- 
buted, as well as for pious purpofes, fometimes 
to poor citizens to buy feats in the theatre ; 
(Plutarch. Pericle.) 


2iTwi/a*, were thus called from their office, to lay 
in corn for the ufe of the city. The T^ta? TJIJ 
^otxTio-fwff, was to furniili them with fufficient money 
for this purpofe. 

liTcpuAaxf?, were fifteen in number, ten of whom 
officiated in the city, and five in the Piraeus; it was 
their province to take care that corn and meal were 
fairly fold, and to appoint the ftandard weight of 

2*To/.Ti, or Ajro&xraio*, were officers appointed 
to fuperintend the meafures of corn. 

Ayog&vopoi, otherwife Aoyirav were ten in num- 
ber; five officiating in the city, and five in the 
Piraeus; (Ariftoph. Schol. in Acharn.) A certain 
toll was paid to them by thofe who fold in the 
market; (Ariflopli. in Acharn. aft. i.fcen. 4..) They 
had the care of all faleable commodities except 
corn ; and were to fee that no fraud or unwarrant- 
able advantage was taken by the buyer, or feller; 
(Theophr. de legibus.) 

Msrgwopoi, officers to inipeft all meafures but thofe 
of corn ; five of them were in the city, and ten in 
the Piraeus, 

D 4 


O^ovopoiy thofe who took care of the fiflimarket; 
(Plutarch. Symp. lib. 4. prob. 4.) they were three in 
number, elected by the Senate ; (Athen*ns lib. 6. - 
Euftathius ad Iliad x\) 


E|tx7re^8 ETrtjusAfiTai, ten officers belonging to the 
harbour ; they were to take care that two thirds 
of the corn brought into the port fhould be carried 
into the city 3 and that no filver fhould be exported 
except by thofe who traded in corn ; (Demofth. in 
Lacrititm Harpocration.) 

NaurocTtxaj, or T^iro^xai, were to hear difputes 
between merchants and mariners. Tt was alib their 
office to examine thofe who were the children of 
flrangers, and had clandeflinely regiftered their 
names among the free citizens. This was done on 
the 26th of every month. 

Ewaywyn?, were to hear caufes relating to trade, 
and which, from their urgency, could not be de- 
ferred to the monthly meetings of the NauroJWj ; 
(Sigonius and Emmius.) Befides thefe, they heard 
caufes concerning feafts and public entertainments ^ 


As-wopoi, were ten officers who took care of the 
ftreets ; five officiated in the city, and five in the 
piraseus ; (Ariftot. cit. ab. Harpocrat.) No man 
ferved this office more than twice ; (Demoflk, 
Pro<em. 64,) 

were the furveyors of the roads. 


TWV u<JaTwv, the officers attending the 

KfiyopuAajff, thofe who took care of the foun- 

Thefe four offices were called Aruvopi* (Ariftotle.) 

ETTirarat TW Snpoviuv tgyuv, officers who had 
the general care and fuperintendance of public 

ty who managed the building of the 
walls. Every tribe had the choice of a feparate 

were ten officers who fuperint ended 
the young men, as to their temperance and fobriety 9 
(&f chines in Axiocho.) 

Oij/oTrraj, three officers that provided lights for 
the public entertainments j and obfervcd that 
every one drank his proper quantity -, (Athen<eus> lib. 

i, officers who were prefent at mar- 
riages, facrifices, feftivals, and public folemnities, to 
obferve that nothing was done irregularly 5 (Athe- 
titfus, lib. 6.) 

Twociy.oKoa-fj.oiy officers to regulate the drefs of 
women; and thofe who were improperly drefled 
were fined, and their apparel expofed to public viexv 
in the Ceramicus. 

o, were people of property, who were or- 
dered to perform fome public duty, or to fupply 
the commonwealth with neceflaries at their own 
charge. They were elected from 1200 of the 
ficheft citizens 5 every tribe electing 120 from its 



own body. It was part of Solon's conflitution, 
that every man, according to his ability, fhould 
ferve the public ; only that the fame perfon fhould 
not hold two offices ; (Demcfth. in Ltptin.) 

Thefe 1200 were divided into two parts; one, 
confided of thofe who had large pofleffions ; the 
other, of perfons of meaner condition. Each of thefe 
was divided into ten companies, called 2-j^o^ai, 
which were diflindt bodies, and had leparate officers 
of their own. They were again fubdivided into two 
parts, according to the eftates of thofe that compofed 
them. Thus from the firft ten Xvpftigioti, were ap- 
pointed 300 of the wealthiest citizens of Athens, 
who were, upon occafion, to fupply the common- 
wealth with money j and together with the 1200 
were to perform extraordinary duties when re- 
quired ; (' Ulpian in Olynth. 2, and Aphob. i.) 

2/jjujuofiai, were inflituted about the third year 
of the looth Olympiad. Before this time, thofe 
who were unable to bear the expence of the 
Acirajyia, which was affigned to them, were re- 
lieved from the amJWjf, exchange of property, i. e. 
if any one appointed to undergo one of the Afm^yiai, 
or duties, which he was obliged every fecond year, 
(Demqflh. in Leptin.) could find any more wealthy 
than himfelf, who was free from all duties, the in- 
former was then excufed. If the perfon thus fub- 
ftituted, denied that he was the richer of the two, 
they exchanged eftates. The doors of their houfes 
were fealed up ; and then they took the following 

Oath, ATTG$XII/U rrtV x<rioiv rw fjtxat'ra ogQug 

O;? spyot? rctj a^yu^HOJ?, ocrx KJ MQ^QI 
1 uclll truly and faithfully difcover a/I 



my property, except that which is inji/ver mines, which 
the lazvs have exempted from impofts. Within three 
days afterwards the value of their eftates was dif- 
covered, and this was called onropouns. This cuftom 
was not entirely fet afide after the appointment of the 
2u/*ji*ofi ; but if any one of the 300 citizens could 
give information of any one more wealthy and who 
had been omitted in the nomination, he was excufed ; 
(Demofth. in Leptin. and Plianlp.) This controverfy 
was called ^chxa<n, which is either the fame as 
xi<n? and apq)i<rvirvi<ris, (Hefy chins) ; or is con- 
fined to the xopnyoi, which may be properly includ- 
ed in the Xnrxgyoi ; (Suidas.) 

The duties in time of peace were: 

Thofe in time of war were : 

were at the expence of players, fingers, 
dancers, and muiicians, at the celebration of public 
feilivals and folemnities; (Lyfias de muneribus. 
Plutarchus de prudent. Atheni.) 

rvpva<ri&x l > were at the expence of oil and 
other neceflaries for the wreftlers and combatants; 
(Ulpianus. in Leptin.) 

Ertaro^f? row <puAw^, thofe who made an entertain- 
ment for their whole tribe, upon public feftivals ; 
(Demofth. Leptin. and Median.) They were ap- 
pointed by lots. Some voluntarily undertook this 
offices (Pollux.) , 


Tf *"? a W> were to provide neceflarics for the 
fleet, (Plutarch dc pmd. At hen.) and to build 

E*<r<p&vT?, were required, according to their 
ability, to iupply the public with money to pay 
the army, and for other purpofes ; (Lyjias de mu- 
ner i bus.) 

ETTiJiSovrss 7nJWn?-, Exom? 5 E0Aoi/T#t, &c. are tlioie 
who contributed voluntarily to the exigence of the 
Hate; (Pollux, pajjim.) 

2W*xo*, orators appointed by the people to plead 
for any law which was to be repealed or enacted. 
They were fometimes called WTO^S, and <ru*r,yoooi, 
and their fee TO vvwyofmov. The people were pro- 
hibited by law from conferring this office twice on 
the fame perfon; (Demqfth. m Leptln et Ulpian, in, 

PjjTOfE?, were ten in number, elected by lots, 
to plead public caufes in the fenate-houfe; and for 
every caufe they were retained, one drachm was 
paid them from the public treafury. They were 
alfo called, 

2uMiyooi, and their fee, ruj/^yocixcv ; (Arifioph. 
ScJioL in Vefp.) No man could hold this office 
under 40 years of age ; (Ariftoph. Schol. Nubibus.) 
Before they executed this office, they were exa- 
mined as to their valour in war, affection to their 
parents, prudence, temperance, and frugality. This 
examination was regiftered among the laws of 

Il^ffpfif, were ambaiTadors, chofen by the fenate, 
or by the people, to treat with foreign dates. Their 



power was limited, and they were liable to be quef- 
tioned if they exceeded their cornmillion. (Pollux, 
lib. 8. cap. 6.) During the time of their employment, 
they were paid a falary from the public treafury. 
When Euthymenes was archon, they had two 
drachms a day; (Ariftoph. Ac/mm, aft. i. fcen. i.) 
Thofe who faithfully discharged their embaffies were 
entertained by the fenate in the Prytaneum; (De- 
mqfth. Or at. defah. Legat. ibique Ulpian.) Thofe who 
were inattentive were fined ; (T'hucyd. Schol. lib. 6.) 
Thofe who undertook any embafly without the 
appointment of the fenate or people, were punifhed 
with death ; (Demqflli. defah. Legat.) 

rr^KrjSfK a'jTox&TC>?, thofe ambafTadors who had 
full authority to act, as they thought moft bene- 
ficial for the ilate, and were not obliged to give 
an account of their proceedings on their return 

K^v, herald, ufually attended the ambafladors. 
Sometimes they were themfelves fent on embaffies, 
as public mediators. Thefe men were accounted 
facred, as being defcended from Mercury j (Eitftath* 
Iliad *.) 

T^^xTsi^ notaries, who were employed by fe- 
veral magiftrates. No man could ferve the office 
more than once > (Po/fax, lib. S.J 

r^a^juaTft?, three notaries, who had the cuftody 
of the public records and laws, which they were to 
write and repeat to the people and fenate. One 
was chofen by the popular aflembly, whofe province 
it was to repeat ; and two by the fenate, one was 
keeper of the laws, the other of the public records ; 
(Po/fax, lib. S.J A notary was appointed from 



every Prytanea, whofe office expired at the end of 
30 days, and then underwent the ufual eu0um, exa- 
mination; (Lyfias in Nicomachum.) It was con- 
fidered EUTEA-/I? wring <n, a mean employment ; (Li- 
banius, Argum. Or at. Demofth. de fals. Legal.) It 
was executed by the A^oo-tot, who chiefly were 
Haves, able to read and write, that they might be 
more ferviceable to their mailers; (Ulpianus tit 
Orat. Olynthiac, fi.J 


The council of the Amphictyons originally con- 
fifled of 12 perfons fent by the lonians, Boeotians, 
Phthians, Dorians, Pentebians, Magnefians, ^Enia- 
nians, Achseans, Dolopians, Delphians, ThefTalians, 
Melians, Phocians, and Locrians; (Paufanias Pho~ 
cicis. Suidas. Strabo, lib. q.) ^fchines reckons 
II nations; (Orat. ns^i n^a^so-C'J Harpocra- 
tion and Suidas reckon 12 ; (Strabozlfo 12. lib. 9.) 
The Amphictyons declared war againil the Pho- 
cians, when they had plundered the temple of 
Delphi. This war was maintained for ten years by 
all the -Grecian ftates. The Phocians, with the 
Laced cemonians their allies, were deprived of the 
honour of fitting in this council, and the Macedo- 
nians fupplied their place, on account of their 
fervices during the war. But more than 60 years 
afterwards, when the Gauls, under the command of 
Brennus, invaded Greece, the Phocians behaved 
with fuch fpirit, that they were reinflated in all 
their former privileges ; (Paufanias Phocicis.) In 
2 the 


the reign of Auguftus this council was diffolved; 
(Strabo, lib. g.} But Paufanias aflerts that in the 
reign of Antoninus Pius, they were increafed to the 
number of 30 ; (Paufanias in Phocicis et Achaicis.) 
They generally met twice in every year at the 
Thermopylae, or at Delphi. Hence the terms 
TIuATjyop; and n.vKotw,(Hefychius Herodotus Har- 
pocration, &c.) Before they engaged in bufinefs, 
they facrificed an ox cut into fmall pieces to the 
Delphian Apollo, intimating. that concord and una- 
nimity prevailed in the feveral cities which they 
reprelented. They met for the purpofe of ac- 
commodating any differences which arofe between 
the Grecian cities. Their decifions were deemed 
facred and inviolable, and arms were frequently ufed 
to enforce them. 


ExxAtfma, was an aflembly of the people who met 
together for the good of the commonwealth. It 
was of two forts, the xu^ua and o-u-yxA^ro?. It was 
formed of the freemen of Athens. In the reign of 
Cecrops, women are faid to have been admitted into 
this aflembly; (Varro apudfauft. Civitate 
Dei. lib. 18. c. 9.) 

Ku^iat, were called onro T XVPSLV TX xJ/7)^i<r^taTa ; 
they met voluntarily, (Ulpian. in Demofth. Or at. dc 
legal, fats.) and in them were the decrees of the 
fenate ratified by the people. They were held 
upon rifAfoon 'xu#i, or upttrpwoii Je fCjtujtAoi, days ap- 
pointed by law ) (Swdas.AriftopL SchoL Acharn.) 




They met four times in 35 days, the time that 
each Tlfvrxitiia prefided in the fenate. The firft 
^aflembly was employed in approving or rejecting 
magiitrates ; in hearing actions called ff-ayyeAa, 
concerning the public good ; in hearing the articles 
read over which had been confifcated. The feccnd 
made provifions for the community and for in- 
dividuals; and any one might offer a petition, or 
pafs his opinion upon either. The third gave 
audience to the foreign ambaiTadors. The fourth 
was devoted to religion-; matters; (Pollux lib. 8. 
c. 8.J The firft aifembly was held on the nth 
day of the Prytanea, the fecond on the 2oth, the 
third on the 3oth, the fourth on the 33d. Some 
fay they had three aiTemblies every month, on the 
id, loth and 30th ; or on the icth, 2oth, and 
30th; (Ulpian. in Demqflh. Anfiop/i. Schol.) 

ZuyxA^Tcu EjcxA/ifnat, were-Called a?ro TB (TwyxizXsiVy 
becaufe the people were fummoned. Thofe who 
fummoned them were the trgccTviyoi, the 
or theKu^Jciffs (Arijtoph. Concionatr.) 

, (Ammonias.) 

(Hefychhis.) were aflemblies held 
on very important occafions; to which, befides 
citizens refident in the city, thofe who refided in 
the country, and thofe who were in the harbour 
were fummoned. 


the market-place, in which they ofteri 
afTembled ; hence the alfemblies were called Ayo^ai, 
and to make a fpeech, ayogtuuv ; (Harpocration.) 

rbu, CTkutyd. 8. ScJiol. Ariftoph. Equ/f. 42.) 
near the citadel, fo called &i TO 7r7ruxwc-0a* 
A*00K 3 n rij iUefccFfftK, J <ft<x TO ff7ruxvcr9#* 
Tf BaAcvraf, being filled with ilones, or feats, or 
from crowds in the afTembly. Thus vvvxtrts is 
taken for the thronging of a multitude ; (Arifloph. 
Schol. Acharn. Equit. &c.) It was remarkable for 
the fimplicity of its buildings and furniture ; (Pol- 
lux, lib. 8. c. 8.) It was illegal to decree any one 
a crown, or to elect the ST^arrj-yoi, (HefycJiitis) or 
any of the magiilrates in any other place ; (Pollux.) 

The aflemblies were held in the THEATRE of 
BACCHUS i (DemoJlk.Mediana. Thucyd. 8. Pol- 
lux. 8. io*j On particular occafions they were held 
in any capacious place, as in the Piraeus, in the 
forum called Ayop iTTTroJa^a, or in the Munychia. 


The magiftrates who had the care of thefe af- 
femblies, were the Hf VTUVSC, Ev^ctrai and Hfoifyoi. 

n^uTv?, fometimes caHed the people together; 
and always before they met, hung up a U^y^a^oc, 
in a principal thoroughfare, giving an account of the 
matters to be debated ; (Pollux, lib. 8* c. 8 .) 

Ilf effyo*, were fo called from the front feats which 
they occupied in the afTemblies. When there were 

E ten 


ten tribes, there were nine Tr^tfyoi, appointed by 
lots from the nine tribes, which were exempted 
from being irgvruvts. Their office commenced and 
expired with the meeting, in which they pronounced 
the fubjecl: of debate ; (Ulpian. in Demqft. Timo- 
crat.) They were affifted by the vopofvAxx&s, who 
fat with them ; (Pollux, lib. 8. c. 9.) In every 
alTembly one of the tribes was appointed by lot, 
tr(>o$(>eviv, to preflde at the fttggeftum, and affift the 
commonwealth -, (sEfchines in Timarchum.) 

ETTIS-UTIU, the prefident, was elected by lot from 
the Trgotfyoi -, till he had given a fignal, the people 
were not allowed to vote $ (Harpocration. Demofth. 
Androtian. JjBfchwes in Ctefiphont.) 

If the people were negligent of attending the 
afTemblies, the magiftrates iliut up the gates, ex- 
cept that through which they muft pafs. All 
commodities were removed from the markets, that 
there might be no obftruction to their attendance. 
If this had no effect, the Aoyi'rat, dipped a cord in 
vermilion, when the Togota* were fent into the 
market to mark all thofe who appeared there, and 
thofe who were marked were fined; (Ariflopk. 
ScJiol. in Acfiarn. zz.) An obolus was paid froni the 
treafury to all thofe who were early in the aflembly, 
which was afterwards increafed to three oboli ; 
(Ariftoph. Pint, ad i. fcen. 2.) Thofe who were 
late received nothing ; (Ariftoph. Concionatr.) If 
the weather was ftormy and unfavourable, which 
was called howptioty (Ariftopk. SchoL Acharn.) 
the aflembly was adjourned. 

The place appointed for meeting was cleanfed by 
killing young pigs., which they carried round j this 



was called xaOa^a -, the outfide, where the pigs 
had been carried, was deemed profane; (Ariftoph. 
Schol. Acharn. 44. and Concionatr.) The perfon who 
thus officiated was called xaO^Ti^, and 
from TT^ria, (Arifloph. ibidem)', and 
(Pollux. Hefy chins. Suidas. Plarpocrdtion.) 

When they had finiflied the expiatory rites, the 
xngvZ made a fblemn prayer for the fafety of the ilate, 
and the fuccefs of their councils ; (Demoflh. Timo- 
crat.) They then execrated thofe who attempted to 
confpire againft the flate ; (Demoflh. -rrsoi vx^Ktr^a- 
SKK$.} and enjoined filence. (Ariftoph. Yhefm. 302. ) 

At the inftance of the n-jci^oi, the x^u pro- 
claimed the fl-oAeu/A, decree of the fenate, upon 
which they were to deliberate. Then the xu pro- 
claimed, TI? ayoctViii/ j3aATai ?uv UTTE^ Trf^rrjxoi/Ta irn 
ytyovoruv, zvho above ^o years of age zvi/lfpeak ? when 
the old men began the debate. The xrju then pro- 
claimed AfyftJ/ rwi/ A0^i/atwj/ TQV (3aAo/xfvoj/ ot; ^r, //'^ 
^^r>' Athenian might fpeak who was privileged by /aw; 
(Arijlop. Acharn. Demofth. and JEfchines in Ctejiphont. 
Pollux, lib. 8. c. 9 J For every man above 30 
years old might give his opinion, except thofe who 
were guilty of impiety or cowardice, or were in debt 
to the ftate ; (Demofth. in Ariftogit. ALf chines in 
Ctefiphont.) When any one was forbidden by the 
*rUT*Kf? to fpeak, and they refufed to fubmit, they 
were dragged down from the fuggeftum by the 
Tcorai, lidtors ; ( Ariftoph: Acharn. aft i.fcen. 2.) 

When the debates were ended, the x>^u, by 
order of the rmraTai, or jrgof jjfpi, aiked the appro- 
bation of the people. This was done by pebbles, 
or holding up the hand, called ein\|^ptfj TO ^ytpurpa,, 
or J^ovfci &apiOT0j/#v TW ^TJ^IW, The vote was 
s 2 called. 


called, jOTo?ia, (StgoiuuSj derep. Ath.) and to cfta-* 
blilli it pf OTOVIIV. A7rc;nOTovnv, was to annul by 
vote. They fometimes gave private votes, as on the 
expulfion of magiftrates, by cafting v^p*;, pebbles, 
into jcacTa?, vejjels, which the ir^vranis placed for the 
purpofe. Originally they voted with xua^ot, Beans -, 
(Suidas.) The w^o^oi then declared the refult of 
their votes. It was unlawful for the vfVTmtf to pro* 
ppfe the fame queftion twice ; (Nicite Or at. ap. Thu- 
cydid. lib. 6.) The affembly were difmifled by the 
(Arifloph. Acharn. Ariftopk* Concionatr.) 


The (3*A>i TOJV *rTxo<ni/, originally confifted of 
400 members; 100 from each of the four tribes; 
(Plutarch* So/one.} They were elected by lot with 
beans ; hence (3Xfurf airo xuaj,, and |3cuAji a?ro 
5cua/A; CT/iucidyd,) On a certain day, before the 
beginning of the month ExTo/*aif, the prelident 
of every tribe prefented the names of eligible per- 
fons, engraved on tables of brafs, called myaxia, 
(Harpocration,) and put them intoavefTel. In another 
veflel were 100 white beans and 100 black. The 
names of thofe cand ; dates drawn out with white 
beans were fuccefsful ; (Sigonius, and Emmius de 
Rep. Athen.) When the number of tribes was in- 
creafed to ten, 100 additional fenators were chofen, 
and the fenate was then called |3j&n TV irtvroaiww, 
afterwards 100 more were added, with two new 
tribes, fifty from each; (Step/tan. Byzant. de Urb. et 

When the fenators were elected, they appointed 

officers to prefide, called UfVTzns. They were 

-h elected 


ele&ed by beans ; nine black beans were put into 
a veffel, with the names of the tribes, anyone white 
bean was put into another ; that tribe which was 
drawn with the white one prefided firft, and the 
reft in the order they were drawn. The Attick 
year confided of ten parts, according to the number 
of tribes; each was divided into 35 days. To 
render the lunar year complete, the four firfl 
parts confifted of 36 days, making the whole lunar 
year 354 days; (Harpotrat.) Some affirm that 
the odd four days were employed in the election of 
magiftrates, and that during that time there were no 
magiflrates, (Lib an. Argum. in Androtian') ; hence 
they were called ava^ot j/*i^*, and oq%ouge<rwt. 
When there were 12 tribes, every one prefided a 
\vhole month, during which they were exempted 
from other public duties; (Pollux^ lib. 8. c. y.) 
The time they were in office was called ^UTOI. 

Every WUTV was divided into five weeks of 
days, by which the fifty vVToans were ranked into 
five decurise, each decuria governing his week, 
when they were called jrfetifjfoi.. Oneofthefe was 
elected by lot to prefide each of the feven days. 
Of the ten irqoifyi, feven only prefided. 

The prefident of the TT^O^OI was called tmramit. 
He was entrufled with the public feal, the keys of 
the citadel, and the public treafury. No man could 
be twice elected to this office, or hold it longer 
than one day; (Pollux, lib. 8. Ulpianus in Dtmqfth, 

There were nine W^OE^OI, diftinct from the 
former, and chofenby the 7nr*Taat every meeting of 
the fenate from the tribe^ except from that tribe of 

1 3 whifli 


which the -rr^raviq were members; 
Suidas.) Thefe were different from the 7 
and 7nraTnj in the popular affemblies. 

The ETTiAa^ovrf?, were fubftitutes to fupply the 
place of any fenator who might be expelled for 
mifconduct, or who might die; (Rarpocrat.) 

The irfVTixMs affembled the fenate every day, 
except on feftivals. They were to be coniulted in 
the Prytaneum, which was near the fenate houfe, 
where they offered facrifices, and had their food; 

Every time the fenate was aflembled they offered 
facrifices to Jupiter j3*Aaio?, and Minerva fta\xnx 9 
counfellors, who had a chapel adjoining to the 
fenate houfe , (Antiphon. de Chorenta.) This was 
called iKTirn^ia (iunv; (Ulpicinus.) Whatever was 
to be deliberated was engraven on tablets, which 
after it had been explained by the ir^roa/ig or 
7rtraTa, every one might give his opinion. This 
was done (landing. When all had finifhed, the 
decree to be patted was written down by one of 
the fenators, and read in the fenate; (Demojth. in 
Ctefiphont and in Nexram.) Leave being given by 
the 7Turai/f or 7nraTa, they proceeded to vote pri- 
vately, by putting black and white beans into a 
veflel. If the black were more numerous than the 
white, it was rejected; if on the contrary, it was 
enacted into a decree, (Ulpianns)^ called 4/^107*05, 
and 7TosAfu/xa; afterwards to be debated in a 
popular aflembly before it could pafs into a per^ 
manent law. 

This fenate examined the accounts of magiflratcs 
at the expiration of their offices ; (Pollux, lib. 8. 
r, S.J took care of the poor who were maintained 



by the public; (Harpocr.) they appointed gaolers 
for prifons, and examined thofe who were accufed 
of crimes of which the law took no cognizance, 
and punifhed them; (Pollux.) They took care 
of the fleet, and fuperintended the building of 
men of war; (Arijlop, Avifrus Libanins Argu- 
ment in Androtian.) 

No man could be admitted to thefe places ol 
trufl without a previous examination as to his life 
and manners ; (ALfchines in T'imarc/i.} 

They were bound by an oath to promote the 
public good, nor advife any thing contrary to law; 
that they would fit in whatever court to which 
they were allotted ; that they would never keep an 
Athenian in bonds, but upon certain conditions ; 
(Demofth. 'Timocrat.) 

They impofed fines upon criminals, fometimes 
to the amount of 500 drachmse . When the crime 
was too flagrant, they tranfmitted the criminal to 
the 0<r/Ac0T**, by whom he was properly tried; 
(Demoftk. in Euerg. et Mnefibulum Pollux , lib* 8. 

( 9-J 

After the expulfion of the 30 tyrants, they fwore 
to obferve TUV ^njrtv, the aft of oblivion ; by which 
all former diforders, committed under the tyrants, 
were remitted. 

At the end of their trufl, they gave an account 
of their conduct. They were often expelled for 
fmall offences, and their places filled by one of the 
#i/TiAapot/T. This was called ixpuAAopo^yjcrat from 
the leaves they ufed in voting; (Polhtx, lib. 8, c. 5. 



Thofe who had executed their truft with fidelity 
were rewarded with money from the public trea- 
fury ; (Demqfth* Timocrat.) 

A drachm was paid to every fenator for his 
maintenance for a day. Hence |3aAiK *u%siv, to be 
chojen into the fenate by lots, means the fame as 
fyaxjj.yv rrj; Tj/xf^af Aap/nv, to obtain a drachm every- 
day. If a fhip of considerable *fize had been built 
during their adrniniftration, they were decreed the 
honour of a crown; (Demofth. Androtian.) 


This fenate was on a hill near the citadel, (Hero/, 
lib, 8.J fo called from A^noy n#yof, the Hill of Mars, 
becaufe all murders were under the cognizance of 
this court ; (Suidas.) or from Mars, who, it is faid, 
was the firfl criminal tried here; (fauftnuK* 
drift ides Panathen. Suidas.) or becaufe the Ama- 
zons, when they befieged Athens, pitched their 
camp, and offered facrifices on this (pot; (JEfchyhts. 
Eumenid.) Although it is aflcrted that this court 
was initituted by Solon; (Plutarch Solone Cicero de 
Off Jib. i J yet it was of very ancient date; (Ariftot. 
Polii. 1. z Demofth. Ariftoc.Pauf. Attic, c.2%.) 

The number that compofed this venerable af- 
fembly is uncertain; fome fay -Jiine, others 31, 
others 51, befides the archontes; (Plutarch, Solone 
et Pericle.) Some fay the ftf*f*00<7ai only were ad- 
mitted ; (Libanius in Argwn. Androt.) and fome- 
times their number was greater. 

Thofe of the archontes who had difcharged their 
duty with fidelity, and had undergone a ftric"r. exa- 
mination; (Plutarch, Per ids. Pollux, lib. 8. r. 10. 



Demofth. Timocrat.) as well as others alfo of exemplary 
and virtuous characters, were admitted. But in the 
latter ages of the republic, this obfervance was ne- 
gledted ; for members of reproachable manners were 
frequently admitted. To have been fitting in a 
tavern, or convifted of immorality in words or 
actions, were fufficient caufes to expel any member; 
(Athenxus, lib. 14. J To laugh in an uffembly was 
unpardonable, (Machines in Timarch.) and to write 
a comedy was forbidden by law; (Plutarch. 4s 
Glor. Athen.) 


Admittance was allowed on particular days, after 
facrifices had been offered at Limns, a place dedi- 
cated to Bacchus; (Demofth. in Near am. and in 
Arijlac. p. 43 8. ) 

So facred was this afiembly deemed, that if thofe 
who had been vicious were elected into it, they 
immediately gave up their former practices, and 
conformed to the rules of the fenate; (Ifocrates 
Areopagit.) Their decifions were fo impartial, that 
no complaint was ever known to have been made 
either by plaintiff ordefendant ; (Demofth. Ariftocrat.) 
Even foreign ftates referred matters to their arbi- 
tration; (Paufanias Meflen.) 

Their office was held for life. It was the firft 
court that fat upon life and death ; (Hefy chins 
Dift. Grxc. 7. (>? Kayos.) They paffed fentence 
of death upon incendiaries, deierters of- 'ieir country, 
as well as treafon; (Lycurgusin Leocratcm.) Con* 
^piracies againfl the life of any man were puni tiled 
with death; thefe caufes were alfo tried by the 
Palladium ; (Harfocrat, Sitidas.J all caules relating 



to murders, malicious wounds, death effected by 
poifon,were tried in this court, (Demo/Ik. Ariftocrat. 
Pollux , lib. 8. c. 10. Cicer. de divin. I. 25. 
Lucian Timon.) Their decifions were fcrutinizecl by 
the people, (Di)iarchus in Ariftogiton), and if they 
exceeded their commiffion by inflicting too fevere 
puniiliments, they were accountable to the Xoyi<rou , 
(Demojlh. in Neteram &f chines in Ctefiphont.) 
They were afterwards empowered to reverfe the 
fentence of an affembly, if the people had acquitted 
a criminal that deferved punifhment j (Demoftk. 
fro Corona.) 

They had the infpection and cuftody of the laws, 
(Plutarch So/one J ', the management of the public 
fund, (Plutarch. Themiftocle.) -, the guardianfiiip of 
young men, (JEf chines in Antlocho) j and were to 
iuperintend their education according to their rank, 
(Ifocrates Areopagit.) They had power to reward 
the meritorious and puniih. the impious and the 
immoral ; with the yui/aixow^o;, they watched the 
regularity of all public folemnities; (Athen#its, lib. 
6.) They punilhed idlenefs, rapine, and theft; 
(Plutarch So/one. Valer. Maximus, lib. 2. c. 6.) 
They took cognizance of religious matters, blaf- 
pherny, contempt of holy myfteries, the erection 
and confecration of temples and altars, and the in-, 
troduction of new ceremonies; (Juftin Martyr.) 
They interfered in public affairs only in cafes of 
emergency or danger j (Libanius Aig. in Denwjt/u 


There were three meetings every month, on the 
, 28th, and 29th days, (Pollux, lib, 8. c. ic.J i 



but on any urgent bufinefs they aflenibled in 
j3a<nAiKri roa Qr royal portico. This, as well as other 
courts of juftice, was encompalTed with a rope, 
left the crowd fhould throng upon them ; (DemojlJu 
Oral, i . in Ariftogit.) 

They fat in the open air, (Pollux, lib. 8, c. lo.Jj 
deeming it unlawful that the criminal and accufer 
fliould be under the fame roof; and that the 
fanctity of the judges fliould not be polluted by 
converfatioq. with profane men ; (Antiphon. Qrat. d$ 
Ctfde Herodis.) They heard and determined all 
caufes in the night and in darknefs, that there 
might be no influence in favour or prejudice either 
againft the criminal or accufer -, (Lucian. Hermotimo.) 

Actions of murder were introduced by the 
P(r*Aiuff, who was judge among them, laying afide the 
crown, the badge of his office ; (Pollux, lib. 8. c. 9.} 

The court were divided into feveral committees, 
each of them taking cognizance of feparate caufes, 
if* thfc multiplicity of bufinefs would not give time 
for them to be brought before the whole fenate. 
Thefe were performed by lots, that the caufes 
might not be prejudicated ; (Lucian Bis Accufato.) 

Before the trial the plaintiff and defendant fwore 
by the tefticles of a goat, a ram, and a bull, by the 
Zeavat 0*ai or Furies. None but relations were 
allowed to profecute a murderer, and the plaintiff 
fwore he was related to him, and that the prifoner 
was the caufe of his death. The prifoner fwore that 
he was innocent of the charge ; and both of them 
imprecating the moft dreadful vengeance if they 
fwore falfely; (Demo ft h. Ariftocrat. Dinar chits in 
Demojlh. Lyjias in Theomneft. Pollux,!. S.c. 10.) 

The par ties were placed upon two ftones - } (Paufan. 
c. 28, Hadr. Junius Animadv. I* %) the 



accufer upon the flool. of T^f, or Injury; the 
prifoner upon that of Avai&ia, or Impudence; (or 
A**m, Innocence, (Adrian Jwiius) ; to thefe two 
goddeffes altars and temples were creeled in the 
Areopagus; (Paufanias* Qicero de Legibus, I. 2.} 
Here the accufer afked r^ TraXai^ara ; (JEfchylus 
Eumenidibus.) three queftions of the prifoner, E* 
Are you guilty of murder? heanfwered, 

guilty, or x. XTCJ/a, not guilty. OTTW; 

How did you commit this murder ? 
|3Au^a.<r* xarcjcroi/a;, Who were your accom- 
plices in the murder ? 

The parties irnpleaded each other, and the prU 
foner was allowed to make his defence in two 
fpeeches ; at the end of the firft, he might fecure 
liimfelf by flight, and go into voluntary banifhment, 
if he feared the iffue of his trial, when his property 
was confifcated and expofed to fale by the TrwAjjraij 
(Demofth. in Ariftocrat. Pollux, lib. 8 ,) They fpokc 
for themfelves, (Sextus Em-piruus pdv. Matkem, I. 
2,^; afterwards they were allowed council, who 
pleaded for them, reprefenting the matters of fad: 
without any rhetorical ornaments of fpeech ; (Arif- 
lotelis Rhetoric. I. I. Lucian.Anackarjide, Demofih^ 

The fentence was pronounced with peculiar 
folemnity. An urn of brafs was in the courts, 
called o f^Tc<r0v from the place in which it flood, 
xu^jof, becaufe the votes which were caft into it 
deemed the accufation valid; and OavarH, becaufe 
they decreed the death of the prifoner. Another urn 
of wood was placed behind this, into which the 
votes of thofe who acquitted the prifoner were caft, 
and called, q yr*f ?> or wwii, 9 axy^oj-j and o sxtx ; 



(Ariftoph. SchoL Vefy. and Eq*} This manner of 
giving votes was afterwards abandoned, and the 
voices were delivered in public, by cading their cal- 
culii flints, upon two tables, the former containing 
the votes of thofe who acquitted, the latter of thofe 
who condemned the prifonerj (Lyjias in Agorat.) 

There were other caufes in which their ientence 
was not final, and an appeal might be made to the 
courts to which they properly belonged ; (Sigonius.) 

The fenators were not allowed to wear crowns ; 
(&fchines in Ctefiphont.) but were rewarded for their 
fervice by a bounty from the public, which they 
called xfa? ; (Hefychius in Kot^.} They alfo en- 
joyed three oboli for* every caufe in which judg- 
ment was given; (Lucian, Bis Accufato.) Their 
authority was preferved pure and intire till the time 
of Pericles, (Pint. Pericle.) ; when they began to de- 
generate into unbounded lice^tioufhefs ; (Ifvcrates 
Artfopagit. Diodor. Sic. lib. n. c. 77. Cicer. Ep, 
ad Famil. 13 > Meurs. Areopag. c. 3. p. 16.) 


The judges were elected from the citizens with- 
out any regard to rank or property ; they mull have 
been more than thirty years of age, and have not 
been convicted of any crime. 


There were ten other courts of juflice; four of 
which took cognizance tvt rw poimwv Tr 
of actions of blood; the other fix, wi TW> 
of civil concerns. Thefe courts were painted with 
various colours, hence jSarp^tai/, poiyixiav, &c. and 
on each was engraven one of the letters A. B. T. A. 
E. Z. H. 0. I. K. Hence they are called Alpha, 
Beta, Sec, 



The names of thofe who were to hear and de- 
termine caufes were delivered, and the names alfo 
of their father and borough infcribed upon a tablet 
to the thefmothetse, who returned it with another 
tablet > on which was infcribed the letter of one of 
the courts, according to the lots. They carried 
thefe tablets to the crier of the feveral courts, di- 
rected by the letters, who gave to every man a tablet 
infcribed with his own name and the name of the 
court in which he was to fit ; and having received 
trwrrflov, a fceptre, the ufual enfign of judicial 
power, (Ltiad) a. v. 233.^ and which vvasfometimes 
iludded with gold or filver, (Iliad^ a. v. 245.) 
they were feverally admitted into the court; 
(Artfloph. Scholiajl. in Pluto.) Having determined 
their refpective caufes, they returned the fceptre to 
the prytanes, from whom they received hxas-ixovj 
(Hejy chins in verbo), or ^icrOc? ^xarixoj, their due 
reward ; which was fometimes one obolus, and 
fometimes three oboli ; ( He fy chins in loco. Arijloph. 
Scholiaft. ex Arijlot. de Republic.) No man uas 
allowed to fit in more than one court in a day ; 
(Demqfth. et Ulpianus in Timocrat.) If they were 
convicted of bribery, they were fined j (nucydides^ 
Schol. lib. 6J 

i. En TraAXa^w, was inftituted in the reign of 
Demophoon* The Argives utader the conduct of 
Diomedes, or as feme fay of Agamemnon, being 
driven upon the coaft of Attica by night, landed at 
the Phalerean harbour, and, as if it were an enemy's 
country, began to plunder it. The Athenians 
alarmed, united in a body under Demophoon, re- 
pulfed the invaders, obliging them to return to'their 
vcflels i on the next day, Acamas, the brother of 



Demophcon, finding the flatue of Minerva among 
the Ham, difcovered that they had killed their allies, 
upon which, confulting with an oracle, they gave 
them an honorable burial, confecrated the goddefs's 
flatue in a temple dedicated to her, and inftituted 
a court of juftice to take cognizance of accidental 
murder. Some lay that Agamemnon, being en- 
raged at the precipitate ilaughter of his men, re* 
ferred the quarrel to the decifion of fifty Athenians 
and fifty Argives, whom they called Epcrai, & 
Tra^' ot[/.<porsouv tfptQwou, KVTOL$ ret TJJJ x^jtrfwf ; the 
judgment of their caufe was committed to them by 
both parties. The Argives were afterwards exclud- 
ed, and the E^T were reduced to fifty-one by 
Draco. With fuch authority they continued to the 
time of Solon, who considerably retrenched their 
power, allowing them only the cognizance of man- 
ilaughter, or of confpiracies which were difcovered 
before they were put in execution. Fifty were ap-^ 
pointed by election, five from every tribe, and one 
by lots. None were eligible but men of virtuous 
and rigid morals, and more than fifty years of age. 
(ScJiol Ariftoph. Pint. 330.) 

The caufes Were introduced by the (Sao-iAsy?, and 
the proceedings refembled thofe of the Areopagus; 
(Paufanias. Harpocration-. Suidas. Pollux, lib. 8 . 
c. 10. Demofth. contr. Ariftocr. p. 438. Hefych. 
Schol. Artfopli. Pint. 277.^ 

2. ^TT* AsA^jnco, was held in the temple of Apollo 
Delphinias, and Diana Delphinia. This court took 
cognizance of fuch murders as were confeffed by 
the criminal, who contended that they were com- 
mitted by the fufferance of the laws, as by ielf* 
defence, or adultery; (Plutarch., Solent. -Hefychius 

3. ETTI 


3. ETI irgvTouruu, took cognizance of murders 
caufed by inanimate things, as iron or (lone ; which 
if thrown by a perfon unknown and accidentally 
killed any one, judgment was here palled upon 
them, and they were ordered to be cad out of the 
Athenian territories by the pvAoaerA?, This was 
alfo the common hall where public entertainments 
were held $ and the facred lamp, which burned 
with perpettial fire, was guarded by widows. This 
lamp was extinct under the tyranny of Ariftion j 
(Pint. Numd.) 

4. Etf Qftatrroi, Ev 0f TT, was upon the fea more iri 
the Pyrseeus, and was called TTO ra >*TO?, or t 
Qftarti, (Pollux.) becaufe it flood in a pit, or from 
Phreatus. This court determined caufes concerning 
thofc who had efcaped from their own country for 
murder, or who having fled for accidental murder^ 
afterwards committed it deliberately. The crimi- 
nal was not allowed to land, or to call anchor, but 
pleaded for himfelf in his vefTel j and if found guilty; 
was committed to the winds and fea: or, as fome fay, 
there furTered fevere punifhment; if innocent, he 
was only pardoned for the fecond offence) and un- 
derwent twelve months imprifonment for the for-* 
mer; (Demoflh. in Arift. Harpocration. Pollux in 
loc. cit.-*-Hefychius.) 


I. ITaaur< took cognizance only of trifling 
matters, whofe value did not exceed one drachm j 
it was called fo on this account, or becaufe it was 
fltuated a$attt TCTTOJ TIC *eAf s in an obfcure part 
of the city. There were two courts of this name? 



one of which was irf aurw J^EI^OV, the other TratfaSurov 
juftroi' , (Pollux.) Thofe who were judges in the 
latter, were the eleven magiftrates, 01 e *fcx $ (Ear- 
pocrat.' Suidas. Paufanias Atticis .) It is fometimes 
called TO xaii/ov, the new court, ( Ariftoph. Vefpis.) 
and not numbered as one of the ten. 

2. Tiywi/oi/, fo called becauie it was triangular; 
'(Harpocrat. Suidas. Paufanias Atticis .) 

3. To *?r* Auxs, was fo called from the temple 
of Lycus in which it was built. Pie had a ftatue 
in all the courts of juftice, represented with the 
face of a wolf; thus Aux* &*a? fignifies fycophants, 
and thus T*? ^o^oxsi/Tas-, thofe who took bribes ; 
(Ariftoph. Scholiaft. Fefp. Zenobius. Harpocrat.* 
Pollux. Suidas 9 &c.) 

4. To Mm;8, fo called from one Metichus, an 
archited:, by whom it was built; (Pollux.) 

5. HXai, fo called &rro TS ^Xi^ftrSat, from the 
thronging of the people, (Ulpian. in Demofth.) or 
a?ro rajXH, becaufe it was open to the fun; (Ulpian. 
in Demojlh. Ariftoph. Schol. Nub. Eqmf. Vefp. 
Suidas,) to try in this court was called tjAia^j/ $ 
(Ariftoph. Lys.^i.) 

6. n<zgxvrov ptrw. [Vide above.] 

The judges were obliged to take a folemn oath, 
by the paternal Apollo, Ceres> and Jupiter the 
king, that they would pafs a juil fentence and ac- 
cording to law, and to the beft of their judgment. 
This oath was adminiftered near the river IluTus, 
in a place called Ardettus, from a perfon of that 
name, who in a public fedition united the conteft- 
ing parties, and engaged them to confirm their 

F treaties 


treaties of peace by mutual oaths in this place. 
Hence common fvvearers were called a^tJVrm 5 
(Etymolog. ~ Pollux. Suidas. Hejych. Harpo-) 
crat. Demoftk. adv. 'Timocr.p. 48 1.} 

The greateft and moft frequented was the nX*a. 
The judges were at leafl fifty, fometimes two or. 
five hundred. When important caufes were to be 
tried, all the judges of the other courts were fum- 
moned. Sometimes one thoufand were called in, 
and then two courts were joined; fometimes 1,500 
or 2,000, and then three or four courts met ; (Pollux, 
lib. 8. cap. 10. Harpocrat.Stepkan. Byzantin, v. 
Hxi&iK.) They were not allowed to pafs fentence 
before they had taken a folemn oath, the form of 
which is in Demqfth. Qrat. in Timocrat. 

There were other courts of lefs confequence, 
where the Atettntirai or Tio-o-jt^axovTA, or other ma- 
giftrates, took cognizance of caufes belonging to 
their feveral offices. Such were the courts at 
Cynofarges, Odeum, the temple of Thefeus, Buco- 
Ieum 3 &c. 


The plaintiff delivered to the magiilrate the 
name of the perfon againil whom he brought his 
aclion, with an account of his offence, whofe 
office it was eirKysiv, to introduce it into the court 
where caufes of that defcription were heard. The 
magiilrate inquired whether the caufe belonged to 
his cognizance, and alfo oAw? guretyew %gn, whether 
it ought to be tried ? This inquiry was called 
ftyaxi<ns. By permiffion from the magiftrate, the 
plaintiff fummoned his adverfary to appear before 
the magiftrate, which was called Ktorww j (Ulpianus 
6 / 


in Demofth. Or at. de Corona.) This was fometimes 
done by apparitors, called KATJTO^? or KA^T^?, 
(Ariftoph. Schol. ad aves. Harpocraf. Ariftoph. 
Sckol. Vefp- 189,^ fometimes by the plaintiff 
hirnfelf, who always carried with him fufficient 
witneffes to atteft the giving of the fummons, 
and thefe were alfo called xAnro^j or jcA^-n^; 
(Ulpiann's in Demofth. Or at. de Corona. Suidas. 
Harpocration. Ariftoph. Vefp.) The form in which 
the plaintiff fummoned his adverfary was, 
A2/*f Tov $iv& TZ$S a^ix^uaroj TT^OJ ryv 
scAnT*5j ^wv rov ^*^a, I fummon fuch a one to 
anfwer for this injury before this magiflrate, having 
fuch a perfon as my witnefs; (Ulpianus in Mi- 
dian.) When the plaintiff employed an appa- 
ritor, the form was thus varied, Kamyo^w rov 

, I accufe fuch a perfon of this injury, and 
fummon him by fuch a one to appear before this 
magiftrate. It was neceffary to mention the name 
of the )tAuTj in the fummons. When a married 
v/oman was fummoned before a magiflrate, her 
hufband was cited in this form, TW feivoc, >yrov xv^io^ 
fuch a woman and her lord., &c. becauie wives, 
being under the government of their hufbands, 
were not allowed to appear in any court without 
them. If the criminal refufed to appear before 
the magiftrate, he was dragged by force 5 (<Terent. 
Phormio, aft 5. fc. */.} Sometimes he appeared 
on a particular day, which was flated in the 
fummons; (Ariftopk.-Avibus.) When the plaintiff 
and defendant were before the magiflrate, he in- 
quired of the former whether his witneffes were 
ready, or whether he required any other to be cited ? 

f ^ This 


This was the fecond AVAK^O-I^ to which the plaintiff 
was bound to anfvver under the penalty of a-n^ia, 
infamy. If this ihould happen, he defired further 
time to make his profecution, he fwore that it was 
no voluntary delay, which was termed u^-o/xvuo-Sai, 
and the circumflance itfelf uww^eo-taj (Demqft/i. hi 
Olympiad. Iftfus de Philo&entene, et Ulpianus in 
Midlan.) This excufe was alfo admitted on the 
part of the defendant, who had another plea called 
-jra^ay^&pji or Tra^a^ta^Tt^a, when he alledged by 
witneffes that the action againft him was not &xn 
*Kraya>y*/xor, a caufe which could then be lawfully 
tried. This frequently happened, when the injury 
had been committed five years before the accufa- 
tion, for after that time no action was valid : it 
happened alfo, when the difpute had been properly 
compromifed before credible witneifes, or when the 
defendant had been already punifhed for or ac- 
quitted of the fact, or when it was not a caufe cog- 
nizable by that magiflrate. To this gra^ay^apu, 
the plaintiff gave his anfwer, proved by proper 
evidence ; and the exception and anfwer, as fworn 
by the witneffes, were termed fiKpufrvfut ; (Polfax, 
lib. 8. c. 6. Harpocration v. h*p*r\)\*.) But if 
the defendant urged no plea to put off the trial, he 
was faid wMixsw, and the trial was termed fv0y<Jixj. 
An oath was then adminiftered to both parties. The 
plaintiff fwore that he would aAnO^ xaT>iyo^iv, prefer 
no falfe accufation; and if the crime was of a public 
nature, he fwore that no bribes or promifes mould 
tempt him to delift the profecution. The de- 
fendant fwore, aA*]9?j an-oAoywH/, that his anfwer 
fhould be juft ; or pn a&xs *v, that he had done no 
injury to the plaintiff. The oath of the latter was 



called irgoupovia, of the former ain-w/xccru*, alfb 
*ri7/apj, and both their oaths J*n*o<r*a. Thefe 
oaths, with thofeof the witneffes, and other matters 
relative to the action, were written upon tablets, 
put into a veflel called f^ 1 " ** an d ^ ien delivered to 
the judges ; (Pollux. Ariftopk. SchoL in Ftfp. 
Harpocration. Suidas.) The magiilrate then caft 
lots for the judges, who upon the xu^*a u/*^a, ap- 
pointed day, took their places in the tribunal ; the 
crier before having ordered all thofe to depart who 
had no bufinefs, pirotrnTt (%u. The court was fur-* 
rounded by a rope to keep off the crowd, and door- 
keepers appointed called KifxAi&f, the fame as the 
Cancellatas of the Romans; (Pollux, lib. 8. c. i o .} If 
any of the judges were wanting, it was proclaimed, 
T*f -0ufflw<ny fjAiari}?, i<nrto, if any judge be without, 
let him enter; for thofe who came after the trial 
had begun, were prohibited from paffing fentence; 
(Ariftoph. Sckel. V-efy.) The magiftrate then pro- 
pofed the caufe to the judges, and gave them 
authority to determine it, which was called n*y 
*? TO JtK&MfiQv ', the caufe itfelf was called 
and the perfon who entered it 
This reference of the caufe from the 
magiftrate to the judges was called nytponx. <&* 
fipuv. The public crier read the indictment, 
which contained the reafons of the accufation, and 
the injury fuftained by the plaintiff; thefe were 
noted down by the judges; (Ulpian in Demo ft h.) 
If the defendant did not appear, fentence was im- 
mediately paifed againfh him, which was called 
*H tppw xocruhKKirQwou and t^pni/ ofaurxcww. But 
if he prefented himfelf within ten days, giving 
fufficient reafons for his abfence, the former 

F 3 fentence 


fentence was reverfed, and this was called 
The trial was then to be brought forward by the de- 
fendant within two months, and this was called 
amAji?, and the action itielf amAa^ni/ ^ucnv ; but 
if the trial was not at that time brought on, the 
former fentence was confirmed ; (Ulpian. in Demoft/i. 
Pollux, lib. 8. c. 6.) If any one pretended that 
his adverfary was legally cited, and could not pro- 
duce any jcAn-ro^sc to teflify the citation, he was 
profecuted by an action called y%ct,q>n ^rotacMfsiiag ; 
(Ulpian. in Demqfth. Pollux, lib. 8. c. 6.) 

Before the trial, both parties depofited a certain 
fum of money, which they called TT^VTOC^KX^ into the 
hands of the magifhrate who introduced their caufe 
into the court, who, if the money was not paid, 
erafed the caufe from the roll. If the caufe was for 
the value of TOO drachms to 1,000, the depofit was 
3 drachms, if more than a 1,000 and not more 
than 10,000, the depofit was 30, which were 
divided among the judges $ and the perfon lofing his 
caufe reftored the money to his adverfary, and paid 
the charges ; (^Pollux. Harpocration.) 

Ra6xr&6taAi) was a fum of money depofited by 
thofe who fued the commonwealth for confifcated 
goods, being a fifth of the value, or what was claim- 
ed by the public treafury, or by private perfons for 
adifputed inheritance, being a tenth of the value for 
which they contended 5 (Pollux. Harpocration.) 

n^arao-K, was a drachm depofited about trivial 
affairs, which were decided by the ^TIJTA; (Pollux. 

EarwSoAia, was a fine laid on thofe who could not 
prove the indictment they had brought againfl their 
adverfariess fo called, becaufe they were obliged to 


pay the fixth part of the value of what they con- 
tended for, from coA0?, the fixdi part of a drachm ; 
(Pollux. Harpocr. Ariftoph. Nub. 1134 and 


If the witnefles refufed to appear, they were 
fummoned by the X.AIT?J, a ferjeant ; they were to 
fwear to the fact, or to abjure it ; or if after com- 
mencing a profecution they dropped it, or failed in 
obtaining the fifth part of the fufFrages, (Plat. Apoll. 
Socrat. t. i. pi 36. Demofth. de Cor. p. 517, in 
Mid. p. 6 10. in Androt.p. 702. inAriftocr.p. 738. 
/;/ fimofr. p. 774. in I'heocrin. p. 850.^ they 
were generally fentenced to a penalty of 1,000 
drachms, (.37. ioj.) 

ExxArjTU<r0fc*, thofe were faid, who were fined for 
refuting an oath, or from whom it was extorted 
through fear of torture; (Demqfth. in Stephan. i. 
p. 977. Ifocrat. in Trapezit. t. 2.. p. 4JJ.} 

KA?ir^f(rOai, thofe were faid who voluntarily took 
the oath after they were fummoned -> (Pollux, lib. 
8 . Harpocr at ion.) 

The oath was taken before altars creeled in courts 
of judicature. The witnefles were to be free-born 
and deferring of credit- They were confidered 
anpti, infamous, who had forfeited their privileges 
by mifconducl. The accufer fometimes required 
the flaves of the adverfe* party to be put to the rack 
to deliver their evidence; (Demoftlu in Ne<er. p. 
880. in Onet. i. p. 924. in Pant<en. p. 993.^) 
Sometimes one of the parties prefented his own 
flaves to this favage proof; (Demo/lh. in Aphob. 3. 
/>. 913, in Nicojir.p. noj.) 

F 4 


MTVia, was that kind of evidence which the 
perfon gave who was an eye-witnefs to the fad ; 
(Pollux, lib.*.) 

Exp&f-vfiXy when he received his teftimony from 
the perfon who was an eye-witnefs, but who was 
dead, or abfent from fome unforefeen accident; 
(Harpocration. Pollux.) 

The teftimony was fometimes given aloud in 
open court, and fometimes in writing upon a tablet 
of wax ; (Harpocrat. Pollux.) Being feated, the 
accufer on the left hand, and the accufed on the 
right hand of the judge, (Art/lot. Problem.) they 
each fpoke what their orators had prepared for 
them. If they defired it the judges allowed them 
c-uMjyogoi, advocates, which was called - ^io-Ow O-UMI* 
yogsivy to plead j or a fee ; (Clemens Alexand.) They 
were limited in the length of their fpeeches, which 
was. called (fra/Af/AtT^in yp,eg& ; (Harpoeration.) 
which was meaiured by a xA*t}/u^a, a water-glafs. 
He was called pvJW, whole office it was to fill 
the glafsj (Pollux, 8. g.) Their fpeech was to 
conclude when the water had run out j but the 
glafs was to be flopped while any laws were read, 
or other bufmefs intervened ; (Dcmojlh,) T<o utari 
r&> ^w AosAeirw, let him fpeak till my water be run. 
out, means if any orator ends his fpeech before the 
allotted time, he may give the remaining part of it 
to another; (Demofth.) When the parties had 
finifhed, the crier was commanded by the prefiding 
magiflrate, to order the judges to bring in their 
verdict \ and where the law had provided penalties, 
called ywvf a-n/xy,, a verdidt of guilty or not 
guilty was fufficient ; but where the laws were 
(called vyuns r*/*wi) another fentence \\TVS 


neceffary, determining the punifliment due to the 
offence ; (Harpocration.) The condemned perfon 
was to declare the damage he had done, and the 
reparation due to his accufer, before fentence was- 
pronounced. When the laws were filent, the 
judges might limit the punifhment ; (Cicero de 
Oratore^lib. \.) 

Sentence was at firfl given by black anct 
white lea fhells, called x l f va ' or pebbles, called 
$y<poi', (Ovid. Meiam.lib. i$.) 2*WuAo*, balls of 
brafs, were afterwards ufed, and then xua/Aej, beaqs; 
the white beans were whole, and ufed to acquit, 
and the black were bored through, to condemn ; 
(Pollux, lib. 8. cap. 10. . i2$.Meitrfius> Areop. c. 
Z.Hefyckius.AriJtopJi. Schol. Ran. et Vefp.y If 
there was a majority of black balls, the prefident 
traced out a long line on a tablet covered with wax t 
expofed to every eye ; if the white were more nui 
merous, a fhorter line; (Anjloph\ in.Vefp. v. io6.J 
and if the votes be equal, the accufed is acquitted 5 
( Ctefiph.p. 469. Ariftot. problem^ feft. 29, 
torn. 2. p. $i2..~-Id. de Rhetor, c. 19. /. 2. p. 628. ) 
The beans were taken from the altar;" two urns, 
which they called xa^ot or xaJicrxoi, received the beans 
through a fmall tunnel, called xn^o?, holding them 
\vith three fingers, the fore-finger, middle and 
thumb. In private caufes four urns were ufed ; 
(Demofth. Or at. in Macart.) where the punifhment 
fpecified by law, was fufrkient ; but when that was 
only expretfed in the declaration of the profecu- 
tor, the offender had the privilege of demanding a 
mitigation; and this fecond queftion was decided by 
a new trial, to which they immediately proceedecP; 
. in Dtmofi/t. adv. ^inarch, p. 8z2v Samuel 



Petit de leg. Att. ^.335 .) When they had finifted 

voting, the crier proclaimed Ei TK avj/jjpirof, iurao-0, 

If there be any that has not given his vote, let him 


The caufe, while pending, was engraved on a 
tablet and expofed to public view, and hung up at 
the ftatue of the heroes, named ETTWVU/AOI. This was 
called Exxeio-Qa* ; (Schol. in Median. Demofth.) 

If the perfon convicted was guilty, he was de- 
livered to the Ev&xa, to receive punifhment j but if 
he was fined, the Tapat *& & faw it paid. If un- 
able to pay it, he was doomed to perpetual im- 
prifonment j (Demqflk. Androtian. Corn. Nepos in 
Vit. Miltiad.) 

If the plaintiffhad unjuilly accufed his adverfary, 
he was fentenced to fuffer that punifhment which 
the law inflicted on the crime with which his ad- 
verfary was accufed. 

The plaintiff was called JWw, the caufe itfelf 
t&i?, and the accufed $tvyuv. Atria was the name 
of the indictment before conviction, and eAf/p^ 
after it. 

When the trial was over, the judges went to the 
temple of Lycus, and returned their f aJot, ftaffs ; 
and received from the xwAax^ra*, their moneys 
(Ariftoph. in Ran. et Fefp. Suidas. Pollux.) 

2ujco^avrat, fometimes fignifies falfe witneffes, 
TTO r <ruxa (paivetv, from indicting thofe who ex- 
ported figs, which was prohibited by an ancient Jaw 
of the Athenians ; (Ariftoph. Schol. Pint, et Equit. 


Oi T<r<ra^axovTfls, were forty men who went round 
the boroughs, and heard difputes about fums of 



money not exceeding ten drachms, as well as con- 
cerning actions of perfonal affault; (Demojlh.m 

G Tgiotxwrot, were thirty men who amerced the 
people for being abient from the public affemblies, 

Aiai-mrat, were arbitrators, who were called 
K.ATjWTai, forty-four men in each tribe, above 
fixty years of age; (Pollux, lib. 8. c. 10^ or 
fifty (Snidas) ; drawn by lots to determine con- 
troverlles in their own tribe about money above 
ten drachms. An appeal lay from this to the 
fupertour court of juftice; (Demoflh. Or at. in 
Aphobum.) At firft they heard all caufes that 
exceeded ten drachms, previous to their introduc- 
tion into other courts; (Pollux, Ulpian.) They 
were not bound by oath ; but when they admi- 
niftered an oath to the plaintiff, which was called 
vrotfaroca-is or hra,wc, they received a drachm, and 
another from the plaintiff when they gave him an 
oath, called ai/Tuponu. If either of them was abfent, 
in the evening judgment was given in favour of the 
party prefent. Their office was annual; and if 
they were found guilty of corruption, they were 
puniihed with ATI/AI, infamy ; (Demoftlu et Ulpian. 
Median. Sam. Petit. Miff. lib. S.) 

Ejcraywynf , were officers tunzystv ra? chxaf, to re- 
ceive complaints that fell under the cognizance of 
the iiatrnTtff, and enter them into the court ^ 
(Pollux.) The other arbitrator was called <J*aAAax- 
Tjiot or xar* ETTiTgoTrnv htxirnrai, thofe who were 
chofen by both parties to compromife any difpute. 
There was no appeal from their determination, 
which they were bound to make impartially by 
oath; (Demojlh.) The determination of the 


i, was called hair*,- and wr^*^ and the 
reference to them ha iron m-r^ai ; (Pollux.) 


The Athenian judgments were of two kinds: 
A/AOT*xau, public, were concerning thofe crimes 
which affedted the ftate, called xaruye^at ; all per- 
fons were encouraged by the law to revenge the 
public wrong, by bringing the criminal to puni.fh- 
ment ; (Plutarchus> S alone.) 

Ihtamxi, private, concerning all -controverfies 
between private perfons, which were called xa ; 
(Ifocrates.) No one could profecute an offender 
but he who was injured, or fome of his family $ 
(Plutarch. So/one. Demoftk. in < Timocr&t.) 

The public judgments were, 

T^opoia?-, a wound rnalicioully given. 
, a conflagration of the city. 

, confpiracy againft the life of another. 
f, facrilege, punifhed with death ; (Xe- 
noph. Hifl. Grxc. lib. i. p. 450. Id. Mem. I. i.p* 
721. Diod. lib. 16. p. 427. jElian. 'Var. Hifl. I. 5, 
c. 16.) and deprived of the rites of fepulture. 
* impiety ; (Lyjias in Andoc. p. 130.^ 

?, fornication. 

, whoredom, punifhable by fine, (Wiucyd 
SchoL lib. 6.) 

, celibacy. 

, refufmg to ferve in war, puniOiable with 
, infamy. 


:, cowardice, puniihed with an/***. 

/, defertion of the fleet, punifhed by 

AftTTor? etriw, defertion of the army, punifhed by 

A67Torioi/, defertion from their poft, leaving the 
infantry for the cavalry ; (^hucyd. SchuL lib. 6.} 

Ai/<xu/xa^ov, refuting to ferve in the fleet, punifhed 
with arijiua. 

To fi^ou tw <T7n$<% 9 lofing their fhield, punifhed 

with artjuia. 

Vju^iyfa^b ^fuJoy^apn, or ^fuJVj? fyoa^rj, charging 
men with debts already paid; (Suidas in Verb.) 
punifhed by fine. 

>,, an action for falfe arrefts ; (Pollux.) 
r, for beating a freeman, or reducing him to 

2uxo<pavTia,aiTault, or frivolous accufation ; puniih- 
ed by a fine. 

Aw^a, or Aw^ o^oxia, receiving bribes for any pub- 
lic affair, or perverting juftice ; they were fined ten 
times the value of what they had received, and 
punifhed with the higheft degree of a-n^ia, in- 

Afxa<r/*ej, for offering bribes for the perverfion of 

Aw^ojcua, this was an action fimilar to the former 
particularly in caufes relating to tjie freedom of the 

Ay^apiov, for erafmg a oame out of the public 
debt book, before the debt was difcharged. 

Ay^apo ^rraAAov, digging a mine without the 
public knowledge, a twenty-fourth part of the 
jnetal belonging to the public. 


>, againfl magiftrates who had neglected 
to furrender their accounts* 


n^ai/ojuwi/ y>a<p), forpropofing a new law, and 
acting contrary to the eftablifhed laws. 

EuOwu, againfl magiftrates, ambafTadors, or other 
public officers, who had mifemployed the public 
money, or otherwife offended. 

ila7rf , againfl ambafTadors, who had for- 
feited their truft* 

Aox^fltruftj was a qualification of the magiftrates 
and other public officers. 

IlfogoAfl, againfl difaffected, tumultuous perfonsa 
ATroy^apTj, an action for debts due to the public, 
falfely charged upon thofe who had delivered their 
accounts. Or an action againfl thofe who had never 
paid the fines impofed on them, before the ninth 
ITfuTap&a after their fentence, and could not give 
fufficient fecurity ; (Siddas.) 

AiroQeurit, fometimes the fame as Aw-c^ap*} ; 
(fai&ti*) Or an account given of eflates to avoid 
holding a public employment, that the truft 
might fall upon the richeft. 

$ac-*r, for the difcovery of any fecret injury $ 
and againfl fuch as exported corn from Attica 3 
appropriated the public money, or land; or for 
mifapplying the property of orphans ; (Pollux, 8.6.^ 

EvJfti?, againfl thofe who held an office, being 
difqualified by la\v; and againfl thofe who cpnfefled 
their crimes, without {landing a trial; (Demqfth. 
in I'imoc.p. 464. Schol. Adftopk. Vefp. 1103.) 

Avraywy)!, was conveying a criminal to the ma- 
giflrate, who had been detected in the fact ; (Lyfias 
in j 


, when the magiftrate went to the 
houfe where the criminal was ; and this they called 
-, (Pollux, 8.6.} 

, or AvfyoXyfytu, an adlion againft 
thofe who protected murderers, by which the rela- 
tions of the deceafed might arrefl three men in 
the city whither the murderer had fled, till he 
furrendered or fatisfied the law ; (Harpocrat.) 

EtrccyysXHz, concerning ftate offences; fuch 
actions, as without any procefs were brought before 
the fenate of 500, before whom they were intro- 
duced by the fo-^oGerat at the firft meeting in the 
Il^uTav ; where the delinquent was punifhed ; 
and the accufer incurred no danger, if he 
could not prove his indidment, except he 
failed in having a fifth part of the fuffrages, and 
then he was fined 1000 drachms. Another aclion 
ot Kaxo:<nf was, when brought before the archon, 
to whom he gave in his accufation; and if he 
was unfuccefsful, he was not fined. There was 
another acliion againft the A<amjTi, by perfons who 
fuppofed themfelves injured by them, but if their 
accufation proved frivolous, they forfeited their 
freedom \ (Harpocrat. Pollux > 8. 6.J 

r^*<pn, an a&ion laid upon fuch as had been 
guilty of any of the above crimes ; (Harpocrat. rep.AtJien.IIL I. Pollux, lib. 8, 6.) 


A^*>u8 ^ixn, was an aciion X&T& TUV oTTtovzv Wocaj/rwf, 
againft thofe who had done an injury; ' ( Etymologici 
or.) The delinquent was fined, and the fine 



was doubled, if not paid within the 
( Harpocration. ) 

Aixia? ^x.j, was an action of affault, in which 
the judges compelled the delinquent to make 
fufficient compenfation. 

Apqn<rviTiKris, was fometimes a law-fuit, but 
generally for the recovery of an eftate, 

a fuit concerning relationfhip. 

&xr, was an action of divorce, the 
huiband putting away his wife. 

A7roA4 /C ^'xij was an action of divorce, the 
woman flying from her hufband. 

ATTorao-ij? J'txn, was an action by a mafler or 
patron againft his clients, who were freed Haves, 
when they refufed to perform thofe fervices to 
which they were bound. 

ATrforac-tK &xu, an aclion againft fojourners, who 
neglected to chufe a patron. 

A?ogpiK $Mn y a fuit concerning money depofited 
in the hands of others, which was called by the 
ancient Athenians Ape^jj, and afterwards Ev0j>). 

Aped-*?, an action when any one in debt, and 
unable to difcharge it, called on the people to 
remit part of it. 

, an aflion of ingratitude* 
, an action when the buyer com*- 
pelled the feller to confirm the bargain which he 
had before covenanted to perform. 

Biaiw or Bia? &xij, againft thofe who had vio- 
lated the chaftity of women, or injured the perfons 
of men. 


<$<x, an a&ion again ft thofe who had 
trefpafled on the property of others. 

, an action concerning filth or nuifances. 
(Tjxj, an action *f^ ^ij^arwi/ ij TTC^I 
, concerning money or pofleffions 3 (Ulpian* 
de Myfteriis.) 

A^<*TUi, a proteftation made that the de* 
ceafed perfon had left an heir, to fecure to him 
his pofleffions* 

EK ^TTWV t<rv <5*x, ah ac"lion againft thofe 
who would not divide their property with thofe 
who had a right to a divifion of it. 

Eif fpq> MM x.KT&rvi<Tiv (ftxjj, concerning ftolen goods f 
or other fecreted property* 

EvfTTio-xf^a, an ac~tion> when any one claimed 
a part of the goods of another, which he feized 
and fold. 

Evoixia cJxj, an action to demand the rent of a 
houfe from the inhabitant by any one claiming 
the property of it. 

E{ffiWf<rf we to, againft a freeman who endeavoured 
to releafe a ilave without the confent of his mailer. 

Egxf &xt>, from EgcAAw, to eject, becaufe the 
plaintiff AAo/Acvof was ejected, or prevented from 
taking poffeflion of, his eftate, when he would not 
deliver it to the real owner* 

EATJ$ ^xtj, an action when any property was 
detained from its owner, tn^ arfg&Trofo ^ KMTO?, 
a ^>j(r* Tif *uTca ^srav^i, concerning a Have, or what- 
ever any one calls his own } (Suidas*) 

EwiJ*xo-ac <J"xr>, when daughters inherited the 
cftates of their parents, they were compelled to 

G jwarry 


marry their neareft relations ; and it was contended 
for in this adion. The virgin for whom they 
contefted was called Embus. EmxAufo* was a 
daughter who had no legitimate brothers, and in- 
herited her patrimony. ETrnrgoixtx was a daugh- 
ter who had brothers, and divided the eftate with 

ETHO-X^K, an adion by which the ^/X^TU^ 
was proved to be frivolous. 

EiriT^o'-Tniff <?*, an adion againft guardians who 
had defrauded their wards. It was invalid, if not 
commenced before the ward had been of age five 

Kaxyoias to, an adicm of ilander, by which 
the criminal was fined 500 drachms. 

Kaxw<rfw? $i*.$> an adion entered by heirefies 
againft their hufbands, by parents againft their 
children, and wards againft their guardians, when 
they were ill ufed by them. I^apu and Eio-ayysAi* 
meant the fame. 

KXOTI^WV JHOJ, an action againft thofe who 
iuborned falfe witneiTes. 

Ka^-rra &** or Xsa^n ^xi, an a&ion when any one 
claimed a landed eftate, becaufe the fruits of the 
earth were demanded. 

an adion againft thieves. If any 
one had ftolen above fifty drachms in the day- 
time, he was indided at the court of the 01 Evfixx* 
But if a theft was committed in the night, it was 
lawful to kill the criminal, if deteded in the fad ; 
or if he refifted, to wound him and carry him by 
force to the o* Ewfcx*. This adion was termed 


n ; (Demofth. Timocrat.). No reftitution 
was fufficient, but he was to fuffer death. He 
who had ftolen from any private perfon, was com- 
pelled to reftore double the value; and the judges 
were empowered to confine him five days and 
nights, and expofe him to the public view ; and 
<mfu*, infamy, was the final punifhment of this 
offence; (Andocides de Myfteriis.) If any one 
ftole any thing from the Lyceum, Cynoiarges, 
Academy, or any of the Gymnalia, of the leaft 
value, or from any of the harbours, above the 
value of ten drachms, he was condemned to die. 

A7ro/*aTUj2 (Tixn, againft thofe who, after pra- 
mifing to give evidence in a caufe, forfeited their 

MKT0<r*wf oixa &xu, fometimes called 0a<n?, was 
an action againft guardians for mifmanagement 
in the affairs of their wards. 

Ou<rmj &xu, an action claiming an eftate in the 
poffeffion of another. 

IIaaxaTaoAj, fo Called TTO ra 7ra^axTaSXAv, 

becaufe if the eftate was public for which they 
contended, a fifth part of the inheritance was 
depofited; if it was private, a tenth part ; if the 
plea was bad, they forfeited their depofit. This was 
an action commenced by the relations of the de- 
ceafed, claiming his property. 

H axccTaOuxn? ^xn, an action againft thofe who 
refufed to reftore what they were entrufted with, 

2<ra JMCTI, an action by which a hufband was 
compelled to reftore the portion to his divorced 
wife, or to pay her nine oboli, every raonth : if he 

c ^ neglected 


neglected either of thefe, an action in the Odeum 
was entered againft him by her E-mTfOTrog, guardian, 
by which he was obliged to allow her a feparatc 

Su/xCoXa/a <fcxfl, an action againft thofe who 
would not fulfil their contracts, concerning money, 
divifion of inheritance, and references to the 

an action againfl thofe who would 
not fulfil either their public or private contracts. 

Xfl<? ^*xu, a fuit between debtors and creditors - 9 
(Pollux. Suidas. Ulpian. in Demqfth. Harpocra- 
tion. Sam. Petit de Leg. Att. Hefychhts. Sigonius 
de Rep. Ath. Roufeus in Arch. Att.) 


An/xja, infamy, or difgrace. A perfon fuffered 
this punilhment, when, retaining his property, he 
was deprived of fome privilege, enjoyed in common 
by other citizens. Alfo, when he fuffered a tem- 
porary deprivation of the privileges of free citizens, 
and his goods were confifcated. Thofe who were 
Indebted to the public treafury, till their debts 
were paid, incurred this penalty. Alfo, when the 
criminal, and his poflerity, were deprived of every 
right of a free citizen. This was incurred by 
thofe guilty of theft or perjury, or othef fimilar 
crimes; (Andocides de Myjieriis.) From perfons 
of this defcription they appointed fome to labour 
at the oars; (Schol, in Arijiopk. Ranis.) and at 
which the prifoners of war aflifted ; (Pint, in Fit. 
Lyfandr.) This punifhment was alfo called T^^ar* ; 

Ba^a^o*, was a deep pit belonging to the tribe 
Hippetboontis, into which condemned perfons 



Were caft headlong. This was fometimes called 
pi/y/*#, and hence O tin TU o^uy/xar;, the name of 
the public executioner. It was a dark hole, with 
overhanging fpikes, that there mould be no re- 
treat; and there were alfo fpikes at the bottom, 
upon which thofe who were thrown in muft fall ; 
(Schol. Ariftoph. Pluto , 43 1 .) Hence Barathro in. 
Latin, an avaricious glutton, from its depth and 
extent; (Lucretius Jib. 3. Hor. lib. i.Sat. 2. Har- 

B X*> thk punifliment of hanging or flrangling 
was very ignominious; (Horn. Od. *, v* 465. Pol- 

the punifhment of fetters or imprifon- 
ment. There were three kinds of prifons; one 
near the forum, to fecure debtors and others: 
another called Swf^K^iov, a houfe of correction ; 
another in a folitary place, for malefactors guilty 
of capital crimes; (Plato de Leg. lib. jo.) One 
of their moft remarkable prifons was called, 
No/*opuAa>ov, and the gate through which criminals 
were led to execution X^wj^ev, from Charon. At 
the prifon door called ZrgoQouos from ST^O^HJ a 
hinge of a door, was erected a ftatue of Mercury, 
the tutelary deity of the place. 

AaAfta, fervitude, was a punifhment by which 
the criminal was reduced to the condition of a 
flave. It was infli&ecl only on the ATI/AOI, fq^ 
journers and freed fervants; (Dfog. Laert. I. ^5.* 
JEfchin. in Timarch. p. 1 74. ) 

Zu/xia, a pecuniary fine laid upon th$ criminal, 
according to the nature of his offence. 

eavarcf, death, inflided on malsfe&Qrs for vari- 
ous offences. 


Kf JifAvcf, a precipice, from which the malefactor 
was thrown headlong; (Eurip. Tread. 720. Paufan* 
Phoc. 2. Milan, 11. $.} 

v, was a collar, ufually made of wood, from 
becaufe it obliged the criminal to bow down 
his head : the punifliment was called Kupfiwoy*of, 
hence Kupwi/?, pernicious fellows ; (SchoL Ariftoph. 
P/utOy 458.^ It was fometimes called xAoios or xoAoioc 
from XAW, becaufe the neck of the criminal was 
fhut in it ; (Suidas.) 

A*0ooAta, lapidation, was a common punimment 
for adultery; (Horn. II. y. JKlian. 5. 19. Cicer. 
de Offic* III. Mews. ad. Lycophr. 331.^) 

H'Vss, with which the criminal was beheaded; 
(Pollux, 8.7.; 

EU'AOI/ vtvnwpyyw, fetters with five holes; (Pollux. 
* Artftojik. Equit. 393) or HuXov TtTMi/xwoyj as it is 
fometimes called ; (Schol. in Ariftoph. Lyjiftrat. 68 1. 
and Eqiiit. 1046^ it is a punifhment fimilar to that 
of binding the neck and heels of fold iers. 

xaVu, a round inftrument to confine the hand, 
a crofs, confiding of two beams, one 
acrofs the other ; (Lucian Aix>) fMYiivruv* Thucyd. 
lib. i.) to which the malefactor was nailed. 

2r>iA>!, a pillar, on which the crimes of the 
offender were engraven ; (Lyjtas pro c<sd. Erqftat.) 
Thofe were called SrnXiVa*, who were expofed 
to this ridicule. Hence ruATimxof Xoyo?, an in- 
vedive ; (Demofth. Philipp. III. p. 49. -Pollux, 8. 7.^ 

Jrt'y/x^Ta, marks impreffed with a hot iron upon 
flaves; (Plutarch. Solon.) 

TvTrava or Tujt*iri/, clubs, with which male- 
fadors were beaten to death ; (Hefychhts. Suidas. 
Pollux.) they were hanged upon a pole called 
(SchoL Ariftoph. Pint.'] 6.) 


fmall cords ufed in the punifhment called 
by which criminals were ftretched upon 
the rack. 

$/A*XOI/, poifon, of which they ufed various 
forts j the moil common was the juice of hemlock, 
called K^vetov ; (Per/jus, Sat. 4. v. i. Plato in Phted. 
Milan. 1. 1 6.) 

$uyi?, banifliment, of which there were feveral 
forts ; by this the goods of the banifhed perfon 
were fold, and the fentence generally palTed for 
life : the <?rf axi<r/xo?, being only for a term of teft 
years; (Schol. Ariftoph. Equit. et. faff.) It was 
chiefly inflifted on people of rank and cha- 
racter. This was alfo fometimes called K^xj 
/**$-*, from x%a/*0f, becaufe the Orfx, by which 
the people gave their fuffrages, were earthen 
vefTels -, (Hefy chins in Verb.) This was ufed at 
Arges, Miletus, and Megara; (Schol. Arlftoph. 
Equit.) The Syracuiian IlTaXifl-/Ao?, was for the 
term of five years -, and inftead of orf ax, they 
ufed 7TrA, leaves of the olive tree in voting; 
(Diodor. Sic. lib. n. c. 55, Plutarch. Arijlid. 
tlefych. Milan. 13. 24.) 

Xom, the fetters, in which the legs were fattened; 
(Ariftoph. Plut. 2j6.) Similar to this was wo&xaxu, 
-n-oJ'oxaxxfj, Tro^or^a^w, fometimes called ^uAov, being 
made of woodi (Schol. Ariftoph. Eqnit. 366.^ In 
Tro^or^a^n, the feet were tortured, in 7rc<Joxaxxj, they 
were only fattened ; (Ulpian. in ^imocrat. Suidas. 
flefychius. Taylor in Or at. Lyf. 1. adv. Theomn.p. 8 1 .) 
2vK, was a piece of wood, to which the crimi- 
nal was bound ; (Ariftoph. Thefmoph. 938 andy^y.) 
drowning in the feaj (Schol. 
. Equit. 1360. Lycophr. 239. ) 

04 OF 


an immunity from taxes and other 
public duties, exclufive of thofe for carrying on 
ivar, and building fhips$ from which the nine 
archontes alone were exempted. 

the honour of 9, ftatue creeled in any 
public place ; (Demojlh. Or at. de fa/fa leg. .fax- 
Jamas, &c. &c.) 

ttpstyzy the liberty of the firft feats at public 
enteruipments (Schcl. Ariftofh. EquittSuidas.) 

(HTjj<n? tv irgvrwetu, an enter- 
tainment at the public expence, given to thofe 
who had deferyed well of their country ; to thofe 
chiefly who had been ambaffadors i n th e p r yta- 
neum. There was a law that no man mould 
receive this honour twice ; (Plutarch. Solone.) This 
teing repealed, fome were #<nTOf, conftantly fup- 
ported in the prytaneum j (Pollux. Cicero ds 
Or at. lib. i.) Their food was chiefly M*, a kind 
of cake; but on holidays, bread; (Demajlh. in 
Leptin. Pollux, lib. 9. c. 5. Athenaus, lib. ^.) 
This .was appointed by Solon in imitation of 
Homer, /ufjugfuyo? rev O/x^ov, whofe heroes feafted 
in th}s manner. The tenth of all the entrails of 
beads, offered in facrifice, was refervea for them ; 
which if any perfon neglected to fend, he was liable 
to be puniflbed by the n^uravf ; (Ariftoph. Eytit.) 

Srepaw, crowns, were conferred by the vote of 
the people in the public affembly, by the fenators 
411 council, fcy the tribes to their own members, 


and by the AJJ/ACT** in (fapot) their own borough. 
They were forbidden by law to be prefented iii 
any other places ; and if any crier proclaimed ia 
the theatre the crowns beflowed on any one by 
his own tribe or borough, he was punifhed with 
artfti 9 infamy. 2rpavpj Ewxc* were fometimes 
prefented by foreign cities to the citizens of Athens, 
after the approbation of the citizens had been 
obtained 5 and they were dedicated to Minerva, 
the tutelar faint of Athens, Thofe prefented by 
their own city, were preferred as relicks of honour 
in their own family; (MJchines in Ctejlphont.) 
Peculiar care was taken of thofe who had been 
thus honoured by their country, that uf *, x<xxw? 
fi-retv, TntTKerc-av, to affront, fpeak ill, or ftrike any of 
them, was punilhed with a-n/xict, infamy, 


It was a received opinion that Ceres fir ft taugh 
jthe Athenians the ufe of law ; hence the feflival 
@<T|u0poja, in which me was worfhipped in the 
name of scyAopo^. It is however certain that 
Thefeus retained the privilege of making and pre- 
ferving laws; (Plutarch. Thef.) Draco was the 
next lawgiver, whofe laws were called 0<r/AOi ; 
(JElian. Var. Hift. lib. 8. c. ioj which were all 
repealed by Solon, except poj/*x<u vojuo*, the laws 
pf murder* The laws of Solon were diftinguifhed 
by the term vopoi. The thefmothetze fwore to 
the obfervation of them, on the penalty of dedi- 
cating a ftatue as large as life to the Delphian 
Apollo $ and the people were bound to obey them 



for one hundred years ; (Pint. Solone. Dlog. Laer- 
tius< Milan. Var. Htfl. lib. 8. c. ioj Afterwards 
Pififtratus took -upon himfelf, and left to his fons, 
the power of a lawgiver ; (Pint. Solone.) but the 
laws of Solon were in fome degree enforced by 
Clifthenes, who himfelf added new ones ; (Hero- 
dotus. Plutar. Pericle.Ifocrat. Aeropag.) Thefe 
continued in force till the Peloponnelian war, when, 
the government was altered by the four hundred, 
and afterwards by the thirty tyrants. But the 
ancient laws were again reftored by Euclides, and 
others by the influence of Diocles, Ariftophon, 
and afterwards by Demetrius the Phalerean ; (Pint. 
Ariftid.) and thefe, with ^Efchylus and Thales, 
were the chief legiflators of Athens $ (Suidas.) 

Any one who intended to propofe a meafure 
which regarded the public, communicated it firft 
to the prytanes, who afTeinhled the fenators, when 
it was either rejected or adopted. If it was agreed 
to it was called TrooGxtevpa ; and written by the 
prytanes upon a tablet, and called Trgoygotppa* No 
law was to be propofed to the aflembly, with- 
out having been previoufly written on a white 
tablet, and publicly hung up feveral days, for 
the information of the citizens. When it was 
read, every man might give his opinion upon it. 
If it was approved, it parTed into a VrKpurpoc, or 
N/ao ; uf r^a being a local, and No|uo? a per- 
petual law ; (Demofth. ej. Nan.. Ulpian. in Leptin.) 
It was dangerous for a citizen to propofe a law, 
which might be prejudicial to the ilate ; and he 
might be impeached for it any time within one 
year; and a writ, called rfw>/Aa? y?<*?!> for 



tranfgrefling the laws, might ferve upon him ; 
cither if he omitted to publifh his propofal, or did 
propofe it in ambiguous terms, or if it tended to 
annul any former law ; (Demqftk. ej. Enarr. Ulpian. 
in Leptin.) Thofe who had propofed a law 
waav/AO 3 or aj/jTm-rxtaof, contrary to former laws, 
or prejudicial to the flate, were arraigned fome- 
times before the thefmothetse; (Pollux.) and fome* 
times before the archontes. When the accufation 
had been heard, the archon eta-ayeiv ? TO Jjx $ ox, 
introduced the caufe into that court of juftice, 
which took cognizance of fuch affairs. If found 
guilty, the perfon was fined, which he was to pay 
under the penalty of a-n^ia, infamy. This punifh- 
ment indeed was of courfe inflicted upon thofe 
who had been three times guilty of fuch an offence ; 
(Ariftoph.) But if acquitted, the accufer was 
fined 1000 drachms; (Demqfth. Itmocrat. ibique 
Ulpianus.) The laws were annually revifed; and 
a new law was to be propofed, before an old one 
could be repealed. If necelfary to be repealed, it 
was done by nr^^^orov^ TM vopw, fo called, from 
holding up their hands. When the prytanes held 
their firft ftated affembly, on the nth day of Heca- 
tombason, after the K>?u had proclaimed the 
aflembly in a folemn prayer, the laws concerning 
' the fenate, the people, the nine archontes, and 
the other magiftrates were read over in order. 
If it appeared neceffary to reconfider any of the 
laws, the meeting was adjourned to the fourth 
of Metagitnion, the day of the laft ftated aflem- 
bly. During thefe ceremonies, the @<r^cj, which 
were laws directing how the No^o* were to be 



made, were exactly obferved; (Libanius m 
Argum. Leptin.) On the appointed day another 
affembly was fummoned, and the proedri re- 
ported the matter to the people, who appointed 
the nomothetze to determine it : and five orators 
called Svi^ixoi, were to defend the ancient laws in 
the name of the people. If the prytanes omitted 
to call this afTembly, they were fined 1000 
drachmae; but if it did meet, and the proedri 
neglected to explain the law to the people, they 
were fined only 40 drachma?. The prytanes and 
proedri might be impeached by any one before 
the thefmotheta?, who were to try the offending 
perfon in the court of Helisea, upon neglect of 
which they were refufed admittance into the 
areopagus. After the orators had delivered their 
fpeeches, the nomoihet^e gave their opinions, 
and the fentence was confirmed at the next aflem- 
bly; (Libanius in Argum. Leptin.) 

Solon, and other lawgivers who fiicceeded him, 
committed their laws to writing. Hence the law, 
icy^apw PC/SAW raj a^a? pn ^nf^ou prjs iri(*i cvop, that 
no magiftrate mould ufe in any cafe an unwritten 
law j (Andocides de Myfter.) The KI^&K, tablets, 
on which the laws of Solon were engraved, were of 
wood, and called Agoyf? ; which might be turned 
round in oblong cafes ; (Plutarch. Solone.) Some are 
of opinion that thofe laws, which related to facrifices 
?md religious rites were called Ku^?; (Pint. Solone.) 
Others affirm that Ki^Sa?, competed of Hone, figni- 
iied tablets in generalon, which laws were infcribed, 
^nd named irpga TO xsxo^upuxrOai f Ttf/of, becaufc 
they were ereded oft high $ (Afollod* in SchoL 


Arffioph. Nubibus et Avibus.) or from the Cory- 
bantes, who firft invented them ; (Theopompits.) 
Some fay they were triangular; (Pollux, lib. 8. 
c. 10. Ariftot.) and that the Aoi*? were of brals 
and quadrangular ; (Pollux, lib. 8. c. ioj Am- 
monias afferts, (lib. de different Voc.) that the 
A?j/? were four-lquare, containing the civil laws; 
and the Kuf?? triangular, containing the laws 
upon religion. They were preferved in the citadel* 
and afterwards removed to the prytaneum ; ( Pol- 
lux > lib, 8.r. 10.^ Some affirm, that the original 
in Solon's hand-writing were always kept in the 
citadel, and copies of them only in the prytaneum. 
Hence they were termed raj xarwlkv, thofe in the 
prytaneum or lower city, and^ra? avufa wpzs, thoic 
in the upper city; (Pollux.) It is again fuppofed 
that o xotTwOfi/ J/O/AOJ; (Demofth.) means the lower 
part of the tablet. But it appears that there 
were frequently many tablets to one law ; (Plutarch. 
So/one. Sam. Petit, de Leg. Alt.) It was illegal to 
erafe a decree from the tablet, and proper officers, 
called r^a/*jw*T?, were appointed to keep them 
legible; (Pollux, lib. 8. c. S.} Thefe were eleded 
by the fenate, and were people in whom they 
placed a particular confidence. The laws were aifo 
all engraven on the wall in the Ba<rAtx ro> royal 
portico, for the infpeftion of the public. This was 
the cuftom after the expulfion of the thirty tyrants - 9 
(Andocides de Myjleriis.) 




Sacrifices were to be performed with the fruits 
of the earth. A law made by Triptolemus ; (Por- 
f/iyn'us 7TEi a7ropj?$ E/u4/u26>y.J 

Due reverence was to be paid publicly to the 
gods and native heroes ; and to offer privately firft 
fruits with anniverfary cakes, A law of Draco; 

One drachm was to be the price of a fheep, 
eighteen of a medimn. One of Solon's laws. 
(Plutarch* Solone.) 

Cattle designed for facrifice were to be fele&ed 
from the beft - 9 (Pint. Solone.) 

He who offered facrifice, to carry part of the 
beaft facrificed to his family ; (Ariftoph. Schol. 
in Pint.) 

All the remains of the facrifice were for the 
prieft ; (Arijloph. in Vefp.) 

Whoever defiled the temple of Apollo, was to be 
indicted and fentenced to death. A law of Pififtra- 
tus; (Hefychius.Suidas.) 

Foreigners and flaves were permitted to attend 
divine worfhip j (Demofth. in Near.) 

They, who furvived the report publifhed of their 
death, were prohibited from enteringthe temple of 
the furies ; (Plut. Qi(<*ft. Roman. Hefychius.Pha- 
vorimts verb. Afur^oTrQT^cfJ 

No injury was to be offered tothofe who fled to 
the temples for refuge j (Schol. Arijioph. in Equit.) 

Sacrifices were to be at the beginning of every 
month ; (Athen#us> lib* 6,} 



No foreigner was to be initiated into the holy 
myfteries ; (Schol. Artfloph. in Pint.) 

Death was to be the punifhment of pubiifliing 
the myfteries ; (Sopater in Divis. Qu*s.) 

They who were initiated, were to dedicate their 
clothes in which they were initiated at the temple 
of Ceres and Proferpine - 9 (Schol,. Ariftoph. in Plut.) 

All who attended the Panathena^a, were pro- 
hibited from wearing apparel dyed with colours ; 
(Lucian. Nigrin.) 

Homer's rhapfodies were to be repeated at the 
inftitution of the Panathensea majora ; (Lycurgus 
in Leocratem. JElianus Var. Hift. lib. 8. c. 2.) 

While the celebratioh of the new moon or other 
feflival continued, no bufinefs was to be carried on, 
but what related to this feaft ; and no one was to be 
infulted in public or private ; (DemoJIh. Timocrat.) 

Sojourners were to carry, at public proceflions, 
fmall veffels, in the fhape of a boat, and their daugh- 
ters water-pots with umbrellas -, (Harpocration i\ 

No woman was to go in her chariot to Eleufis ; 
and whoever committed theft during the feaft kept 
there, was to be fined 6000 drachmae -, (Plutarch, 

No petition was to be prefented at the myfteries ; 
(Andoddes de Myfteriis.) 

No one was to be arrefted during their celebra- 
tion 3 (DemoJIh. in Mid.) 



The day after this feftival, the fenate were to 
meet in the Eleufinian temple; (Andocides de 

A gaol delivery was appointed at the annual feaft 
of f<r/A<jp0i ; (Schol. Theocrit. in Idyll. V.) 


During a proceflion in the Pyrseeus, in honour of 
Bacchus, and at the Lenjean proceffion, comedies 
were ordered to be acted ; and during the cele- 
bration of the Aioj/vo-iaxa, young men were to 
dance, and comedians and tragedians act, and no 
fuit at law, nor furetimip was to take place at this 
interval; alfo while the a^Aia continued. If 
any offended againft this law, he was to be pro- 
fecuted at the 'popular afiembly held in the theatre 
of Bacchus; '(Demofth. in Mid.) 

The day following thefe obfervations, the pry- 
tanes were ordered to call a fenate in the theatre 
of Bacchus, upon the FEav^a, where they were to 
debate upon the facred rites ; and then they drew 
the indictments againft offenders at the fenftsi 
(Demofth. in Mid.) 

No one was to be arrefted on the Aioyvrt*; 
(Demofth. in Mid.) 

Execution of condemned prifoners was to be de- 
ferred till the 08 returned from Delos ; (Plato 

Phtfdone. Xenophon, lib. 4. ATropvypoi/.} 

No oblations of victims were to take place on the 
j (Demofth, in Nexram.) 



He who was conqueror at the Olympic games, 
was rewarded with 500 drachma? ; at the Iflhmfc* 
100 y (Plutarchus Solone.) 

Fifteen perfons were to conftitute a tragic chorus - 9 
(Pollux, lib. 14. c. 15. ) 

It was forbidden that the works of -^Efchylus, 
Sophocles and Euripides mould be brought upoa 
the ftage* the city clerk was empowered to read 
them publicly -, (Plutarch. Lycurgo.) 

A performance among the tragedians was ordered 
to be on the feaft called Xur^a, and he who acted 
his part beft, was to be chofen denifen ; (Plutarck. 


No one was to be an actor under thirty years of 
age : fome fay, forty ; (Schol. Ariftopk. in Nubes.) 

No archon was to be fatirized in a comedy; 
(Schol. Ariftoph. in Nub.) 

If any one chofe to ridicule another on the 
flage, it was to be done under a fictitious name ; 
(Hermogenes deftatibus.) 

Every particular fort of mufic was to be appro- 
priated to its particular feftival 5 ( Plato, lib. 3. de 

Spectators were to fit with proper attention in the 
theatre; and the archontes were to charge their 
ferjeants to turn out diforderly people : and who- 
ever perfifted in his difturbances fliould be fined i 
(Demofth. Schol. in Mid.) 

Sports exhibited in honour of Neptune were tc>be 
held in the Piraeus, where three dances were to "be 
performed in a circle ; the reward to the beft was 

H to 


to be ten Mvp; to the fecond beft, eight; and ta 
the third, fix ; (Plutarch. Lycurg. Rhetor.) 

A public cock-fighting was to be once every 
year; (Milan. Var.Hift. I. 2. c. 28.) 


It was the province of the Baa-iXw? to take care 
that the Parafites were created out of the people, 
whofe office it was to referve out of his falary an 
hefteum of barley, for the fupport of the feafl of 
the native citizens, to be celebrated in the temple. 
The Acharnenfian parafites were to fave an hedteum 
of their dole in the refervatory of Apollo, to whom 
they offered facrifice. The j3ao-iXUf, and old men, 
and women with one hufband, were compelled to 
join in the facrifices. The parafites were to elect a 
prieffc from an illegitimate offspring, who was to 
officiate in the monthly facrifices ; and an action 
was to be brought againft thofe who declined the 
office of paralite ; (Athenau^ lib. 6.) Two of the 
facred Ceryces were to bear the office of parafite, 
for one year, in the temple of Apollo at Delos; 
(AikenauS) lib. 6.J 

The third part of the choicefl of the oxen was 
to be conferred on the victor of a prize, the two 
other parts were to be divided between the priefts 
and parafites ; (Athenaus, lib. 6.J This law was 
engraved in the Anaceum. 

A due proportion of money was to be difburfed by 
the priefts for ihe reparation of the temple, of the 
v, treafury of the temple, and the n*f ac-mo*, 

a place 


a place fet apart for the parafites to execute their 
office; (Athenaus, lib. 4. Pollux, lib. 6. c. 7 .) 

From the ftrongeft of the old men were created 
,perfons to carry fprigs of olive in the 
j in honour of Minerva; (Xenophon 

The wife of the j3a<nAfu? was to be a citizen of 
Athens, and never to have been married before -, 
(Demofth. in Near am.) 

The priefts were to give an account of their 
priefthood, and the facred families of their con- 
dud -, (/Efchines in Cteftphont.) 

No perfon of impure character was to be admitted 
to the prieflhood j (sEfchines in 'Timarchum.) 


A law was enacted after Thrafybulus had ex- 
pelled the thirty tyrants, and eftablifhed by Tifa- 
rnenus, with theconfent of the people, that Athens 
fhould continue her ancient form of government, 
and make ufe of Solon's laws, weights and meafures, 
and the decrees of Draco. If new laws were 
neceffary, the Nomothetse, created by the fenate 
for that purpofe, were to engrofs them on a tablet, 
and hang them on the ftatues of the Eponymi 
for public infpection. The fame month they were 
to be delivered to the magiftrates, after they had 
been approved by the fenate of five hundred, and 
by the nomothetcE. Any private perfon might deli- 
ver his opinion in the fenate freely upon them. 
After their promulgation, the Areopagus were to 
take care that the magiftrates put thefe laws ia 
H 2 execution, 


execution, and to fee that they were engraven on 
the wall, where they before hung, for the general 
ufe of the citizens ; (Andocides de Myfteriis.) 

He who propofecl a law injurious to the common 
good, was to be indicted j (Demofth. in Timocrat.) 

He who propofed a law, after the expiration of 
a year, fliould be accufed, if it was injurious to the 
common- good, but mould incur no penalty.- 

No law was to be repealed, before it had been re- 
ferred to the nomothetse j after which, any Athenian 
might endeavour its repeal, if he propofed a new law 
in its place. This was to be referred to the votes of 
the people by the proedri. It was to be firft pro- 
pofed, whether the old law were any longer fervice- 
able, and then the new one was to be propofed, 
and whatever the nomothetse determined, became 
valid. It was however to be provided, that no new 
law fliould reflect upon thofe already in force ; for 
whoever introduced fuch a law, fliould be fubje6t to 
the fame penalty as thofe who promoted prejudicial 
laws ; (Demofth. in Timocrat. et in Leptin.) 

He who, in abrogating an old law, promifed to 
make a new one without performing it, fliould be 
fined 5 (Ulpian. in Leptin. Demofth. in Timoc. 778.) 

The thefmothetse were annually to alTemble in the 
repository of the laws> and accurately to examine, 
whether any law were contradictory to another j whe- 
ther any law were unratified, or whether there were 
duplicates of the fame. If it fliould fo happen, it was 
to be written on a tablet, and publifhed at the 
flatues of the Eponymi ; and then, by order of 
the Epiftata, the people were to vote which of them 
fliould be ratified and which cancelled j (&fchine$ 




No man mould enact a law in behalf of a private 
citizen, unlefs 6000 citizens gave leave by their 
private votes ; (Andocides de Myfteriis. jEneas 
Gazaus in Tkeophraftum.) 

It was a capital crime to cite a fictitious law in 
any court of juftice; (Demoftk. Or at. 2. in Ariftog.) 

The laws were to be in force from the archonfhip 
of Euclides; (Andoc. de Myft.) It was alfo the 
decree of Diocles, that the laws enacted during 
the freedom of the commonwealth, before Euclides 
was archon, as well as thofe made during his 
archonfhip, mould be valid. Thofe enacted fince 
that time, or in future to be enacted, were to be 
valid from the day of their pafling, unlefs limited 
exprefsly by law. Thofe now in force, were to be 
tranfcribed within thirty days into the public 
records by the notary of the fenate ; (Demqfth. in 


or decrees of the fenate, were to con- 
tinue in force one year; (DemqftL in Arifloc.) 

No YupKTjua might pafs to the commons, before 
the fenate's revifal ; (Plutarch, in Sol$ne.) 

The tablets on which the VwHrparos, were en- 
graved, were not to be removed ; (Plutarch. Pericle.) 

Noipi<J7*<*was to be of greater authority than the 
laws, the fenate and the people 3 (Demofth. Ti- 

No equivocation was to be ufed in a 
(jEfchints in Ctejiphontem.) 




All laws were to bind the whole body of the 
people ; (P hit arch. T&ef.) 

Pried s and archons were to be elected from the 
nobility, swarf ifai, who were to interpret all laws, 
civil and divine -, (Plutarch. T'/ief.) 

The 0uTr could hold no magiftracy ; (Plutarch. 
Solon.) they had a right of voting in public affem- 
blies, and of being elected judges. 

All citizens were to have an equal mare in the 
government, and the archons were to be elected from 
the whole people ; (Plutarch. Ariftid.) 

No ilave by birth could become free of the city ; 
(Dio. Chryfoft.Orat. 15 .) 

They who had fuffered perpetual banifhment, or 
refided at Athens on account of trade, might be 
enrolled among the denizens ; (Plutarch. Solon.) 

No one could become a citizen, unlefs he en- 
joyed a high character ; and then, he was to obtain 
fix thoufand private votes at the aflembly ; the 
prytanes alfo were to give them, before the ad- 
miflion of the ftrangers, the boxes with the calculi, 
and remove the largerTes. After they were enfran- 
chifed, they were incapable of being archons 
or priefts : their children, if born of a free woman, 
might officiate ; (Demofth. Or at. in Near.) 

Any Athenian might leave the city, and take his 
family and goods with him j (Plato. Critm.) 




Thofe were reckoned citizens, whofe parents 
were fo ; (Plutarch. Pericl.) 

He, whofe mother was not free, was reckoned 
illegitimate j (Caryjl. Hift. vnopwy.. Lib. %.) 

No illegitimate perfon, male or female, could 
inherit in facred or civil affairs; (Demojlh. in 

An adopted fon could inherit;' (Demojlh. m 

Adoption muft be made by perfons living; 
[Liban. Arg. Orat. Demojlh. in Leoch.) 

No adopted perfon fhould return into his own 
family, except he had a legitimate fon; (Har- 

Parents might give the children any names, or 
change them ; (Demojlh. Orat. in Bceotum de nom*) 

When parents enrolled their children in the regi- 
ter of the ^^ro^ they were to fwear that they 
were begotten of a free woman ; (If axis de Hxred. 

Beafts facrificed at this time were to weigh, a 
goat, fifty Mt/ ; and two fheep, forty-eight. 

Parents had a right to disinherit their children ; 
(Demofth. Orat. in BxoL) 

No one could fell his daughter or fifler, unlefs he 
could prove her to be a harlot ; (Plutarch* Solon.) 

Youth were to be firft inftructed in fwimming, 
and the rudime-nts of literature, mufic, philofc- 
phy, hunting, and gymnical exercifes ; the poorer 
ibrt, in hufbandry, manufadlures and trades. 

H 4 He 


He was to be accounted cm/Ao?, infamous, who 
beat his parents, or did not provide for them* 
(Diogen. Laert* ^jchin. in Timarch* Laeri.m 
Solon. 55.^ 

If any one, guilty of abufing bis parents, was 
feen in prohibited places, he was to be fettered by 
the eleven, and carried to trial to the Hcliasan 
court. If he was convicted, punifhment, at the 
difcretion of the court, was to be inflicted upon 
him, and if he was fined, he was to fufTer im- 
prifonment till he paid it ; (Demofth, Or at. in 

No illegitimate perfon, nor any one brought up 
to no employment, was compelled to keep his 
parents ; (Pint. Solon.) 

If the eftate of any one, after death, was dif- 
puted, the child was to prove the lawfulnefs by 
which his parents obtained it ; (Demojlh. in Callip.) 

He who was undutiful to his parents, (houid be 
incapable of bearing any orfice ; (Xenoph, owopwp,, 
Lib. i.) 

If a father became of infane mind, his fon might 
confine him. 


Every fojourner was to chufe his patron from the 
number of the citizens, who was to manage his 
affairs, and to pay his tribute to the collectors ; 
he who failed to do this, was liable to an action, in, 
which no foreigner could appear as a witnefs, He 
might then be cafl into prifon, before, fentence was 
patted, and if condemned he might be fold. If he 
was acquitted he might accufe his adverfary of 
bribery 5 (Hypertf. in Arijlag.) 



He who beat the fervant of another, might have 
^n action of battery againft him ; (Xenoph. de 
Athen. Rep.) No one might fell a captive for a 
Ilave, without the confent of his former matter. 
If any captive had been fold, he might be refcued, 
and he who refcued him, might offer fureties for his 
appearance before the Polemarchus; (Plutarch, 
iycurg. jEfchin. in fimarch.) If the freedom of 
any ilave were unjuftly claimed, the claimant 
fhouid pay half the price of the (live; (Argum. 
fiemofth. in ^heocrin.) Any ilave, unable to do 
Jiis matter's work, might leave his fervice for one 
more gentle ; (Plutarch, de Superft.) Slaves might 
buy their freedom; (Dion. Chryfoft. Or at. \$.) 
Slaves were not to have their freedom given in the 
theatre; the crier, who proclaimed it there, fliouid 
be a-n/Ao?, infamous ; (JEfchin. in Ctejiphont.) 
Emancipated ilaves fliouid do certain fervices for 
their late matters : (Conf. Lexicog. v. 
which, if they failed to do, an action of 
might lie againft them ; (ibid. v. UK-OS-KG-M.) Either 
citizens or ftrangers might be witneifes; (Harpocrat. 
ex Hyperid.) fie who redeemed a prifoner of war, 
might claim him as his own, unlefs he fhould be able 
to pay his own ranfom ; (Demqflh. in Nicoft.) An idle 
flave was not to be maintained ; (Ulpian. in Median.) 


No one could be twice an Epiftata; (Pollux y lib. 
8. cap. 9 J The crier was to pray for profperous 
Affairs -, (Dinarch, in Ariftog.) The crier was to curfe 



him who pleaded or voted for the fake of private 
intereil ; ( Dinar ch. in Ariftog.) The fenators were to 
deliver their opinions according to feniority of age; 
(JEfchin. in Ctefiphont.) In every afTembly, one 
tribe was to be elected to prefide ; (sEfchin. in 37- 
warcb.) They were not. to vote twice for the fame 
thing; (Nic. Or at,, sip. Thiicyd. lib. 6.) They 
might impofe a fine as far as five hundred drachms j 
(Demoftk. in Mnefibul.) They were empowered 
to build new (hips ^ (Dsmqfth. and Ulpian. in 
Androt.) and thofe who neglected it, were re- 
lufed the crowns; (ibid.') They who gave a good 
account of their adminiflration, were rewarded 
with crowns; '(JEjchin, in Ctejipkont. Demofth. and 
Ulpian. Androt^) 


None were to be magiflrates but thofe of competent 
eftates; (PlutarcLSolon. Arift. de Rep. lib. 2. c.i2.} 
The election of magiftrates was to be by beans ; 
(Lucian.) To vote twice for the fame candidate was 
punifhed by death ; (Demofth. in Baot.) The archons 
were to be created by the people. No one was to 
bear the fame office twice, nor enter on two offices in 
the fame year; (Ulpian. in tfimocr.) Before they 
began to execute their office, they were to pafs the 
requifite examination ; and at the end of the time, to 
give an account of their adminiflration ; (ALfchin. in 
Ctefiphont.) Thofe who had not made up their ac- 
counts, were forbidden tofpend their money in divine 
uies, and to make wills; to travel, to bear another 
office, or to receive a crown ; (jEfchin. in Ctejiph.) It 
was death for any indebted to the public to hold a 
public trufl; (Demofth. Leptin.) It was death to 


A P S E P H I S M. 107 

tifurp the government ; (Plutarch. Solon.) He who 
continued in his office after the diflblution of demo- 
cratical government, was to be outlawed : and it 
was lawful for any one to kill him, or feize his 
goods ; (Andoc. de Myfter.) 


If any one aimed at the ruin of the common- 
-wealth, he might be killed, and his goods feized, 
and he who killed him was deemed innocent, (Andoc* 
de Myfter.) All Athenians were obliged by oath to 
attempt to kill him; (Lycurg. in Leocrat.) No office 
impofed by the people was to be refufed by oath 
before the fenate ; (jEJchin. de falf.legat.) Who- 
ever abufed a magiftrate in his office mould be fined; 
(Lyfias pro. mil.) If an archon fhould be feen in- 
toxicated with wine, he was to fufFer death 5 (Laert. 
Solon.) If any one beat or infulted any of the 
fiffff*o0fTi, he was to be a-n/Ao?, infamous; (Demofth. 
in Mid.) When vacancies happened in the fenate of 
Areopagus, they were to be annually filled up out of 
the archons ; (Plutarch. Solon.) The Aeropagites 
were to fuperintend the morals of the Athenians ; 
(Pint. Solon.) No Areopagite was allowed to write a 
comedy; ( Glor. At hen.) The Areopagites 
were to give an account of their office before the 
logifbe; (Mfchin. in Ctejiph.) A 2r^aTyo? might 
have lawful children, and enjoy an eftate within 
the confines of Attica ; ( Dinar ch. in Demoft/i.) 
The ST^a-myoi were to be arraigned, who fhould 
deprive the fleet of their allies; (Demofth. -K^ 
ruv sv x e ^') No one could be fyndic above once ; 
(Demofth, in Leptin.) The quaeftors were to be chofen 
fcy furlrages of the people ; (Ulpian. ad Androt.) 

A quseflorfhip 


A quseftorlhip might not be kept above five years ; 
(Plutarch. Lycurg. Rhet.) No man was to go on an 
embafly without commimVn from the fenate or 
people, on pain of death ; (Demoftb. defa/f. iegat.) 
No one was to be fecretary more than once under 
the fame magiftrate ; (Lyfias. in Nicom.) 


No one, under thirty years of age, was to fpeak an 
oration in the fenate or popular alfembly. No one 
could be a public orator, who had {truck his 
parents, or refuted to maintain them; or who had 
thrown away his (hield, and, when required, had re- 
fufed to go into the army : or who had been guilty of 
incontinence or extravagance; (sEfchin. in 77- 
march.) An orator might have lawful children, 
and poffefs an eilate in Attica; (Dinarch. in De- 
woftk.) If he behaved unfeemly in the fenate, be 
was to be fined'; (&fchin. in Timarch.) 


The archons were to appoint by lot, in the affem- 
bly, flute-players, to be at the ^o^oi, public dancings ; 
(Demofth. in Midian.) No ftranger was to join in a 
dance with a chorus, on pain of a fine of a thoufand 
drachms ; (Demofih. in Midian.) It might be lawful 
to inform a^ainfl a ftranoer to the archon, before 

o o 

he entered the theatre to dance; (ibid.) if he danced 
before the archon, he was to be fined fifty drachms, 
and, if he perfifted, a thoufand drachms; (ibid.) 
Dancers who were a-n/Aoi, were to be driven from 
the ftage ; (ibid.) Sixteen were to be chofen from 
all public companies, to contribute equally towards 



the building of a man of war, which might be done 
from twenty-five to forty years of age ; (Demofth. de 
Cor on.) To be qualified for a trierarch, a perfon 
muft poflefs ten talents : if his eftate were more, he 
might build (hips equivalent ; at moft, three, with a 
fkifF; (ibid.) The trierarchs and overfeers of the 
navy, were to regifler their names, who, being of the 
fame Su^o^a, were indebted to the commonwealth 
for (hip -rigging, for which they mould be fued; 
(Demqfth. in Mnes.J He who owed rigging (hould, 
pay it, or give fecurity ; (ibid.) Trierarchs elecl: were 
to repair to the (hips to which they were appointed ; 
(ibid.) and to render an account of their adminiflra- 
tion ; (jEfchin. in Ctefiphont.) There was to be an 
annual appointment for the exchange of offices, 
where he who was appointed a ATS^/OS-, fhould be 
exempted from ferving, if he could find one richer 
than himfelf : who, if he denied it might change 
eftates; (Demofth. in Leptin.) No one could hold 
two offices at the fame time ; (Demofth. pro Polyc.) 
No one, except the archons, could be excufed from 
the office of trierarch ; (Demofth. in Leptin.) 
Every one was to contribute to the affefTrnent for 
levying foldiefs ; (Demofth. in Leptin.) 


No one could be entertained more than once in 
the Prytaneum -, (Plutarch. So/one.) He who, when 
invited, refufed to come, mould be fined;, (ibid.) 
They, who were entertained in the Prytaneum, were 
to have maza, and, on feflivals, bread ; (Athena, lib. 
4.) Crowns, prefented by the people, were to be given 



in the popular afTembly ; if by the fenators, in the 
fenate; (jfiLfchin. in Ctejiph. ) No tribe or borough 
was to confer crowns in the theatre upon any of its 
own members* No one mould have fcvixog rtqwos* 
an hofpital crown, given him in the theatre : it fhould 
be coniecrated to Minerva. Honours conferred 
by the people upon worthy perfons fhould be con- 
firmed ; (DemoJl/2. in Left in.) 


No fchool was to be opened before fun-rifing, or 
kept open after fun-fet. None except the fons, 
nephews, or daughter's hufbands of the mailer was 
to enter the fchool, on pain of death. No mafter was 
to give a young perfon leave to go to Mercury's 
feftival. All the ^o^ycj, elecled by the people, were 
to be above forty years of age ; (Mfclrin. in Timarch.) 
No Have was to anoint or perform exercifes in the, 
Pakeftra; (ibid.). 


No flave, or woman, unlefs free-born, was to ftudy 
or pra6life phyfic ; (Hygin. Fab. 2,74..) No one was 
allowed to teach philofophy; (Xenopk. AiropnfA. Lib. 
i.) a law made by the thirty tyrants, and repealed 
after their expuliion. No one was to keep a fchool of 
philofophy, unlefs the fenate and people approved, 
on pain of death ; (Diog. Laert. T/ieop/ir.) 


After a magiftrate's determination, appeal might 
.be made to courts of juftice, (Plutarch. Solon.) 



All were capable of being appointed by lot to judge 
in the courts of juftice ; (Demqflh. Orat. i. in 
Atiftog.Ariftoph. Sc/iol. in Pint.) 


The bailiff, or perfon who arrefted, was to be re- 
giftered ; (Demofth. in Mid.) Whoever did not 
appear ut the time of trial was liable to an aftion, 
called Aixn sfnuu, and fined a thoufand drachms; 
but if he fent a juft excufe, he might be redrefled by 
another action called Mu sera, annulling the former ; 


The archons were to propofe queflions to both 
parties, to which they were to anfwer ; (Ifeus de 
Hwed. Philoc.) The plaintiff might promife upon 
oath to purfue the action, if his evidence was ready, 
if not, he might demand further time ; (Demofth. in 
Mid.) The archons were to fummon the parties 
and bring them into court; (Demofth. in Olymp.) 
The judges were to be elected by lotSj (Demoft/u 
Or at. i. in Ariftogit.) No judge was to pronounce 
in two courts on the fame day; (Demofth. and 
Ulpian. in Timccr.) 


Every judge was to minute down the heads of the 
fuits he was to determine in his table book ; (Hefych. 
<v. ha irav-rot; xgimg.) He who ran away was to 
lofe his caufe , (Demofth. in Olymp.) Criminals 
might make their own defence ; (Plat. Socr. Apol.) 
No Have was to plead in any caufe ; (Terent. Phorm. 
aft. i.fc. z.) The crier might pronounce fentence 



againft him, in whole urn the greater number of 
pebbles, bored with holes, were caft ; and for him, 
to whom the whole .pebbles belonged ; (Mfchin. in 
1'imarch.) When on both fides there was an 
equal number of votes, the prifoner was to be acquit- 
ted ; (Eurip. Elettr. v. 1265.) There was to be the 
fame number of urns, as of thofe who held the 
conteft ; (Demofth. in Macart.) The judges fhould 
propofe certain penalties, and the defendant a 
certain punifhment, when the whole fhould be de- 
termined by the judges ; (Ulpian. in Timocr. Cicer* 
lib. i. de Or at,) The court was not to fit after fun- 
let; (Stobte. Ser. I.) If any one had bribed any 
member of the court, or had traitorous defigns 
againft the government, or had received any 
bribe, fhould be liable to indictment before the 
thefmothetse, by the action called Jjjapu; (Demqfth. 
Or at. i . in Stepk. de falf. left.) Private bargains 
made before witnefTes were held good ; (Demofth* 
Or at. in Phanip.) No bargain contrary to law- 
could be good; (Ariftot. Rhet. lib. i. cap. 25.) 
No difputes were to be made after matters had been 
once agreed ; (Demofth. in Panten.) If the action 
againft any one was not entered, theadverfary might 
be nonfuited ; (Demofth.Orat. i. in Steph. de falf. 
teft.) They who rec MV d injuries, might profecute 
within five years ; (D^moftk. pro Pkorm.) A6fcions 
might be entered about contracts made out of 
Attica, or wares exported out of it to any other 
place; (ibid.) 




Any one who fubmitted his caufe to arbitration, 
was to abide by its fentence ; (Demofth. in Mid.) 
Arbitrators were to fwear before verdifl was given ; 
(Demofth. in Callip.) If the plaintiff did not ap- 
pear before fun-fet, he might be fined ; (Ulpian. in 
Midian.) Aopeal might be made from arbitrators, 
chofen by lot, to other courts of jufticej (Luclan. 


Oaths were to be attefted by three gods, Ixscno?, 
the fupplicant's prefident, Ka^o-to,-, the purifier, 
Eaxjf)ie?, the protector from danger; (Pollux, lib. 
8. cap. 12. Hefych. v. T^j &o.) 


Arijwoi, they who were infamous, were not to give 
evidence; (Demofth. in Nexr.) No flaves were to 
give evidence; (Terent, Phorm. aR. i.fc. 2.) No 
man could be evidence for himfelf, in judicial 
aftions ; (Demofth. in Stsph'. Oral. 2. defalf. Fe/t.J 
The plaintiff and defendant were to anfwer each 
other's queftions, but the anfwers were not to be 
evidence ; (ibid. Or at. i.) There was to be no com- 
pulfion for one friend to give evidence againfl 
another; (ibid. Orat. i-.) The penalty of the 
action, called Woj*flTVfux, was to be in force, againfl 
thofe who bore, or who fuborned falfe witnefles; 
(ibid. Orat. 1 .) Evidence was to be taken in writing; 
(ibid.) Eye-witneffes were to write down what they 
knew, and read it i (Demofth. in Steph. Orat. 2.) 
Evidence might be given of what had been heard 

i from 


from ' one deceafed, or from one at a great 
diftance; (ibid.) Any witnefs refilling to give- 
evidence might be fined a drachm ; (Demofth. in c Ti- 
moth.) Any one cited to give evidence, might 
fwear he knew no tiling of it, or be fined a thoufand 
drachms, to be paid to the public treafury ; 
(Suidas. HarpQcrai.) Contefting parties might 
make ufe of the &a/t**Tugi -, (Demojih. in Leochar.) 
Falfe wit neffes might be profecuted by the action 
called Am?! YtvJopAgTVficn : he who fuborned them, 
with that of Atx?i xaxorexvuv y (Demofth. in Euerg.J 


Private or public matters once determined,, were to 
be final j (Demofth. in Timoc.) All j udgments were to 
be good, which were delivered by the judges in 
the popular itate ; but all ads, made under the 
thirty tyrants, were to be void -, (ibid.) 


Corporal and pecuniary punifhments were not to 
be inflicted at the fame time ; (ibid.) 

They who committed errors unknowingly, might 
be privately admenifhed ; (Pint. Apol. Socrat.) The 
moil wealthy were to be banilhed by oflracifm for 
ten years, left they mould rebel ; (PhttarcL Pericl.) 
No one was to receive an exile upon pain of banifh- 
ment himfelf * (Demofth. m Polye.) The criminal 
and the abettor were to receive the famepunifhraent ; 
(Andocid. de Myft.) He who confeffed his gailr > 
before his trial, was to be condemned ; (Demofth. /# 
%'imocr.) They, who had been fined, were to pay 
from the day the fine was due 3 and they who did 



not, within the ninth Tr^u-rama, fhould be compelled 
to pay double ; (Lib an. Arg* Or at. in Arifloglt. et in 
Androt.) No one indebted to the city could hold 
any office ; (idem.) Any one, indebted to the 
city, convicted of making an oration to the people, 
was to be taken before the eleven ; (Dinarch. in 
Ariftog.) Till debtors to the city had paid what 
they owed, they (hould be a-n^oj, and if they died, 
their heirs incurred the fame difgrace till fatisfaction 
was made, (Liban. AT gum. Oral. in Ariftog. Ulpian. 
in ftmocr.) When payment was made, the name of 
the debtor was erafed from the debt-book ; (Demofth. 
in Theocrin.) Three parts of the debtor's goods, 
which were forfeited to the (late, {hould be given to 
any one who informed againft him ; (Demofth. in. 
fficoft.) Debtors to the public, whofe names were 
not enrolled, might be fued by the action called 
Eithifa -, (Demofth. in Theocrin.) They who had 
been regiflered as debtors unjuftly, (hould have their 
names crated ; and the names of thofe who regifler- 
ed them, inferted in their places; (Demofth. Orat. i. 
in Ariftog.) If any debtor fhould be blotted out of 
the regifter, before he had discharged his debt, the 
action called Ay^aptw might be brought againft 
him ; (Demofth. in^heocrin.) Their privilege fhould 
be renewed, who were an^o* before the archonfhip 
of Solon, except thofe whom the areopagites, 
ephetae or prytanes had banifhed, by the appeal of 
the |3a<nAu?, for murder, burglary,, or treafon ; 
(Plutarch. So/one.") No interceflion was to be made 
for any disfranchiied perfon, nor for any public 
debtor; (Demoft/t.'Timocr.') 




They who farmed the public revenues, and did 
aot pay their rent, were to be fet in the (locks by 
the fenate of five hundred ; (Andoc. de Myft.) If 
they did not pay before the ninth pry t any, they 
fhould pay double ; (Demofth. in tfimocr*) If they 
did not give fecurity, their goods were to be confif- 
cated; (Demqfth.Nicoft.) They who were entruftect 
with money for religious purpofes, and did not give 
an account of it, were liable to' the fame penalties as 
they who farmed the public revenues; (Demojlh. in 
tfimocr.) They who employed the public money a 
year for their own ufe, fhould reftore double -, and 
they who ffill continued to lavifh, were to fuffer im- 
prifonment, till payment fhould be made ; ^Argum. 
^imocrat^) One thoufand talents were to be annually 
kid by for the defence of Attica againft foreign in- 
vafions;. which money whoever propofed to mif- 
apply, was to fufFer death ; (Andocid.- de pacr 
Laced.) When 1 a fudden war broke out, foldiers- 
were to be paid out of the remainder of the money 
defigned for civil ufes ; (Demoftb. in Ne<tr.) He 
who propofed that the pay of the foldiers mould be 
taken from the money defigned for the exhibition of 
Shows, fhould fuffer death; (Ulpian in Olynthiac. i.) 


If there was a well within an hippicum, any one 

might ufe it ; otherwife, he might dig one of his own ^ 

(Plutarch. Solon.) Any one, who digged a well near 

& the 


the ground of another, was to leave the fpace of an 
lgyvi& between it and the ground of his neighbour* 
(Gains, lib. 4. ad Leg*. 12. Tab.) He who digged 
ten wf-yuiai deep, and found no fpring, might draw 
twice a day, from the well of his neighbour, fix 
veffels of water called ^OES ; (Plutarch. Solon.) He 
who digged a ditch nigh another's land, was to leave 
fo much diilance from his neighbour, as the ditch 
was deep; (Plutarch. Solon.) If any one made a 
hedge near his neighbour's ground, lie was not to 
pafs his land-mark-, if he built a wall, he was to 
leave one foot betwixt him and his neighbour ; if 
an houfe, two feet ; (Gains, ibid,) He who built 
a houfe in a field, was to place it a bow-mot from 
his neighbour,; (Eclog. j3#<nAtxctfj<.) He who kept 
a hive of bees was to place it three hundred feet 
from his neighbour's; (Phtarch. Solon) Olive 
and fig-trees were to be planted nine feet from the 
ground of another; other trees,, five feet; fPhttarc/u 
Solon. Gains, ibid.) He, who plucked up the 
facred olive trees at Athens, except the two 
ufed at public feftivals, was to pay one hundred 
drachms each ; and the tenth part of each fine was to 
be due to Minerva: he was alfo to pay one hundred 
to his profecutor. The action was to be brought 
before the archons, where the profecutor was tode- 
pofit ngvTowux ; {Demofth. in Macarf.} 


Men were limited in the purchafe of land ; 
jAriftvt. Petit, lib. 2. flp. 8.) Spendthrifts were 
to be imp**, infamous; (Diog. Laert. Mfchin. 
in ^imarch.) Any one who brought a he-wolf 

i 3 mould 


Ihould have five drachms 5 and a flie-wolf, one ; 
(Plutarch. Solon.) No one might kill an ox which 
laboured at the plough ; (jElian. Var. Hift. lib. i. 
cap. 14.^ No man might kill a lamb of a year old, 
nor an ox; (Athene, lib. i. and y.-r-Eiiftath. in 
II. at,.) nor hurt living creatures ; (Porphyr. TT^I 
Hieronym. it, Jovin. lib. 2.) 


Any perfon who fued for land, mould proceed by 
the action called AJX xa^Trs, if for a houfe, by that 
called Aix>i sv otxi ; (Lys. in Dcmofth. Cvrtt.) No 
cheating was allowed in the market; (D-mr, 
Leptiu.) Any fifhmonger, over-rating hib fifh, and 
then taking lefs than he firft alked for theru, ihould 
iufFer imprifonment ; (Alexis Comicus Lebete.) He 
might not put them in water to make them more 
vendible ; (Zenarchus 


A banker was to demand no more intereft for 
money, than what he at firft agreed for ; (Lyjias, 
Qrat. i. inTkeomn.) Ufurers' intereft for money was 
to be moderate ; (U/pian. in ttmocrat.) Nobody, 
who had depofited money in furety for any thing, 
might fue for it ; (Demofth. in Spud.) Sureties and 
pledges were to be good for one year only ; (Demojth. 
in Apat.) No one mi^ht become a flave, to clear 
his debt ; f Plutarch. Solon.) He who did not 
pay what had been adjudged in due time, fhould 
have his houfe rifled j (Ulpian. in Midian.) The 
fine following the a::' ion called EgaA>i, belonged 
to the public ; (Demofth. in Mid.) One hundred 



drachms was to go to a juva ; (Plutarch. Solon.) They 
who counterfeited, debafed, or diminiihed the cur- 
rent coin, fhould lofe their lives ; (Demofth.'in Leptin^ 
et fimocrat.) No one was to lend money to be ex- 
ported, unlefs for corn, or fome commodity allowed 
by law, on pain of being profecuted by an adion, 
called <pa<n? ; (Demofth. in Latrit.) 


Any one who exported any fruit, except olives, 
fhould be openly curfed by the archon, or be amerced 
one hundred drachms ; (Plutarch. Solon.) the con- 
querors at the Panatheoaean feftival were excepted ; 
(Find. Schol. Ncm. Od loj Figs were prohibited 
from exportation; (Anfopk. Schol. in Plut.) If 
any one conveyed corn to any other place but to 
Athens, the adion called <pa<n? might be brought 
againfl him, and the informer mould claim half the 
corn j (Demojlh. in Timo.crat.) He, who impleaded 
a merchant on flight grounds, fhould have both the 
actions of EvJa<? and ATrtzyuyn, brought againft 
him ; (Demofth. in neocrin.) He who fhould de- 
fiftfrom the profecution of any merchant accufed 
by him, or did not require the fifth part of the 
fuffrages, fhould be fined a thoufand drachms, and 
debarred from commencing the adion of r^apH, 
$<n?, ATrxywyq, and E<pviy>i<ri ; (ibid.) No one 
could buy more corn than fifty phormi would con- 
tain ; (Lyfias. in frum. empt.) No one ihould export 
wool or pitch ; (Ariftoph. Schol. in Equit.) Compads 
by bonds between mariners, fhould be brought 
before the thefmothetai j if any one was guilty of 

1 4 injuftice, 


injuftice, he was to be imprifoned till his fine was 
paid; if he was illegally profecuted, he might non- 
luit his adverfary; (Argum. Or at. Demojih. in 


Any one might accufe another of idlenefs; (Plu* 
tarch.) No one was allowed to exercife two trades ; 
(Demqfth. et Ulpian. in Tim,} No one might fell per- 
fumes ; (Athene, lib. 13, and 'lib. 15.) Foreigners 
fhould exercife no trade, nor fell in the market ; 
(Demofth. in Eub.) An action of ilander might lie 
againft any one for reviling another on account of his 
trade -, (ibid.) He who was efteemed moft ingeni- 
ous in his profeffion, mould have his diet in the 
prytaneum, and be honoured with the higheffc 
feat ; (Ariftoph. Ranis.) The ferryman, who over- 
turned his boat in wafting over to Salamis, mould be 
difmifled his employment -, (JEfchin. in Ctcfiphont.) 


If thofe of the fame p^ar^ta, as the o^yiuvts, 
the Otao-wrai, or they who eat together, or had 
equal claim to the fame burial-place, or travel- 
led together on mercantile bufmefs, made bar- 
gains, agreeable to the laws, they mould be good ; 
(Gains, lib. 4. ad Leg. 12. Tab.) If any one 
receded from a promife made to the commons, 
fenate, or judges, he mould be profecuted by the 
Action called Eio-ay^x**, and, if guilty, mould fufFer 
death ; (Dwwfth. in 'Lept.) He, who withdrew 
trom an agreement publicly made, fliould be ar*/>to?, 
infamous - ? (Dinar ch. in Philocl.) He who, as a 



public officer, received bribes, fliould fuffer death, 
or make retribution ten-fold; ( Dinar ch. in Ds- 


No man fhould have but one wife ; (Athena, lib. 
13.^ An Athenian might only marry a citizen. 
If an heirefs was lawfully contracted in marriage by 
a father, brother by father's fide, or grandiire, it was 
lawful to procreate with her free-born children; but 
iffhe was not betrothed, thefe relations being dead, 
(he might marry whom (he pleafed; (Demofth. in 
Step/i. Teft.j If any one married a ftranger, as his 
relation., to an Athenian citizen, he was to 
and his goods expofed to fale ; (Demq/lh. in 
A ftrangef who married a free woman might be fued, 
before the thefmothetse, and might be fold. Foreign 
women marrying free-men might alfo be fold, and 
the men were to forfeit one thoufand drachms y(ibid.) 
No Athenian woman was to marry into a foreign 
family; (ibid, et Ulpiau. in Timocr.) Any one 
might marry a fitter by the father's fide; (Cornel. 
Nep. Cimon.) An heirefs might marry her nearer! 
relation ; ilie was prohibited from marrying into 
another family ; (Ifeus de h^red. Pyrrhi.) Every 
month, except in Sjci^opoftwv, 1 the judges fliould ex- 
amine thofe who were defigned for the hufbands of 
heireffes, as to their conianguinity ; (Demofth. in 
Stephan. Teft.) If any one fued another by a claim to 
an heirefs, he was to depofit kifiix&To&faiii the tenth 
part of her portion ; and he who enjoyed her was to 
lay his cafe open to the archon; but if he made 
no appeal, his right of inheritance was loll; (De 
mojlh. in Mac art.) If a father buried his fons, 



he might entail his eftate on his married daughters ; 
(lf*us de h*r. Pyrrhi.) If an heirefsdid not con- 
ceive children of her hufband, (he might cohabit 
with the nearefl of his relations ; (Plutarch. Solon.) 
All were obliged to lie with their wives, if heireffes, 
three nights, at lead, in a month ; (Plutarch. Solcn.) 
He who raviihed a virgin WAS obliged to m -rry 
her; (ibid.) A guardian could not marry the 
mother of his wards ; (Laertlus So/one.) Slaves 
were allowed theule of women; (Plutarch. Amat.) 
When a new- married woman was brought to the 
boufe of her hufband, (he was to carry with her a 
0f tysT^ov, a frying-pan, in token of good houfewifery.; 
(Pollux* lib. i. cap. \^.) A bride, on the firft 
Bight of her marriage, eat a quince; (Plutarch. 


A bride was not to carry with her to her hufband 
more than three garments, and vefTels of fmall 
value ; (Plutarch. Solon.) They who were next in 
blood to an orphan virgin who had no fortune, 
were to many her, or fettle a proper portion upon 
her : if of the RwTctxotnopt^ipvoi, five hundred 
drachms: if of the ITT^?, three hundred: if of 
the Zu-ytrat, one hundred and fifty ; (Demojlh. in 
Macart.) If a woman brought her hufband a for- 
tune, and lived with her children, fhe (hould not 
claim interefl for her money ; (Dtmojih. in P/uenip.) 
The fon of an heirefs fhould enjoy his mother's 
fortune, and maintain her; (Demo/Hi. in Stepk. 
*ftft.) He who promiied to fettle a dowry on a 
woman, if fhe died without heirs, fnould not be 
forced to fulfil it; (Ifeus dcluer$d. Pyrr.) 




He wrjo divorced his wife, -was to make a reftitu- 
.tion of her portion, or pay nine oboli every month: 
her guardian might otherwife profecute her in the 
Odeum, with an adlion called <nra <^x^ for her 
maintenance; (Demoftk. in Near.) If a woman 
.forfook her hufband, or a man put away his wife, 
he who gave her in marriage, was to exacl the dowry 
given with her; (Ifeus. de h<ered Pym\) She 
who wifhed to leave her hufband, miglit herfelf 
deliver to the archon a bill of reparation $ (Plutarch* 


He who forcibly deflowered a free woman, fhould 
be fined one hundred drachms ; (Plutarch. Solon.) 
He who forcibly violated a virgin's chaftity fhoLiki 
be fined one thoufand drachms ; (Hermog. Schol.) 
He who caught an adulterer in the facl, might 
impofe any punifliment \ (Lyjias de cad. Erat.) 
If anyone was imprifoned on fufpicion of adultery, 
and found guilty, he was to give fureties for his 
future chaftity, and be punifhed according to the 
difcretion of the judges ; (Dtmofth. in Near.) If 
any one committed a rape on a woman, he was to be 
doubly fined j (Lyjtas ds c<ed. Erat.J If a man 
lived with his wife after fhe had defiled his bed, he 
mould be K-npos'. and fhe (hould not enter the public 
temples, on pain of any punifliment, except death; 
(D:mofth. in Ne<er.) No adultrefs might adorn her- 
feU ; (JEfchin. in I'hnarch.) If a moclefb woman ap- 
peared abroad unclreired, (he {hould forfeit a thoufand 



drachms; (Harpocrat.) Women were not to travel 
with more than three gowns, or more meat than 
the worth of an obolus ; nor go out by night but 
in a chariot, with a torch carried before it ; (Plu- 
tarch. Solon.) 


No ilave mould carefs a free-born youth, on pain 
of publicly receiving fifty {tripes ; (Plutarch. So/on. 
JEfchin. in Timarch.) If any one, who had au- 
thority over a hoy, fhould receive money for his 
proilitution, the boy fhouid not be punifhed, but 
the feller and pander only, fhould receive the fame 
punifhment ; (ibid.) If any one proflituted a boy 
or woman, the action, JJBapu, fhould lie againft him, 
and if convicted, he fhould fuffer death ; (ibid.) 
Any Athenian might bring an action againft him 
who had vitiated a boy, woman, or man, free-born 
or in fervice, before the thefmothet^, who were to 
determine within thirty days after the complaint 
bad been brought before them. If the offender 
was fentenced to die, he was to be delivered to 
the E*tf>ea, and fuffer the fame day ; (ibid. 
Dcmofth. in Midia.) No man who had profli- 
tuted himielf fhould be elected an archon, prieft, 
or fyndic, nor to any public office ; which, if he 
was convicted of accepting, he fhould fuffer death; 
(jEfchin. in *Timarch ) They who kept com- 
pany with harlots were not accounted adulter- 
ers ; (Demofth. in Ne^er. Lyjias. in Theomn. Orat. 
i .) Harlots were to wear flowered garments; (Suidas. 
or* lit'. 2. cap. 13.) 




The right of inheritance was to remain in the 
fame family ; (Plutarch. Solon.) Boys or women 
were not to difpofe by will of above a medimn of 
barley; (If am de liter ed. Arijlarch.) All real citizens, 
whofe eftates were impaired by litigious fuits, when 
Solon entered the prsstorfhip, might leave them to 
whom they chofe, if they had no male children 
alive, and were not opprefTed with infirmities or 
witchcraft; (Demojlh. in Steph. ^ eft am. Or at. 2.) 
The .wills of thofe who had children, mould be 
good, if they did not arrive at maturity ; (ibid.) 
Any one who had a daughter, might give his eflate 
to another, provided that he married the daughter ; 
(Ifaus de h<ered. Philott.) Adopted perfons were to 
make no will ; (Demofth. in Leoch.) All legiti- 
mate fons (hould have an equal portion of their 
father's inheritance ; (Ifaits de hared. PMloft.) An 
adopted fon Ihould fhare with legitimate children ; 
(ibid.) The eftate of him who died inteftate and 
left daughters, mould come to thofe who married 
them. If there were no daughters, the fucceflion 
was to brothers by the father's fide and their fons ; 
and males defcended from them. If none of thefe, 
the wife's relations might claim the inheritance ; 
(Demojlh. in Macart.) No baftard mould be left 
above five Mv; (Suidas v. ETnxX^oi.) In the 
month Sxiflf opof iwv, no legacies mould be examined 
by law; (Dtmofth. in Steph. Teftam. Or at. 2.) 
He who iffued a writ againft one fettled in an 
inheritance, was to bring him before the archon, 



and depofit TT^OLMTO&QXV ; and if the Trhmediate 

fucceflbr fhall be dead, the other mould appeal to the 
archon; (Demofth. in Macart.) If no appeal 
was made within five years of the death of the 
immediate fucceflbr, the eftate might remain fecure 
to his heirs ; (Ifeus de h#red. Pyrrh.) 


No one could be guardian to another, whofe eftate 
he was to enjoy after his death ; (Laertius Solon.) 
guardians Ihould let to hire their wards' houfes; ( De- 
mqfth. in Aphab.) Orphans, heireiTes, decayed fami- 
lies, women pregnant with pofthumous children, 
were under the immediate protection of the archon ; 
(Demojlh. in Macart.) After five years, no ward 
could fue a guardian for mismanagement ; (Demoftk* 
in Naujien.) 


The dead were to be interred ; (Cicero, lib. 2. de 
ILeg.) No tomb was to confift of more work than 
ten men could fimfh in three days; it wa f v not to be 
arched, nor adorned with flatues ; (Cicero^ lib. 2. 
de. Leg.) No grave was to have pillars of more than 
three cubits high, a table, and vefTel to contain 
food for the maintenance of the ghoft ^ (ibid,) 
He who defaced a fepulchre, or intombed one of 
another family in it, ihould be punifhed > (ibid.) 
No one might approach the grave of another, unlefs 
at the celebration of obfequies ; (Plutarch. Stfon.) 
The day after the death, the funeialprocefTiOn iliould 
be before day -light ; the men firfl, the women 
following. No woman, under fixty years of age, 



who was not a relation, might go where the folemnity 
was kept, or after the funeral was folemnized ; (De- 
mojlh. in Mac art.} A large concourfe of people 
at funerals was prohibited ; (Ciceio de Leg.} The 
corps might not be buried with more than three 
garments ; (Plutarch. Solon.) No women were to tear 
their faces or make dirges at funerals ; (Plutarch. 
Solon. Cicero deLegib.) A chsenix of barley, and 
the fame of wheat, and an obolus, fliould be paid at 
the death of any one to the prieilefs of Minerva ; 
(Art/lot. ALciimen. lib. 2.) No ox was to be offered i 
(Plutarch. Solon.) Children and heirs fhould perform 
the accuftomed rites of parentation ; (Demofth. in 
fimoc. Ifeus de htered. Cleon.) Slaves fhould not 
be embalmed, nor honoured with a banquet; (Cicero 
de Leg.) A perfon appointed by the public 
made an oration at public funerals; (ibid.) They 
who died in battle were to be buried at the public 
charge ; (fhucyd. lib. 2.) The father might give a 
funeral encomium on his fon who died honourably 
in battle; (Polem. Argwn. TM ETTLTKQIM hoyuv.) 
He who died in front of the battle might have a 
funeral oration annually fpoken ; (Cicer. de Or at.') 
All bodies were to be buried weftward ; (Milan. Far. 
Hift. lib. 5. cap. 14.) No evil was to be fpoken of 
the dead , (Plutarch. Salon.} 


The Areopagite fenate were to determine cafes of 
murder, of wounds, of poifon, or fire; {Demofth. 
in Ariftoc.) The council of the aflaffin, might make 
no apology, nor excite companion; (Pollux y lib. . 
cap, 10.) Thethefmothetae 'weretopunHh murderers 



with death j (Demqfth. in Ariftoc.) They were to 
luffer in the country of the murdered perfon. No 
one was to take money for his pardon : the heliaflic 
court fliould pats fentence upon him; (ibid.) Any 
one who killed or aflifted in killing a murderer, 
(hould be tried by the epithetse; (ibid.) He who was 
accufed of murder, mould havenoprivilege;^;//^//. 
ds Chorent.) He who killed another accidentally, 
might flee his country for a year; and then facrifice- 
and be purified ; (Demofth. in Ariftoc. Eurip. 
Schol.) He could not be troubled in his exile ; 
(Demoflh. in Ariftoc.) If he returned before the year 
was expired, he was to bind himfelf to appear before 
the magiftrate ; (ibid.) He who killed one for 
debauching his wife or near kindred, might not 
be baniflied ; (ibid.) He who affaulted the inno- 
cent, might be killed ; (ibid.) A murderer found 
in a religious place might be carried to gaol, and if 
guilty, put to death : but if he who committed him, 
did not procure the fifth part of the votes, he 
Ihould be fined one thoufand drachms; (ibid.) He 
who vw&fdo defe mould have the hand cut off that 
did the murder, which fliould be buried in a place 
feparate from the body; (Mfchin. In Ctejiph.) No 
murder was to be within the city; (Suidasv. Twgo? ;) 
Inanimate things, inftrurnental to the death of 
any one, fliould be call out of Attica ; (/Efchin. in 
Ctejipkont.) He who ftruck the firfl blow in a 
quarrel, fliould be liable to the adion called aixia? 
&KJ ; (Demofth. Ariftoc.) The goods of him who 
maimed another were to be confifcated ; he fliould 
be expelled the city in which the other dwelt, 
tyhich if he entered, he fliould fuffer death ; (Lyjias. 
fro Call.) Any one might inform againft another 


for any injury done to any one ; (Plutarch. Solon.) 
He who wilfully caufed damage, was to refund twice 
as much ; he who did it involuntarily, an equivalent ; 
(Defnofth. Midian.) He who blinded any one-eyed 
perfon, fhould lofe both his eyes 5 (Laert. Solon.) 
The dog which had bit any perfon, fhould be tied 
with a chain four cubits long ; ( Pint. Scion.) 


He who committed theft, fhould reftore double to 
the owners, and as much to the exchequer; (AuL 
GelLlib. 10. cbpi 18. Demoftk. fimocr.) He who 
had ftolen by day to the value of fifty drachms, wa& 
liable to the action called Atf a^etyu ; but, if in the 
night, any one might kill him. tie who ftole from 
the Lyceum, Academia, or any of the Gymnafia> 
any thing of the leaft value ; or from the baths of 
ports to the value of ten drachms, fhould fuffer 
death j (Demojlh. tfimoc.) He who imprifoned 
another for theft, and could not prove it> fhould be 
fined one thoufand drachms ; (Suidas.) All pick- 
pockets and burglars were to fuffer death; (Xenopk* 
ATropwp. lib. i .) He who fearched for a thief in 
the houfe of another, might only wear a thin gar- 
ment ; (Ariftoph. Schol Nub.) He who took what 
was not his own, might be put to death; (PlutarcJu 
Solon. AuL Gdl. lib. n.cap. iS.J It was death to 
break into an orchard, and to fteal figs; (Feftus.J 
This offence was afterwards punifhed with a finej 
(Suidas.) They Who Hole dung, were to fuffer cor- 
poral punifhment ; (Ariftoph. Schol, Equtt.J 



He who defamed another in the temples, judicial 
courts, or places where games were celebrated, was to 
pay three drachms to the injured man, and two to 
the treafury ; (Plutarch. Solon.) He who Hindered 
any man might be fined ; (Lyfiasflrat. \.in Theomn.) 
He who reflected upon any one for committing 
fome offence, might be fined five hundred drachms; 
(Ifocrat. in Lt>chit.) No one might call another a- 
murderer; (Lyfias, Or at. I. in 1'heomn.') He who 
upbraided another for calling away his buckler, 
fhould be fined ; (ibid ) 


He who had been negligent in conducting his' 
bufinefs, mould anfwer for it ; (Demoflh. in Aph.) 
No woman might meddle with other affairs than a 
medimn of barley would fatisfy for the performance ; 
(Dio. Chryf. Orat. TTE 


No entertainment was to confift of above thirty 
guefts; (Athene, lib. 6.) All cooks were to carry 'their 
names to the Ginxconomi ; (Menander Cecry.) 
None but mixed wines were to be drank at entertain- 
ments ; (Alex. jEfop.) Pure wine was to be after- 
wards drank to the honour of the good genius ; 
(Athene, lib. 6.) The areopagites were to take 
notice of all drunkards ; (Athene, lib. 6.) 


He who had hindered another from working in 
mines, or taken fire to them, or removed the tools, 



or digged beyond the limits, might be profecuted 
with an adtion called &xrj ptretM.* ; (Demqftk. In 


Men were to ferve in the army from eighteen years 
to forty. Until twenty years of age,.they mould be 
in arms within Attica; (Ulpian. in Olymph. 3.) He 
who offered to ierve in the cavalry, before he was 
approved, mould be a-n^o?; (LyJiasinAlcib.) The 
cavalry fhould be detached from among the wealthy; 
(Xenoph.Hipp.) Soldiers fhould not drefs their hair 
unfeemly ; (Ariftdph. Schol. Equit.) None fhould 
pawn their arms ; (Ar-iftoph. Schol. Pint.) He who 
had betrayed a garrifon, (hip, or army, was to fufFer 
death; as well as all deferters to the enemy. There 
was to be no marching before the feventh of the 
month ; (Zenob. Cent. 79.^ War was to be pro- 
claimed, by putting a lamb into the enemy's territo- 
ries j ( Cent. 2. pr. 96.) The polemarch was to lead 
up the right wing of the army ; (Herodot. Erat.) 
Public keepers of the revenue, and dancers at the 
Aiowo-iBxa, were to be exempted from fervingin the 
army ; (Demqftb. in Ne#r. et Midian.) 


They who had valiantly maintained their pofts were 

to be promoted, and others degraded ;( Xenoph.Hipp.) 

All cowards were to be expelled the forum, and 

the temples; (Demofth. in ftmocrat. JEfchin. in Cte- 

Jiph.) He who caft away his arms, was xnpos ; (Lyfias> 

K z Qrat. 


Orat. i. hi 'Theomn.) He who deferted his fliip, of 
refufed to go, fhould be a-n^o?; (Plutarch. Solone.) 
Di fabled foldiers fhould be maintained at the public 
charge -, (Laert. So/on.) The parents and children 
of thofe who were killed in war (hould be taken care' 
of j (Liuian. Abd< VaL Max. lib. $. cap* 3.) 


The ungrateful might be profecuted ; (Demqfthjtt 
$teot.) The name and refidence of the father of 
every one were to be inferted in all deeds, contracts, 
&c.; (Andoc. de Myft.) An informer of that which 
was falfe, was to fufFer death; (Plutarch. Solon.} 
He who was neuter in any {edition, fhould be artwo?y 
(Siiidas.) He who left the city to relide in the 
Piraeus, (hould fuffer death ; (Lucian. Anachars.) 
He who wore afword in the flreets fliould be fined; 
(Xenofh. E\XWM. lib. i.) He who had been con- 
victed of perfidy to the Hate, or of facrilege, (hould 
be denied burial in Attica, and his goods fhould be 
fold 5 ( Dinar ck. in Demojlh.) He who had betrayed 
his country, fhould not enter within the borders of 
Attica; (Demcftk. Hdon.) All compacts, approved' 
by the judges, ihould be good 5 (Cicero, Philip, i.) 
No one might be reproached for former offences ; 
( CtefipL Andoc. do Myjler.) No ftrangep 
fliould be wronged 3 (Xenoph. kxopvv^.hb. 2.) The 
bewildered traveller was to be put into his way, and 
hofpitality to be (hewn to flrangsrs j (Cicero de Offic. 
lib. ?.) He who fold rings Ibould not keep their 
impreliion, when fold ; (Latrtius Solone.) 

E L I G 1 O N. 


From the earlieft ages the objects of religious 
v/orfhip multiplied among the Athenians. They 
received the twelve principal divinities from the 
Egyptians; (Herodotys, lib. &. c. 4..) Thracians, 
Libyans, and other nations : (Herodotus 9 lib. 2. 
c. 50; and lib. 4. c. 1 8 8 . Pindar^ O/ymp. 10. 
u f 59. Arlftoph. in Av. v. 95. ^hiicyd. lib. 6. c. 
,54.,) They were fo fearful of omitting religious 
worfhip, that they even erected altars to the un- 
known god ; (Paufanias Atticis,) At length a law 
was enacted prohibiting, under pain of death, the 
introduction of any foreign worfhip, without a 
decree of the areopagus, moved for by the public 
orators; (jofepK. in Appion. lib. 2. p. 491. 493. - 
Harpocrat. in 'EwtOsT.^ It was an ancient inftitution. 
to confecrate by monuments and feftivals the 
memory of kings and heroes. Among thefe the 
Athenians placed Thefeus, Erechtheus, (Meitrfius de 
Regib.Athen.lib. 2. c. \^.) thofe who by their merits 
gave their names to the ten tribes, (Paufan. lib. 
i. c. 5. p. 13.^ and many others, as Hercules, &$. 
(Herod, lib. 2. c. 44. Paufan. lib. i.e. 15. ; lib. 2. 
c. 10.) But the adoration paid to heroes effentially 
differed from that paid to the gods. They proftrated 
themfelves before the deity, to implore his pro- 
tection, thanked him for his bounty, and acknowr 
ledged their dependance. Temples, altars, groves, 
were confecrated, and games and feftivals were cele- 
brated in honour of their heroes 5 (Vhucyd. lib. 5. 
. n.) Prayers were addrefled to the deity at the 
Commencement of any undertaking ; (Plat, in 'Tim.) 

* 3 


Thefe were offered up in the morning, the evening, 
at the .riling and fetting of the iun and moon; 
(Plato delegibuS) lib. 10. /. 2. p. 8 By.,/ Sometimes 
they preiented themfelves at- the temple with down- 
caft eyes and dejected countenance; ( Plat, in Alcib.) 
They killed the ground ; and they offered up their 
prayers (landing, (Philoftr. in Apollon. Fit. lib. 6. c. 
4, p. 233.) on their knees, (Theophr. Char. c. 16.) 
andproftrate; (Laert. in Diogen. lib. 6. $j.) and 
holding branches in their hands, (Sophocl. in CEdip. 
Tyr. v. $.) which they lifted up towards heaven, or 
extended towards the ftatue of the god, after apply- 
ing it to their mouths ; (Lucian. in tncom. Dtmofth. 
49.^ If their worfhip was directed to the inftrnal 
deities, they flruck the earth with their feet or 
hands; (Horn. Iliad. 9. v. 564. Cicero TufcuL lib* 
2. C. 2$.) 


IsK j the priefts were deemed mediators between 
the deity and men, to inftrucl them how to offer 
their religious worfhip, and all its various ceremonies; 
(Plat. Politic.) They were next in precedence to 
their kings and chief magiftrates. The chief ma- 
giflrates were frequently confecrated to the prieft- 
hood; (ibid. JEneid. 3. v. So.} In fome places 
the two offices were of equal rank ; (Plutarch* 
Quteft. Roman.) 

The priefts fometimes obtained their office by 
inheritance ; (Plat, de kgib. 6. Hefychius. Har-* 
focrat. Suidas in Kw(?.) fometimes by lot, by the 
appointment of the princes, or by popular elections 9 



(Iliad Z. v. 300. "DemojlJi. Exord. Cone. p. 239.^ 
Whoever fucceeded to this office,' was to be ex- 
amined, before his corlfecration, whether he was 
*p\i?, perfect in limb ; (Hefychius, Etymol. Auft. 
v. *q>z\i\<;.) They were alfo required to be chafte 
and uncontaminated with the pleafures of the 
world ; devoting themfelves to retirement and piety. 
They carried their religious aufterity ib far as 
frequently to difmember themfelves ; and to drink 
the juice of hemlock to enfeeble their powers 
of generation. They fometimeg ilrewed the leaves 
of a.yvog or Au<yc'f, (thus called from otyovos, an 
enemy to generation) under their bed-cloaths, as a 
prefervative of their chaftity ; (Euftathius in //. .J 
It was required that the prieftefTes fhould be virgins ; 
(Euftath. IL . //. . v. 298 .) Priefls however 
fometimes were married, as we read of Chryfeus, 
daughter of Chryfes, the prieft of Apollo j (Iliad <*.) 
and Dares, the pried of Vulcan, is faid to have 
had two fons ; (Iliad E.J In fome places feveral 
hufbands were a qualification to the priefthood - 9 
(Minutius Felix. Qftavii.) as in Lydia ; (Herod, 
lib. i.) and Armenia; (Strabo.lib. 12.) 

The prieils and prieftefles were compelled to give 
an account of their feveral functions; 
in Ctefipkont. Panfan. B&otic.) 

In fmall cities the religious duties were performed 
by one perlbn, bat in larger cities the care of re- 
ligion was entrusted to feveral priefts, facrifkers, 
keepers of the temple, and others 3 (Arifiot. Petit. 
lib. 6. c. 8J by the names of 
ra/Aiat ruv *?wv ^^/*aTWi 

and others, 

K 4 There 


There were feveral orders of priefts, among which 
was the A^isw0wiK 1 high-prieft, who had the 
management of the reft. There was a chief prieft 
almoft to every god ; the Delphians had five chief 
priefts. Thefe latter were called OG-IGI, holy, and 
the firft of them O<nwnj, purifier; and another. 
was called APUTW^, one who gives oracles. 

Another office of great- honour, was that of the 
Parafiti ; (Athentem Deipnos. lib. 6. p. 235. P0//^r, 
lib. 6. c. 7. Hefy chins,) who were anciently reckon- 
ed among the chief magiftrates. They gathered 
the corn of the hufbandmen which was allotted 
for facrifices, which was called Il^oero&a ^ya^a, the 
great revenue ; (Ariftoph. Avibus.) The place, in 
which thefe firft fruits were preferred, was called 

The Kfux?, criers, affifted at the facrifices. 
They killed the offering, made the neceifary pre- 
parations, and were cupbearers at thefeaft; (Athen^us^ 
lib. 10. lib. 14..} They anciently adminiftered ihe 
facrifices ; (Eujtatk. in Horn. Odyff. n.) They were 
called Aiof ayysAot, (Homer,) becaufe they affifted 
at the facrifices of the gods, and ra? to^T&s TWI/ four 
ayytXw, gave notice when the feftivals were to be 
celebrated ; (Phavorinus.) They were devoted to 
various fervile and domeftic employments. They 
\yere the firft who taught the ufe of boiling meat, 
which was before eaten raw; (Athen^eiiSyHb. 14..} 
The tongues of the facrifices were their reward. 

Nfwx^oif, or Zaxo^ot, (Nicander Alexipharm.) from 
xoiv, to adorn. It was their office to clean the 
furniture of the temples; (Euripid. in lone, v-.. 


, keepers of the temple ; who were to 
yepair the holy utenfils if they required it, which 
tyere in their cuftody ; (Ariftot. in Politic.) 

n^oTroAcf Jss, fervants always attendant on the 
gods, whofe prayers the people defired at facrifices. 
Their iliare was the fliin and feet 5 (Ariftopk. Pint* 
a5l. %.fc. 2.) 

The priefls in general were maintained out of 
the facrifices > (Ariftoph. Pint. aft. $. fc, 2. Sckol. m 
e[p.) They were fometimes rich j (Horn. Iliad 
a. 13. Iliad s. v. 9.) 


The Greeks originally worshipped their gods ii} 
the open air, upon the tops of mountains, ( 'Iliad %. 
<u> 170^ on which temples were afterwards built; 
which were dedicated to Jupiter, Apollo, and other 
gods; (Horn. Hymn, in Apoll. V. 144.) It has been 
commonly fuppofed that temples owe their original 
to the fuperflitious reverence paid by the ancients 
to the memory of their departed friends ; (Lattan- 
tins. Clemen. Alex. Eufe&ius, &c.) and were firit 
creeled as magnificent monuments; (ALneidi.v. 
74. Lycophron. CaJJqnd. v. 613.) Sometimes the 
feme temple was dedicated to leveral gods ; who 
were then called Suwtoi, (Strab* 7. Pint. Sympof. 4. 
4.) and 2vi/oixTat : and thofe who had the fame com- 
mon altar were called, o^oZupioi. Each god was dif- 
tinguimed by ibme particular mark ; and temples were 
ereded in a manner moil agreeable to that god to 
whom it was dedicated. Doric pillars were facred to 
Jupiter, Mars, and Hercules; the Ionic to Bacchus, 
Apollo, and Diana; the Corinthian, to'V-fta, the 



virgin. Every deity had his peculiar attribute ; thus 
Mars was the tutelary guardian of war ; Venus, of 
love; Mercury prefided over merchants, orators, 
and thieves ; Minerva, over fchplars, artifts, &c. 

Temples were built in groves, valleys, or rivers, 
and dedicated to the tutelar deity of the place ; or 
in confpicuous parts of cities. The windows gene- 
rally opened to the rifmg fun ; (Vitruv.lib. 4. c. 5. 
Dionys. 'fhrax,) They fronted the weft, and 
the altars and ftatues were fo placed, that thofe who 
worshipped were towards the eaft; (Clemens Alex. 
Strom. 7. Hygimts de Agr. Limit, con. lib. i.) In 
later ages the ftatues were fo placed as to look 
towards the eaft, and thofe who worshipped, towards 
the weft ; (Porphyr. lib. de Antr. Nymph.) If they 
were built near a river, they were to look towards 
its banks : if near the public road, they were fo 
placed, as to be eafily obferved by travellers, who 
might pay their devotions as they paffed by. 

There were both facred and profane temples, 
TO strw, and TO s$u TregiftgxitrvigiuVm HEgiggwrvgiw was 
a brazen or ftone veiTel, filled with holy water; 
(Suidas. P/iavcrimis,) with which thofe who were 
admitted to the facrifices were fprinkled, and beyond 
which it was not lawful for the BtfiuAoi, the profane, 
to pafs. Some fay, it was placed in the entrance 
of the Adurov, or Avuxrogov ; (Pol/itx,) the inmoft 
recefs of the temple, into which none, but the 
prieft, was allowed to enter. Hence Bf^rjAo? TCTTOC 
isfo called in oppolition to this AeTurov; (P/iavorhius.) 
Others fay, that the iregifgowTngM was placed at 
the door of the temple ; (Cafaubon. in Theoph. 

IDOLS. 139 

, is ufually a fheep-fold ; and it is fuppofed, 
that becaufe the images of the gods were inclofed 
with rails, the middle of the temple, from its 
fimilitude to a (lieep-fold, was called >jxo?, being 
afterwards ufed for the temple, a part being put 
for the whole : as Eri*, the hearth, fignified fome- 
times the whole houfe. It is faid to fignify a tem- 
ple dedicated to a hero or demigod ; (Ammonius 
de verb. Diff. et SmiL Pollux, Onom. lib. \.) and 
it is expounded o W&T^O? TOTTO? T* i^a, the inner 
part of the temple, 

A^toj/, was a treafury for the ufeof religion, as 
well as for thofe who defired to preferve any 
valuable articles. Hence the terms applied to 
it, /xf yaAoTrAsTci', TroAu^^ucrof , xg^XLOTrXxrov ^ ( Pollux^ 
Onom. lib. i.) 

Naoj and If^ov fignify the edifice or temple itfelf, 
in which were B&J/XOV, the altar, on which they offered 
their oblations ; xr^aois the porch in which flood 
an altar or image ; and repwos, where the image of 
the chief god was erected ; (Schol. in Soph. CEdip. 
Tyr. v. i$.) 


The idol was called, 2vi?, (Clem. Alex and. pro- 
trept.) a rude flock; and fometimes a Hone; 
(Paufanias Achaicis. Eufeb. Evangel, lib. \.) The 
ilones were fometimes fquare, and of different 
figures; fometimes they were of bhck colour; 
(Strobe. Geograph. lib. 17.) Tfeey were called |3at- 
TuAi or j3auTuAo< ; (EujMus. Evang. lib. i,) The 
Grecian images till the time of Daedalus were un- 
formed $ (St.Ckryfoft. Serm. 12. Tihcm$ius 9 Or at. 


I $.) who made two feet to the flones, which 
were before of one mafs. Hence they were origin- 
ally called,- Hodti/a, has, TO cc-n-o^^a^ becaufe they 
were ihaven ; (Clem. Alexan. Protrep.) which pro- 
perly Signifies an idol, that is, tfaepwov, fhaven out of 
(lone or wood ; (Hefy chins v. Hoaw.) Afterwards, 
xvhen the art of carving was known, they refembled 
various figures, and were then called, |3cra? ha. T 
p0Tw soixsvui, becaufe it was like a man , (Clem. 
Alexand. Protrep. Ariftoph. SchoL Equ. v. 3 1 .) Not- 
withftanding, the fhapelefs idols were preferved as 
Venerable relicks of antiquity , (Porphyriits de Abjli* 
ytnt. lib. z.JeR. iS,} 


The ancient flatues were generally made of cedar, 
oak, cyprefs, yew, and box-tree; (Plutarch. - 
Paufanias) -, the fmaller images were faid to be 
of the root of the olive tree; (Theoph. lib. de 
-plant.) they were fornetimes made of the wood of 
thofe trees which were dedicated to particular gods. 
They were fometimes made of common, and fome- 
times of precious flones : of common and of black 
marble, to denote the invifibility of the gods; 
of gold, brafs, ivory, chalk and clay, and other fub- 
flances They were generally placed upon pedefials 
in the middle of the temple, inclofed with rails ? 
and raifed above the height of the altar. Hence, 
as before explained. 


The altars were of various dimenfions, according 
to the variety of gods, to whom they were confe- 
crated. The 0foiOufaj/*oi, celeftial gods, had their 
altars raifed considerably above the ground i as we 


A L T A R S. i+t 

arc told that the altar of Olympian Jupiter was* 
nearly twenty-two feet high ; (Paufanias Eliac. a.) 
To heroes they facriflced upon altars near to the 
ground, called E^^aiy being only one ftep high; 
(Eitripid. Sckol. in Ph<e'n!fs.) The infernal gods,, 
called, TGp0ovtoi,inftead of altars, had fmall trenches 
ploughed up for the purpofe of facrificing, which 
were called Aaxxo* and (S&fyor. The nymphs, in- 
ftead of altars, had Aio^a, caves, where they were 
paid religious adoration ; (Porphyr.) 

Altars were always lower than the ftatues of the 
gods. They were commonly made of earth, or of 
afhes, heaped together, or of any other fubftantial 
materials. The altar of Olympian Jupiter was 
made of the afhes of burnt facrifices ; ^ Paufanias^ 
E/iac. a.) as well r.s that at Thebes to Apollo, 
who was hence called 2ffc^f; ( Paiifanias, ibid.). 
fometimes they were made of flone; the famous 
altar at Telos was of horn ; one of brick is men- 
tioned by Paufanias ; (lib. 6.) Before the ereftion 
of temples, altars were built in groves, and even ia 
highways for the ufe of travellers; (Euftath. m 
Iliad i.} The celeftial gods were worlhipped upon 
eminences, the terreftrial in low places. Before 
the ufe of altars they facrificed upon the dry ground,, 
or upon a green turf j (Lil. Gyrald. de Diis Syn- 
tagm. 17.) The facrifices offered without altars 
were called 7robw^iOi Ouo-iat -, (Hefychhis. Pha^ 
v or inns.) 

Altars were of different forms. There was aa 
oblong altar dedicated to the Faroe, called ^TH/XHX^; 
(Pauj'aniqSj E/iacis.) and a fquare altar upon the top 
of Mount Cithucron j (Paufanias, Baotieis.) and 



they were fometimes reprefented round. They were 
anciently adorned with horns; (Nonnius Dionyfiac. 
lib. 44. v. 96.) The victims were generally faflen- 
cd to them, and fuppliants who fled for refuge to 
the altar, held the horns. They were originally 
confiderecl as marks of dignity and even of divinity ; 
(Clem. Alexand. Prctrep.) The character of the 
deity to whom they were confecrated was generally 
engraven on the altars, as well as, fometimes, the 
reafon of their dedication. 

E^TTU^C*, were altars intended for facrifices made 
by fire ; a-r^oi, thofe without fire, and ajra^axTo*, 
thofe without blood ; upon which only cakes, fruits 
of the earth, and inanimate things were placed ; 
(Orpheus de Lapid.) There was an altar of horn at. 
Delos, facred to Apollo Genitor, upon which Py- 
thagoras uted to facrifice, who thought it unlawful 
to put animals to death : (Diogenes Laertius Py- 
iJiagor.) There was another dedicated to Jupiter 
TTraro?, the fupreme; (Paufanias Arcadicis.) and 
Paphian Venus had an altar, which was a^^axrcf, 
free from blood, upon which it was unlawful to 
offer animals. 

Altars and images were confecrated in the fame 
manner. A woman was drefled in a party-coloured 
garment, and brought upon her head a pot of fod- 
den pulfe, as beans, peafe, and the like ; which 
they offered to the gods, in commemoration of 
their ancient food; (Ariftoph. Pint. act. 5. fc. 3.) 
This was particularly obferved at the confecration 
of the E^at, ftatues in honour of Mercury; 
(Ariftoph.) In the dedication of a flatue to 
Jupiter Ctefias, they took a new veflel with two 


cars, binding upon each a chaplet of white wool, 
and on the fore part of it one of yellow, and then 
covered the veflel. They then poured out before it 
a libation of ambrcfia, which was a mixture of 
water, honey, and other fruits ; (Athemeus lib. 9^ 
Delpno.) In the fame manner as the images of 
Mercury, were dedicated the images and altars of 
Jupiter ; (Ariftoph. in Plut. aft $.fc. 3 .) But the 
Hiofl common method of confecration was perform- 
ed by putting a crown upon them, anointing them 
with oil, and then offering prayers and oblations to 
them. They fometimea added an execration, againft 
thofe who profaned them; and engraved on them 
the name of the deity, and caufe of their dedica- 
tion. In the fame manner, they dedicated trees 
and plants ; (Theocr. Idyll. 1 8. Ovid. Melam. 
lib. 8.) 

The moft ancient ceremony in the act of confe- 
cration was in the ufe of the unction -, and at the 
time of confecration great numbers of facrifices were 
ufually offered, and many entertainments given. 

Altars were frequently erected in groves of trees; 
(Virg. jEneid. lib. 2. v. $12.) and it was fo com- 
mon to build them in proves, that aAo-* xaA*?i rx 
*^a Trai/ra, all facred places were called groves; 
(Strabo, Geograpli. lib. <).) One of the temples of 
Diana flood within a grove, Af^swv piywv, of the 
largeft trees : (Herod. Euierp. c. 138.^ and the way 
to the temple of Mercury, was planted on both fides 
with trees reaching to heaven, JW^sa ovgzvcpnxEoc. ; 
(Herodotus.) Many religious ceremonies were origin- 
ally taken from the cuftoms of human life ; which 
were always retained, even after the primitive man- 


ners of men bad changed. At firft, temples were 
derived from the houfes of men; altars ferv<:d inflead 
of tables, and the faerifices. were the entertainments' 
of the gods. Thofe animals which were the com- 
mon food of men, were offered as victims to the 
gods; and before the ufe of animal food, the facri- 
fices confided of thofe fruits, which were more 
commonly ufed ; and it was deemed a heinous? 
offence to cut down or deface any of the confe* 
crated trees ; (Callimach. Hymn, in Cererem.) 

Temples and altars were a gerieral refuge for 
malefactors; and criminals of all defcriptions; (Taci- 
tus. Annal. lib. 3. c. 60. 'Eurip. Ion. v. 1312, aft. 4..} 
But fometirnes the doors of the temples were (hut, 
and the criminals flarved j and fometimes they 
were forced out by fire; (Rurtyid. Androm. v. 256'. 
~Euripid. Hercul. Furent. v. 240. Plant. Moflek 
ai. $.fcen; i. Plant. Rudens, aft. %-fcen. ^.) But 
it was deemed an act of facrilege to force them 
from their fancluary ; (Euripid. Androm. v. 2$j.J 
Only thofe temples however were fancluaries, which 
were confecrated to fuch privileges. Some were 
appropriated to particular perfons and crimes, and 
others were free to all malefactors. The temple of 
t)iana at Ephefus was free for debtors ; that of 
'Thefeus for flaves, who fled from their fervice; 
(.Plutarch. T/ief.) The monuments and flatues of 
great men alfo were honoured with this privilege j 
(Strabo lib. $J 

The firft afylum was fuppofed to have been built 

at Athens by the Heraclidas, and received into its 

protection all thofe who fled from the ill ufage of 

their fathers. It was alfo laid to be a fanctuary for 

* fuppliants 


fuppliants in general; (Statins Theban. lib. 12. 
Servius in JEneid. 8.} Others fuppofe that it was 
firft built at Thebes by Cadmus, for the ufe of all 
criminals; (Paufanias, lib. 7. Epig* Grac. Antho- 
logia> lib. Af. Vid.Paufanias Corinthiacis. JEneid. lib. 
2. V; 512. Enripid. Recub.v. 146.^) The Afyla 
were regulated and reformed in the reign of Tibe- 
rius; (Tacitus, Annal. lib. 3. 60. 6 1 . fcc.} or, as is faid, 
were entirely abolished ; (Suetonius Tiberii. c.^.) 


The fields confecrated to religious ufes, were call- 

ed Tfjusvn, which is faid to be itcov 
Qcw Kara npw, j jj^wT, a facred portion of land dedi- 
cated to fome god or hero ; (Schol. in Horn. Iliad. 
(3. v. 696.^ The produce of thefe fields was appro- 
priated for the maintainance of the priefts, or other 
facred purpofes ; (Plato, lib. 4. de legibus. Vid. 
JEndd. lib. 9. v. 274. Horn. Iliad, s. v. 194. 
Iliad, i. v. 574. Iliad, p* v. 


EuxTa,or Xa^rfa, were vows or free-will offer- 
ings, promifed to the gods before, and performed 
aft era vidtory. 

0u<nai <Jw0<po>ixat, were free gifts of the fruits of. 
the earth, offered by hufbandmen out of gratitude 
to the gods, after harveft; (Suidas in v. u<na.) 
They were fometimes called A7rc7rA>jnxa*, becaufe 
they fulfilled fome vow made to the gods. 

, were propitiatory facrifices, called alfo 
, to avert the anger of fome offended 
deityi including all expiatory facrifices. 


AtTTixa, were petitionary facrifices, for fuccrik 
in any undertaking. 

Ta a. Mavrtw, fuch facrifices as were impofed 
by an oracle or prophet. 


The ancient facrifices to the gods were of the 
fruits of the earth j (Porphyr. de Abflinent. lib. 2 
6.} plucked up by the roots ; (C*l. Rkod. lib. 
12. c. i.) It was originally forbidden to immolate 
victims ; (Pans. lib. i.e. 26. p. 6i.Id. lib. 8. r. 2. 5 
c. 42. Porphyr. de Abftin.) Man felt a natural 
horror at plunging the fteel into the breaft of an 
animal deftined to the plough, and become the 
companion of his labours ; (jElian. Varior. Hip* 
lib. 5. c. 14.^) It was prohibited under pain of death; 
(Van. de Re Rufti. lib. 2. c. $.) by an exprefs 
jaw : and univerfal practice induced him to abftain 
from the flem of animals - 3 (Plat, de Legtb. lib. 6.) 

The folemn facrifices confifted of STTO^TJ, 0u^/xo!, 
and L<toi/; (Hefiod.TL^y. *, Hptf. a.v. 334.^ Either 
of thefe might be offered feparately, as every man's 
domeftic concerns required : for inftance, it was 
ufual to offer drink offerings of wine before a 
journey, at the entertainment of a ftranger, before 
they retired to fleep, and on many other occafions; 
(EuftatJi. in II. at.) When the fruits of the earth 
were the only food of men> care was taken to re- 
ferve a certain portion for the gods. The fame 
cuflom was obferved when they began to feed upon 
the flefh of animals. Sometimes water was poured 
on the altar or the head of the victims, fornetimes 
honey or oil ; (Porpkyr. de Abftin. lib. 2, 20. ) 



but in general they were fprinkled with wine, and 
then the wood of the fig tree, the myrtle, or the vine, 
were burnt upon the altar ; (Suidas in Nt>$<x,\.) No 
animals were at firft facrificed, but fuch as ferved 
for food, as the ox, the meep, the hog, the goat, 
and the like ; (Suidas in @urov. Horn., Iliad. andOdyJf. 
faj/im.) Afterwards horfes were offered up to the 
fun, Hags to Diana, and dogs to Hecate. Caution 
was neceffary in the choice of the victim, which 
was to be without blemifli or defect ; (Horn. Iliad., 
lib. i. v. 66*Arij?of. ap. A then. lib. 15. c. 5. 
Pint, de Oracl. Def.J The cakes which they ufed 
in facrifice were made with barley meal and fait ^ 
{Serv. ad Virg. jEneid* lib. 2. v. 133.^ which were 
placed on the head of the viHm. The hair of the 
victim was plucked from its forehead and thrown 
into the fire; (Horn. Odyff. lib. 3. v. ^^.-r-Eurip. 
in Eleft. v. 810.^ and the thighs were burnt with 
cloven wood , (Horn. Iliad, lib. 2. v. 462.} 

2?rivJiv and \ttw, fignify to pour forth ; (Hefy- 
chius. Phavorin. I/id. Origin. lib. 6. c. i<).) but 
from their ufe at the drink offerings of the gods, 
were at length appropriated to them. The fame 
may be obferved of S^rov^ and Aoi&j. ZTrovJa*, was 
appropriated generally to wine. Ei/<r7roi/<JW, was wine 
legally ufed in libations ; A<rirw$ov 9 that wine which 
it was unlawful to ufe. Ax^ai-ov, was that wine 
which was pure and unmixed with water. It was 
unlawful to offer upon the altars the juice of the 
grape called Afpendia; (Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 14. 
c. 18.^ or to make an oblation of wine prefled 
from grapes cut or pared round, or fallen to the 
ground j or that which was trodden wkh wounded 

i a fet. 


feet, or from a vine blafted and unpruned ; (Plin. 
Nat. Hifl. lib. 14. C. 19.^ NrpaAioi 0u<ni, KTTO rs 
MJ0W, from being fober, were libations made of 
various ingredients ; (Vid. Suidas. v. N*j<paA. (Wtau,) 
They were offered to Bacchus, becaufe men might 
not always be accuftomed to ftrong wine ; (Plut. dc 
Sanitate.) The people of El is never offered wine 
at the altar dedicated to all the gods, nor to the 
A<r?roij>ai, viz. Ceres and Proferpine. To Pluto, 
inftead of wine, oil was offered ; (Virg. ALn. 6. 154.^ 
UlyfTes, in an oblation to the infernal gods, poured 
out wine mixed with honey, pure wine, and pure 
water; (Odyff. n. v. 2$.) To other gods, they 
alfo facrificed without wine. Upon the altar of 
Jupiter uirtfTo?, the fupreme, they never offered 
wine, nor living creatures. The v*q>xXiu t.^a, fober 
facrifices, are, rx \)fyo<nrn$x 9 libations of water T 

jafAio-Trov^a, libations of honey ra yaAaxToa-TrovoV, 
libations of milk and rot, sAaioo-Trcv^, libations of 
oil. Libations were alfo offered in cups full to the 
brim ; as it was deemed irreverence to the gods to 
prefent any thing which was not rsfatov xj oAov, 
whole and perfect. Thus to fill the cup was termed 
, to crown it; and the cup fo filled, 
crowned with wine, yroi vn-s^nx^ 
T TTOTH srfipav8o-0;, the liquor appear- 
ing above the cup like a crown ; (Atkenaus, lib. i .. 
cap. ii. lib. 15. cap. $.) - The word 0uo?, fignified 
originally TO, ^>r, broken fruits, boughs, leaves, 
acorns; whence -nx, 6u?j are expounded Oupa/xara, 
incenfe. 0ufi^ is never ufed by Homer to lignify 
the offering of the victim, but of xf/r ; (Athen* 
De ipii. L 14.^ which iignirkation was afterwards 
i almoft 


almoft always applied to animals ; (Porph. I. 2. ds 

There were no facrifices in early times, of 
which trees did not compofe a confiderable part. 
Thefe are chiefly odoriferous. XAoat, green herbs, 
were part of their early oblations; (Porph. de Abfl.) 
Afterwards, they ufed frankincenfe, and other per- 
fume. In the time of the Trojan war, frankincenfe 
was not known ; at which time they offered cedar 
and citron; (Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. iq. cap. i.) Some 
forts of trees were offered with libations of wine , 
others only with wQxXiot i^a; hence they are called 

uA. Thefe were rot, /HUT* a/ATTfAiva, fAtre 

HATIT (AVfwot, all except the vine, fig, and 
myrrh ; which being offered with wine only, were 
called oivo<nroitj. The 8Ao^ur, A;, or molse falfe, 
cakes of fait and barley, were ufed, which they 
poured down upon the altar before the victim was 
facrificed. At firfl the barley was offered whole, 
till the invention of mills, whence they were called 
Aa<, or ohai - y (Euftath. II. ex,.) This offering was 
called sAe0uTiv. The 7ro7raj/, were round and tnin 
cakes. Of the cr^vo*, there were thiee forts, 
called, 0i<noj, ai/o-raroj, and U[AQI$UVTES. Another fort 
was called c-A^vat, becaufe it was broad and horned, 
like the new moon. Another fort, with horns, was 
called <?, and ufually offered to Apollo, Diana, 
Hecate, and the moon. In facrifices to the moon, 
after having offered fix of the .o-eAuva*, they offered 
one of theie ; hence the term (3f fy*o?. It was 
alfo offered after a facrifice of fix animals. There 
were alfo other offerings of this kind, peculiar to 
certain deities, as the tCtkia^tftt', to Bacchus, the 
t, to Trophonius. No oblation was deemed 
L 3 acceptable 


acceptable without fait; (Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 3*. 
cap. 7. JEneid. 2. 131. Ovid. Fajl. lib. 3. 337.^ 
As (alt w... coniidered as an emblem of friendmip 
and hofpitality ; and as it was ufed as a part of the 
food of men, it was fuppofed to be neceffary to the 
facrifices of the gods. On this account, there was 
fcarce any facrifice without com or bread, and more 
particularly barley, as it was the firft fort of corn 
ufed by the Greeks, after the diet of acorns was 
given up. For this reafon they offered only fuch 
barley as grew in the field Rharium, in memory of 
barley being firft fown there; (Paufan. At tic. p. 71. 
Dion. Helic. lib. z.) 

ItgEuv, the victim, was required to be found 
and perfect in its members, unfpotted and with- 
out bleniifli. It was ufual to felect the beft part 
of their flocks for their facrifices; (Virg. Georg. 
3. 157. Apolh Rhod. lib, 2. v. 355.^ When 
approved by the prieft, the facrifice was called 
TfAsia 0uQ-ia hence Tau^oi ot,iys$ Boi? Tt\Eion. 
The Spartans frequently facrificed maimed and de- 
fective animals; (Plat, Alcib. 2.) Particular animals 
were offered in facrifice by particular perfons. A 
fhepherd would offer a fheep, a fifher a fim, a goat- 
herd a goat. To the infernal gods they offered black 
victims white victims to the good ^-barren to the 
barren pregnant to the fruitful males to the 
gods females to the goddeffes. Particular animals 
were confecrated to particular deities, as, to Hecate, 
dog; to Venus, a dove. Ferocious and favage ani- 
mals were offered to Mars the fow, to Ceres; which 
is reprefented to have been the firft animal eaten by- 
men, and facrificed to the gods. Hence in Greek 
it is 2uj, fuppofed to be derived, by changing $ 



into or, from 9unt/, to facrifice ; (Athene, lib. 2. 
Varo de Re Rufl. I. 2. cap. 4. Porph. lib. 2. de 
Abflln.) The goat was frequently facrificed, as an 
enemy to Bacchus; (Ovid. Met. lib. 15 .} Among 
the animals, the bull, ox, cow, fheep, lamb, and 
others, were facrificed among the birds, the cock, 
hen, &c. An heifer, which had never worn the 
yoke, was an acceptable facrifice; (Iliad, x. v. 292* 
Odyff. y, v. i%2.) Eels of an unufual lize were 
offered by the Boeotians ; thofe in particular which 
were caught in the lake of Copais; (Athene, lib. j.) 
In early times it was unlawful to facrifice the labour- 
ing ox ; (Var. Hi/I. lib. 5. cap. 14.) The commif- 
fion of fuch an offence was punifhed with death ; 
(Varro de Re Ruft. lib. 2. Milan, de Anlm. lib. 12. 
c. 14.^ fometimes, as in Rome, with banimment ; 
(Pirn. lib. 8. cap. 45.^ The labouring ox was after- 
wards not only ufed in feafts,but in facrifices; ( Plut. 
de Efu. Anim. lib. ^. Lucian. Dial. de. Sacrif.) This 
Cuftom became at length fo common, that it was 
ufual to apply paflf*, inftead of 0uiv - 9 (Ariftoph. 
Plut. att ^.fc. i.) Men were fometimes, though 
not often, offered in facrifice. It was accounted fo 
barbarous an act by the ancient Greeks, that Lycaon 
was feigned by the poets to have been turned intp 
a wolf, for offering an inhuman facrifice to Jupiter; 
(Paufan. Arc. p. 457 .) In latter times this cuftom 
became more common ; (Plutarch in ^hemift. Virg. 
Mn. 10. 517. ) It was confidered a high con- 
tempt of the gods for a rich man to bring a poor 
offering ; from a poor man the humbleft oblations 
were acceptable : inftead of an ox, he might offer 
bread-corn; (Sitidas in verb, fats.) The com- 

1 4 panions 


panions of UlyfTes in Homer, when they had no 
barley, made ufe of oak leaves; and indead of 
wine, offered water. By the rich, hecatombs and 
chiliombs were offered. The former derives its 
name from an hundred oxen, meaning a facrifice 
confiding of that number, or, as fome think, of 
any confiderable number; (Eujlath. II. a. p. 36. 
Hefych.) An hecatomb was offered, fometimesby 
erecting an hundred altars -of turf, and killing an 
hundred fows, flieep, or other animals; (Jul. Capitol. 
in Max. etBalb.) A facrifice fometimes confided of 
feven offerings, a fheep, a goat, a low, an ox, a 
hen, a goofe, and an ox of meal ; (Suidas in verb. 
(3o?.) A 'facrifice in which only three animals 
were offered, was called T^TTU? orTgirrva. (Schol. 
Arijloph. Pint. 820. Suidas.) This fometimes con- 
fided of two meep, and an ox ; (Eujlath. In Odyff. 
7i. p. 4.23.) fometimes of a boar, ram, and bull; 
fometimes of a fow, he -goat, and ram. Sometimes 
a facrifice confided of twelve animals, which was 
called Mtxw Gu<na; (Euflath. Ody/. A. p. 423.) 


No man was admitted to fome of the folemn 
facrifices, who had not for fome days purified him- 
felf, and abdained from all carnal pleafures ; (TibulL 
lib. 2. Eleg. i.) 

The prieds and priedeffes took an oath that they 
were properly purified ; (Demofth. Orat. in Near.) 
Every perfoh who attended the folemn facrifices 
was purified by water. At the entrance of the 
temples was, on that account, placed a veiTel full 
of holy water, called TT^I^XVTVI^OV. The fame 



torch was fometimes ufed to befprinkle thofe who 
entered into the temple ; (Eurip. Hercul. Furent. 
v. 228. Ariftoph. pac. p. 696 .) Inftead of torches 
they fometimes ufed a branch of laurel or olive ; 
(Plin. Nat. Hi/I. lib. 5. cap. 30. Virgil. JEn. 6. 
229.) Before any facrifice to the celeftial deities, 
their whole bodies were wafhed ; but before that to 
the infernal deities, a fprinkling of water was fuf- 
ficient. Sometimes the feet were warned as well as 
the hands -, whence 'ocvnrrois wgnv, and avtTrrotf 
wwiv. It was ordered that no man mould go 
beyond the n^^T^io* before he had warned his 
hands ; (Porphyr. dc Vift.) To omit this ceremony 
was efteemed a great crime j (Timar chides , lib. ds 
Coron. Iliad. . v. 206.) Telemachus, (Horn. 
Odyffi) is faid to have warned his hands, before he 
prayed to the gods. Penelope, (Horn. Odyff.) 
warned her cloaths before ihe prayed. The water 
thus ufed was required to be clear, and to be 
brought from fountains and rivers; (Virgil jEnei. 
lib. 6.635. ^' 2 - 7 1 -) If f ea water could be 
obtained, it was preferred, on account of its fait- 
nefs i (Schol. in Horn. Iliad, a. 3. 4.) The Argo- 
nauts are faid to have found Circe wafhing her head 
in the fea ; (ApolL Argonaut, lib. 4. v. 662.) Super- 
flitious men puriried themfelvcs in the fe.i. When 
the fea water could not be procured, they fome- 
times mixed the water with fait, to which they 
fometimes added br.imftone, which is thought to 
poflefs a purifying quality ; (Theocrit. My ft. 24. v. 
94, Juvenal. Sat. 2. v. 157.) The puriried per- 
fon was befprinkled three times, a number fuper- 
ftitioufly obferved ; (Ovid. Met. lib. 7. cap. 2.) 



This was a cuftom univerfally obferved; (Plutarch. 
Qufft. Roman.} There were two ways of purify- 
ing ; one by drawing round the perfon a fea-onion 
or fquill 3 (Lucian in Esno-x&Tr.) the other was called 
9r*KncuAawtKfjtA0f, from uxuAaf, a whelp, which was 
drawn about the perfon purified; (Theophr.) Any 
perfon, guilty of a notorious crime, was forbidden to 
be prefect at the holy rites, till he had been puri- 
fied : if he prefumed to attend, he was feized im- 
mediately by the furies, and deprived of his reafon; 
(Pan/an. Achaic.) Any one returning from victory, 
was not permitted to facrifice or pray to the gods 
before he was purified ; (Horn. Iliad. . 207.) The 
perfons allowed to be prefent at the time of purifi- 
cation, were called &<no, a&SuAo*, and 

&c. Servants, captives, unmarried 
women, baflards, (except in the temple of Her- 
cules at Cynofarges) were permitted to be prefent. 
The AfiUT^oTroTo/uoi, or Tr^oTToro/Aot, were not allowed 
to enter the temple of the Eumenides ; (Hefych. in 
verb. AIUT^OTTCT/AO;. Plutarch. Qu<eft. Rom.) name- 
ly, thofe who had been thought dead, and, after 
the funeral, recovered ; or thofe who, after a long 
ablence in foreign countries, where it was fuppofed 
they were dead, returned home fafe. Before the 
ceremonies commenced, the Kuu, or fometimes 
the pried, with a loud voice, commanded all who 
were prefent to be gone 5 (Callimacli. Hymf. Apoll. 
VirgiL JEmid. 6. 358.) Sometimes the interior 
part of the temple was divided by a cord, beyond 
which the (SsSuXoi, were not permitted to pafs. 
This cord is called S^omci/ ; hence the term ufed 
by Demofthenes; ( Or at. in Arijlog. ) ATfior^o^ia-fAivo^ 
feparated by a cord^ 




The priefts were richly attired, their drefs feme- 
what refembling royal robes. At Athens, they 
ufed the lame coftly garments, invented by -flifchy- 
lus, for the tragedians ; (Athen*us y lib. i . cap. 1 8.) 
At Sparta, their garments were neither fplendid 
nor coftly; and t ney always offered their prayers 
and facriftces with naked feet. In every part of 
their worfhip, their clothes were to be loofe, and 
without ftains. If they had touched a dead body, 
or had been (truck by thunder, or otherwife pol- 
luted, it was unlawful to officiate in them. The 
facerdotai robes muft be pure, ,They who facri- 
ficed to -the celeftial gods, were clothed in purple ; 
to the infernal gods, in black ; to Ceres, in white. 
The crowns upcn their heads were compofed gene- 
rally or the leaves of thofe trees which were i acred 
to the ^od whom they were worfhipping. In the 
facrifices of Apollo, they were crowned with laurel; 
(Apoli. RJiod. ,drg, (3. 159.) of Hercules, with 
popiar. Crowns and garlands were ufed at their 
entertainments, at which they fuppofed the gods 
were prefent ; (Athena, lib. 15. cap. 5. p. 674.) 
The priefts alfo wore upon their heads a facred 
fillet, from which a ribband v/as fufpended; (^Eneid. 
*' 538-) They were ufually made of wool ; and 
were alfo hung upon the horns of the vi<5b'm, and 
laid upon the altar. The crowns were ufed in the 
fame manner. Upon fobmn occafions, the horns 
of the vidtims were overlaid with gold -, (Iliad, x.) 
the oxen defigncd for facnfice were called 


2py<roxf5; (PorpL Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 23. cap. 3. 
Macrob. Sat. lib. i.) The altars were decorated 
with herbs, facred to the peculiar gods to whom 
they were facrificing. 


To the celeflial gods, facrifices were made in the 
morning, about fun-rife ; to the infernal gods, about 
fun-fet; (Apollon. Scholiaft. in Argon, lib. i.) and 
ibmetimes at midnight. When all things were 
prepared, the Aa, cakes of fait and barley, the 
knife, and the crowns, were brought in a bafket, 
.called KWVV ; the virgins, who carried the baiket, 
were called xaMjpo^. The victim was driven loofe 
to the altar, if it was a fmall animal ; if a large 
one, it was led by the horns; (Homer) fometimes 
it was led by a rope; (Juvenal. Sat. 12.) The 
cords were alfo loofe, left the animal mould feem 
to be facrificed unwillingly; (Virg. ALn. 5. 772.) 
At the facrifke of hecatombs, the victims were 
preceded by mufic. When the vi&im was brought 
to the altar, the pried, turning towards the right 
hand, went round it, and fprinkled it with meal 
and water ; he alfo fprinkled tllbfe who were prefenr, 
taking a torch or a branch of laurel from the altar. 
This water was called x f ?" i 4 / The veffels were 
purified with water, brimftone, or eggs ; (Ariftopk. 
Schol. m Pace.) The crier now called aloud 
Who is here ? The people replied ^roAAot 
many and good. The prieft then exhorting them 
to join him, they prayed, faying Ey^ugfi*, let us 
pray; (Arijloph. Edit. Anjielod. p. 662.} Their 



prayers were general,, that the gods would fend 
them health and happinefs, and accept their ob- 
lations. At their at-mrix*, petitionary facrifice, 
they prayed for particular favours ; (Artftoph. ibid. 
Athena, lib. 14.) The crier now commanded 
filence, Eupun*HT* or 2ya. When the prayer was 
ended, the priefl fet before the victim, if a bull, 
fome mealj if a goat, fome vetches; and if it re- 
fufed to eat, it was pronounced unfound. They 
fometimes fprinkled cold water over it, when, if it 
did not (brink, it was deemed unwell ; (Pint. lib. 
de defeft. Orac.) Drawing a knife from its fore- 
head to the tail, if it flruggled, it was rejected, 
as an unwilling facrifice ; (Servius. in &n. 12. 173.} 
if it was quiet, it was deemed an acceptable facri- 
fice. That it might alfo feem to nod its aifent, 
(hence the word vrcivivsiv) they, poured water into 
its ear, and fometimes barley, which they called 
w;UT*f ; (SchoLin AppoL Rhod. Argon, lib. 5. 425.^ 
Having again prayed, the prieft took a cup of 
wine, which he and others tailed, and then poured 
what remained between the horns of the victim ; 
(Ovid. Met. lib. 8. 593.) Frankincejife was now 
(brewed upon the altar, and upon the forehead of 
the victim ; it was taken out of the cenfer, called 
Cu/xia/Aa-m^oi/, with three fingers ; (Ovid. Faft. lib. 
2.J They then poured part of the ax* on the 
back of the victim, which was fprinkled with 
water. Having again prayed, they placed the 
remainder of the A upon the altar. Thefe offer- 
ings they called TrgobvptxTx. The priefl or the Ku, 
or fome honourable perfon in the company, killed 
the animal, by cutting his throat or knocking him 



4own. He who killed and prepared the victim, 
was not the fame perfon who offered it upon the altar. 
If the facrifice was to the celeftial deities, the throat 
was turned towards heaven; which Homer calls 
urtiv : if to the infernal gods, it was killed with 
its throat towards the ground; (Eujlath. in Iliad, a.) 
If the blow was not effectual to kill the animal, if 
it leaped up again, or did not fall upon the ground, 
if it bowed, or did not bleed freely, or was long in 
the agony of death, it was deemed ungrateful to 
the gods. The K)u then affifted in cutting it, 
and in lighting the wood ; while the prieft ex- 
amined the entrails. The blood was referved in a 
veflel, called 2paydi/, Apmov, or I&ipuatfpa ; (Ly- 
copkr.) and offered on the altar. If the facrifice 
was made to the gods of the fea, the blood was 
poured into fait water. If they were by the fea" 
fide, they did not flay the victim over the Spaytio*, 
but over the water, into which they fometimes 
caft the victim ; (ApolL Arg. 4. 1601.} In the 
facrifices to the infernal gods, the victim was either 
ilain over a ditch, or the blood poured out of the 
2,<pxyekov into it. They then poured wine, with frank- 
incenfe, into the fire. The facrifice being then laid 
upon the altar, it was burned whole, and called 
oAoxavfo* or oAoxauTWjtxa. In later times, one part 
was offered to the gods, and the other referved for 
themfelves. The parts belonging to the gods were 
the M-^ci. They covered thefe with fat, called 
xwo-o-ii, that they might confume altogether in a 
flame; for except all was burned, they thought, 
they did not xaAAi^u/, that their facrifice was not 
grateful. Small pieces of fielh, cut from every 



part of the animal, were caft upon the Mfo, as 
the ATra^ai, firft fruits of the whole. This part 
of the ceremony was called w^cOm iv -, (Homer Iliad. 
x, 459.^ TheMu^oi, thighs, were appropriated to 
the gods ; (Euftatk. in Iliad, a.) commending their 
actions to divine protection; (Tzetzes in Hef. Op. 
et. Dierum. lib. 335. Euftath. in Iliad. &.) To the 
gods they fometimes offered the entrails ; (Cafanb. 
in fheophraft.) which were alfo fometimes divided 
among thofe prcfent ; (Euftath. in Iliad. <x.) who 
feafted upon them, and are called 27rXay^v, which 
iignifies the liver, the fpleen, and the heart ; Eujlatk. 
in Iliad. <*.) In fome places the entrails were 
burned upon the altar; (Virg. Mn. 6. 252. Dion. 
Halicar. Ant. Rom. p. 478.^ 

Whilft the facrifice was burning, the prieft, and 
he who gave the vi&irn, offered prayers to the god, 
with their hands upon the altar. Sometimes mufic 
played during the time of facrifice ; (Plutarch. Symp. 
lib. 2. Q. i .) In the time of facrificing to the aerial 
deities, mufic was always played. Sometimes they 
danced round the altar, fmging facred hymns, con- 
lifting of three ftanzas. The firft, called Strophe, 
was fung in turning from eaft to weft ; the fecond, 
called Antiftrophe, in returning from weft to 
caft ; they then flood before the altar, and fung 
the Epode, the third ftanza. Thefe hymns wefe 
called nailer. There were names given to the 
hymns to particular gods, as TCVtyfo*, the hymn to 
Venus ; flcaav, that of Apollo ; n^ooW**, hymns 
to Venus and Apollo : At9u^a/xSo, the hymns to 
Bacchus. The flute was chiefly ufed at facrifices. 
The AuXrjT, flute-players, attended at facrifices, 



and partook of them ; (Suidas in verb. AuA*r*./ 
At Athens, a tenth part was due to the n^ immi? : 
At Sparta, the kings had the firft (hare, and the 
:fkin of the victim. Part of the offering was taken 
home, called Ty*a, for health's fake -, (Athene 
lib. 3. Hefych. v* Tysia.) The obfervation uf this 
cuftom was commanded by law. The-remaining 
parts of the facrlrice were fometimes fent to abfent 
friends i (Theocritus, Idyl. 5. 


At the end of the facrifice they made a feaft; 
for which tables were fpread in the temples. They 
never 'indulged toexcefs, but at this time. Hence 
an entertainment is called OOIMJ ; and to be drunk, 
was termed /0yv, becaufe they drank to excefs after 
facrificing. Hence the gods are faid to feaft with 
inen ; (Homer Odyjf. v\. v. 202.) During the feftival, 
they continued to ling; (Iliad, a. 473.^ After any 
facrifice to Vefta, the remains were eaten up. 
Hence the term Eria Ousjv, was applied to thofe who 
eat up what ever was fet before them. To her, they 
offered the firft and the laft parts of thofe libations 
which were paid to the houfehold -gods. Hence 
the term ap' Enr, to begin at home ; (Schol. in 
Ariftopk. in ILqrfy. p. 491.) The fea'ft was to end 
before fun-fet ; (Athena, lib. 4.) After the feaft, 
they played at dice, and other forts of fports j 
which being ended, they returned to the altar, and' 
offered a libation to Jupiter reAi^, the perfect. 
The tongue of the animal was now ufually offered 
t6 Mercury, with a libation of wine j (Athene, lib. i. 



cap. 14. Apoll. Argon, lib. i. 517.^) as the god of 
eloquence ; (Conf. Archaol.) After which they 
returned thanks to the deity, and were difmifTed 
by the IOif uj, in fome fliort form, as A*OI? aosiris 
(Apuhius Met, lib. ult.) 


Various things were prefented to the gods, either 
to appeafe their anger, or to obtain or acknowledge 
fome favour. They chiefly confided of crowns, gar- 
lands, garments, cups of gold, or of whatever might 
adorn the temples. Thefe were termed amQvp,otT& t 
and fometimes avxxsiuwa; becaufe they were depofit- 
ed in fome part of the temples ; (Horat. Carm. lib. i, 
Od. 5. Virgil. Mneid. 9. 407.) The occafion of the 
dedication was fometimes infcribed upon the prefent, 
or upon a tablet hung near it; (Tibull. lib. i. Eleg* 
3.} When any perfon forfook his employment, 
o/ exchanged his manner of life, it was ufual to 
dedicate the implements of it, as a commemoration, 
of the divine favour. A fifherman prefented his nets 
to the fea-nymphs ; (AntJwL lib. 6. c. 3. Epig. 6.) 
Shepherds hung up their pipes to Pan, or fome 
other country gods ; (Tibull. lib. 2. Eleg. $.) Lais 
dedicated her looking-glafs to Venus j (Anthol. lib. 
6. c. 8. Ep. i. Paufan. Phocich^ p. 624.^ 

The tenth of many things was claimed by the gods. 
A golden tripod was prefented to Delphian Apollo 
out of the tenth part of the fpoils taken in the Per- 
fian war; (Diod. Sic. Bibliotb. Hift. lib. n.) A golden, 
buckler was dedicated to Jupiter after the capture 
of Tanagra ; (Paufan. Eliac. a.) The tenth of 
fpoilswas fometimes dedicated to Mars; (Lucian. 

M Dial. 


Dial de Saltat.) A golden chariot and horfes 
were dedicated to Pallas; (Herodot. lib. 5. cap. 77^ 
A tenth part of the product of afieldconfecrated to 
Diana, was facrificed every year; (Xenoph. de Exped. 
Qyr. lib. $.) The Siphnians prefented a tenth part 
of their gold mines to- Apollo; (Paufan. Phocicit* 
p. 628J 



In all the concerns of life, whether trifling or im- 
portant, they afked the advice and concurrence of 
the gods; (Plato. Harpocrat. Suidas. Hefych.) 
Morning and evening were peculiarly fet apart for 
their devotion ; (Plato de Legibus, lib. 10. Horat. 
lib. 4. Od. 5. tf.J The Lacedaemonians prayed,, 
that the gods would grant them what was good 
and proper; (Plato Alcibiad. z.) and that they 
might be able to fuller injuries; (Pint* Inftit. Lacon.) 
The Athenians prayed for the profperity of them- 
felves and the Chians ; (Alex. ab. Alex. Gen. Dier. 
lib. $. cap. 27.) At the folemnity called Pana- 
thensa, celebrated once in five years, the Kn^yg im- 
plored the blefling of the gods upon the Athenians 
and Platseans. They, who prayed, held in their 
hands green boughs of laurel or olive ; (Statins* 
Theb. lib. 12. Eurip.-in Ion. 1436.} and crowns 
upon their heads, or garlands upon their necks ; 
(Trictin. in Sopfi. jEd. fyr. $.) Thefe boughs are 
Called OaAAot, x>,^o<, iHfT>;^io{, <p uAAaJf? /xgrn^ff, and 
wiT^ta*. Wool was wrapped about thefe boughs ;. 
(Rurip. in Ixfr. 31.^ Thefe were called Sr^aara; 
(Iliad . 14. Scho'l. in Soph. sEdip. Tyr. ^.JL 
With thefe boughs^ and fometimes with their 


hands, they touched the knees of the ftatue or man 
to whom they were praying, as being more flexible 
than other parts; (Plin. Nat. Hifl. lib. 10. cap. 45.^ 
If they had hopes of fuccefs, they touched his right 
hand, as being the inftrument of action ; (Euftath. 
in Iliad K. p. $j.) They never touched the left 
hand, becaufe it was deemed unpropitious. If they 
were confident of fuccefs they touched the chin or 
cheeks. They touched the head as the principal 
member; (Euftath. in Iliad a. p. yj.J or becaufe 
they delired a nod of aflent; (Iliad a. v. 524.^ 
Sometimes they touched the knees with one hand, 
and the head or hands with the other; (Iliad a,.) 
Sometimes they kifled the hands and knees; (Iliad 
. 478. Odyff. g. 2.79.) Sometimes they kifled 
their feet. Sometimes they kifled their own hands 
and with them touched the ftatue or perfon. Some- 
times they placed the forefinger over the thumb, 
and then turned on their right hand ; (Plant. Cure, 
aft. i.fc. i .) Sometimes they proftrated and kifled 
the threfhold of the temple ; (Tibutt. lib. \ . Eleg. $.) 
They fometimes offered the hair pulled from their 
heads; (Iliad &..) To excite compaflion, they 
were often clothed in rags. The poftures varied 
according to the fubftance of their prayers, They 
generally knelt down ; but fometimes they prayed 
when fitting or ftanding. Proftration was almoft 
as frequent as kneeling; (Ovid. Atfe lib. i. Lucret, 
lib. $.) When they prayed to the gods, they 
fometimes turned their faces towards the eaft; 
when to demigods or heroes, to^a'fas the weft; 
(Schol. in Pind.) At other times, they turned their 
faces towards the fun ; in the morning to the eafl, 
at noon to the fouth, and in the evening to the weft ; 
M 2 (Calius. 


(Callus Rhod. lib. 12. cap. i.) When they were 
not in temples or at altars, they offered their prayers 
upon the hearth, which was the altar of Vefla and 
the houfehold gods ; (Odyjjf. y.v. 153.^ Here they 
prayed in filence ; (Apoll. Rhod. Argon, lib. 4.^ 
The Moloffians fupplicated their houfehold gods by 
proftrating before them, with a young child in 
their arms; (Pint. In Themijf.) They who fled to 
the gods for fuccour, crowned the altars with gar- 
lands; (Eurip. in Alceflid.) It was alfo ufual to 
take hold of the altars; (Virg. Mn. 4. v. 219.) 
In prayers to the gods they lifted tip their hands 
towards heaven; (Ariftot. lib. 6. de Mund. -Eurip* 
Eel. 1100.) In prayers to the infernal gods, their 
hands were pointed downwards ; and fometimes 
their feet ftamped the ground; (Eiirip. Heciib. 79. 
Cicero. Tufcul. Qu<eft. lib. 2.) When they were 
proftrate or kneeled down, they beat the earth with 
their hands ; (Iliad '. 564.^ In their prayers to 
the deities of the fea, they firetched their hands 
towards the fea ; (Iliad a. v. 350. JEneid. 5. 23 3. ) 
jht the end of their prayers, they lifted up their 
right hand to their mouth and kifTed it ; (Gen. Dier. 
lib. 4. cap. 1 6. Ulius Gyrald. Syntagm. de Diis 
Gentium.) The back part of the hand, TO c:n<r0f*af, 
was thus honoured; (Plin. Nat. Hift.lib. n. cap. 
45.^ They deemed it more acceptable to the gods 
to pray in an unknown and barbarous language ; 
(Clem. Alex and. Strom. I p. 339.^ After their 
yequeft was obtained, they prefented a gift to the 
god, as a teftimony of their gratitude, which was 
fometimes regiflered in the temple. Their impre- 
cations were terrible, and were thought fometimes 
tQ ocQafioa the rvtiu and deftrudtiQA of places and 


OATHS. 165 

families; (LycopJtr. CaJJhnd.v. 164. SopJioc.Ekftr. 
Eurip. Orefles.) They were often pronounced 
by parents, priefts, prophets, .and other confider- 
able perfons; (Iliad <. 455. and 562.) Perfons 
condemned of notorious crimes were curfed by the 
priefts 5 (Plutarch.) 


Oxos r the god t of oaths, is faid to be the fon of 
E^t?, contention; (HeJtod.-Tkeogon.v. 231.^ Chiron 
is related to have firft invented oaths ; (Clemens 
Alex. Strom, i. p. 306.) They were called o piyoi?, 
applying to matters of importance, or o px^o?, to 
trivial affairs. The Arcadians fwore by the water 
of the fountain of Styx ; (Herodot. Erato.) The 
great oath of the gods was by the Stygian lake ; 
(Hejtod. $heog.) Jupiter more particularly prefided 
over oaths ; (Eurip. Med. v. 170.) But they fre- 
quently fwore by other gods. Solon commanded 
the Athenians in their public caufes to fwear by 
three gods, I^io-to?, KaOa^o-jc?, and E#xr*j>io? ; which 
are indeed fuppofed to be three names of Jupiter. 
Sometimes they fwore by all the gods ; fometimes 
by the twelve great gods. The Spartans, ufually, 
by Caflor and Pollux. The oaths of women were 
ufually by Juno, Diana and Venus, or * rw OEW, by 
Ceres and Proferpine ; (Pkavorin* in Verb. N-n.) 
Women fcarcely ever fwore by the gods ; (Ariftoph.) 
Men generally fwore by fome particular god, ac- 
cording to circumflances and to places : in the 
market, by E^au? Ayo^aio? or Mercury ploughmen, 
by Ceres the breeder and tamer of hories, by Nep- 
tune. The Athenians fwore by Ifis, the Thebans, 

M 3 by 


by Ofiris ; (Alex. ab. Alex. lib. $. cap. 10.) When 
they fwore indefinitely, the term was, O/xvy^t pen 
TWOS, TCOV Ocuv > (Plato's Phtedr. Arijlxn. Ep. Euxith. 
ad. Pyth.) They who deemed it unlawful to 
fwear upon trivial occafions, faid only, Nat pa, rov ; 
(Phavorin. in Verb. Ma. Suidas in Verb. Nat. pot 
*o.) Oaths were confidered by fome as altogether 
unlawful ; by others, as lawful but upon certain 
occafions ; (Ifocr. in Stob. Simplic. in Epiclet. 
HierocL in Pythag. Aur. Carm. v. 2.) They 
fometimes fwore by the creatures; (Plut. lib. de 
placit. Philcs.) as Ni rov xui/a, %w or TrAaravoi/, 
by a dog, goofe, or plane-tree : fometimes N*j TW 
x&Tnrxgw, by a fhrub, which bears capers: fome- 
times by colewort ; (Callus. Antiq. Left. lib. 27. 
cap. 28.) the latter particularly by the lonians. 
Sometimes they were forbidden the ufe of any 
oathj (Suidas in Verb. Nat /*a TO.) Sometimes they 
fwore by the ground upon which they flood ; 
(Eurip. Hippol. 1025.) Sometimes by rivers, foun- 
tains, floods, the fun, the moon, and the flars; 
(Alex. ab. Alex. Gen. Dm. lib. 5. cap. 10.} A 
fifher fwore by his nets ; a foldier by his fpear 3 the 
latter oath was very facred; (Juftin.lib. 13.) as a 
ipear was once the object of worfhip, and placed in 
the ftatues of the gods; (Euftath. in Iliad OL.) 
Sometimes they fwore by the dead, as by r*s tv 
Ma^aOoiia; (Demoft.) Sometimes by the living, 
as by their S&mj^ta, fafety, or Axyia, misfortunes ; 
or by their names, or the members of their body $ 
(Homer. Hanfen. lib. de.juram. Veterum.) Some- 
times they fwore by their children, their parents, 
their friends. 




Sometimes they lifted up their hands to heaven 
while they fwore; (Hanfen. lib. de juram. veter.) 
Sometimes they laid their hands upon the altar; 
efpecially when they took the^ya OPXOS, the folema 
oath; (Plut. Xenoc. Virgit y Mneid. 
12. v. 201.} Sometimes they fwore by the PuGo^, or 
the tribunal of Pnyx, a place where the Athenian 
aflemblies met ; (Demqflh. adv. Conon. SchoL inAri- 
Jloph. Acbarnens.) Sometimes the perfon fwearing 
placed his hand upon the hand of him to whom he 
fwore; (Eurip. Hel. 834.) In all agreements they 
plighted their faith by taking each other by the right 
hand. Sometimes they facrificed to the gods, by 
whom they fwore, a boar, a ram, or a goat, a bull or 
a lamb. Sometimes they cut out the teflicles of the 
victim, and fwore while Handing upon them. 
Hence the word To/*ja?. A ram or boar they thus 
ufed. They cut the hair from the head of the 
victim, and diftributed part of it to thofe prefent, 
that they might become partners in the oath, and 
they then invoked the gods to be witnefles ; (Horn. 
Iliad. Sophoc.) They killed the victim by cut-, 
ting its throat. Hence the term o^xia rspvtw, to 
make a covenant. They then repeated the words, 
which the perfons prefent confirmed with mutual 
oaths. After which, a libation of mixed wine was 
made, to fignify the mutual concord of the perfons. 
Praying to the gods, they poured it out, befeech- 
ing, that whoever mould violate his oath, might 
have his blood, or brains, poured out in the fame 
manner 5 (Horn. Iliad, he. clt) A folemn impre- 

M 4 cation 


cation was fometimes added to their oaths, as E pa 
it>oxw, TroAAa /xot <x,yx,<x, ytvoiro^ if what I fwear be 
true, may I enjoy much happinefs; si cwio^x&y, s%u\w 
ajroXoipw, if I forfwear myfelf, may I utterly periflh ; 
(Demqfth. Herod, lib. i .Strabojib. 4.) The flefh, 
at thefe facrifices, was forbidden to be eaten. If the 
facrifice was made at home, it was buried ; (EMftath. 
in Iliad y.) if at a diftance, it was. thrown intor the 
fea, or otherwife difpofed of. If during.the time of 
facrifice any ominous accident happened, the" oath 
was deferred ; (Pint, in Fit. Pyrrhi.) 

Another manner of fwearing was, by taking hold 
of their garments, and pointing a fword towards 
their throats, they. invoked the heavens, earth, fun, 
and furies, to be witnefies. They then facrifked a 
boar-pig, which they caft into the fea; and afterwards 
took the oath 5 ( Alex. ab. Alex, lib. $. cap. lo.J 
Among the Moloflians, they cut an ox into (mail 
pieces, and then fwore. Hence the term,Ba? MOA&T- 
TV; (Suidas in Verb- Ba?. Zenodotits in Verb. Bs? ) 
Another cuftom was, when after taking the oath, 
and maledictions being pronounced againft the 
breach of it, wedges of red hot iron were thrown into 
the fea ; (Plutarch in Fit. Arijlid, Schol. in SopkocL 
Antig. 120.) 

Another manner was, when the fwearer went into 
the temple of Ceres and Proferpine, and being 
clothed in the purple veftment of the goddefs 1 , and 
holding a lighted torch in his hand, took the 
oath by all the gods 5 (Pint, in Fit. Dionis.) 

At Palice, a city of Sicily, ' the fwearer, when 
he had written the oath on a tablet, threw it 
into the water ; in which, if it fwam, the perfon 
accufed was deemed honeft j but if it funk, it was 
immediately to be caft into the flames which nTued 



from the fountain of Acadinus; (Art/lot, de Mirab. 
*Siephan. in IlaAutriJ 

To clear themfelyes from the imputation of crimes, 
various means were ufed ; as, when a perfon accufed 
creeped upon' his hands through the fire; or held a 
red hot iron in his hands, called Mu^o; ; (Sophocl.An- 
ilgon. 270.^ 



one who kept his oaths, fignifies alfo 
a pious perfon ; (Hefiod. Ariftoph. in 
Pint.} on the contrary, a wicked perfon is termed 
sviogKov, perjured ; (Ari/loph. in Nubib.) Common 
fwearers were called fyfarrot, , from the name of 
the place in which oaths were required of per- 
fons before they were admitted to public offices; 
(Hefyck,, and Phavorin in Verb.) Falfe fwearers 
fornetimes fufFered death ; fometimes the fame 
punifhment due to the crime with which they 
.charged another; fometimes a pecuniary mulcfc. 
But although they might efcape human puniih- 
ment, it was thought the divine vengeance would 
furely overtake them ; (Herod. Erato.) It was the 
peculiar province of Jupiter, named O^wc?, tapunilh 
this crime; (Panfan.) Perjured perfons were fup- 
pofed to be haunted by the furies, every fifth day 
in the month ; (Hefiod, Hpz%o<,i<; 40. Homer Iliad a.) 
It was reported of the cavern, facred to Palcemon 
at Corinth, that no perjured perfon could enter it, 
without becoming an example of divine jufticc. 
No man could forfwear himfelf by the waters of 
Styx, without undergoing fome remarkable punifh- 
ment; (Fid. Diod, Sic. lib. 9. Macrcb. Sat. lib. 5. 
fap. 19.^ They could however never avoid the 



imputation of perfidy; infomuch that Gr*ca fides 
was a proverbial expreffion applied to the incon- 
{iftent and wavering; (Plautus in Afmari. Cicero 
pro Place. Euripides. Polyb. lib. 6.) The Thefla- 
lians were particularly infamous for this crime, 
hence by 0<nraAav vopurpot, is meant deceit and 
fraud; and rrraAwi/ c-opio-^a, meant the violation of 
their confederacies; (Zenodotus.) The Locrians were 
alfo notorious for this crime; hence the opprobrious 
proverbs, Acx^ci ra$ rtti^Dxa^ and Aoxfw fl-wfljjjxa ; 
(Zenodotus. ) The Lacedemonians were alfo ftig*- 
mafcized for their treachery ; and called A*/t*vXoi, fig- 
nifyirig fur#i ) (foAm, liars and deceivers; (Lycophr. 
Caffand. 1124. Eurip. Androm. 445. Ariftoph. 
Alex. fib. Alex. lib. 5. cap. 10.) They feem to have 
had great regard for honcfly ; (Plutarch in Then-lift.) 
ArTixo? jua^TUf, was underftood to be, an incorrupt 
\vitnefs ; and ATTJXJ TrtrK, an honeft faith ; (Pater- 
cul. Hill. lib. \) Hence the term Attica Fides ^ 
(Horat.lib. 3. Od. 16. Silius Ital. lib. 13.) Some- 
times there are inftances of little regard being paid 
to their integrity ; (Pint, in Vit. Arifdd.) 


They who were fuppofed to be admitted by the 
gods to their counfels, were called MavTf.' There 
were two forts of divination; one of which was 
called aTfp^vof aod aJ^#xro? , unartificial ; (Plato. 
P/t<edr.) as the fybils; the other fort was called 
T2i>Mj, artificial ; as foothfayers. To the firft fort 
belong oracles, which are called %f 307*0*, xgwiAuhou, 
^vG-pudnpzra, iAoe,vTEVfj,o(,TM 9 0f ovr^cTriat, Sfo-^arw, and 
the like the interpreters of oracles, ^jj0-/*oAoyoi, and 
the like the confulters, QeoTrcoTTQi the places in 
syvhich they were delivered, ^urxg , pavrua, and 
^& the 


the like. In all their concerns, they confulted 
oracles; (Strabo, lib. 16. Herodot. lib. i.) The 
manner of delivering oracles varied at different times 
and in different places. In fome places they were 
revealed by interpreters, as at Delphi, and thefc 
were called xgwpoi uTropn-nxoi : in others, the gods 
themfelves were fuppofed to anfwer, by dreams or 
by lots. Thefe were termed ^no-^oi auropwvoi; 
(Paufan. Meffenic. Ariftoph. Equ. 120. Vefp. 161. 
Hefych.) * 


Jupiter is fuppofed to have been the firfl 
caufe of all divination. Hence he is called Ilai/o^- 
<pxio<; ; (Homer Iliad 0. 250.) He is called Dodo- 
nxus, from a temple confecrated to him by Deuca^ 
lion at Dodona ; (Euftath. Iliad (3. 254. ; and Iliad 
ir. 'p. 10^4.} a city which once belonged to 
the Thefprotians, and afterwards belonged to the 
Moloffians; (Euftath. Odyff. . p. S^.Strabo, 
Geogr. lib. 10.) It was built by Deucalion, and 
became the refort of all thofe who efcaped the 
tmiverfal deluge, which overfpread great part of 
Greece. It was the firfl temple -of Greece ; but 
the oracle feems to have been more ancient ; (Herod, 
lib. i.} The fable fays, that two black pigeons, 
taking their flight from Thebes in Egypt, one of 
them came to Lybia, where me commanded that 
an oracle mould be erected to Hammon ; the other 
to Dodona, where flie fat upon an oak, and directed, 
with a human voice, that there mould be, in that 
place, an oracle of Jupiter. Hence the term IlAf iai , 
doves or prophetefles; as thofe who ufed crows, 
called x0g*x*/i**mij ; (Euftath. in Ody/.%. p. 



544. ^45. Ed. Bas. Schol. in Soph. Tracliin. 176; 
Servins- in Virg. Eel. 9. 83. Lycophr. Caff. v. %$*]) 
Others relate, that this oracle was founded by the 
Pelafgians; (Horn. Iliad IT. 235. Hefiod, Strabo. 
Geogr.lib. "]) They who firft delivered the oracles 
were men, (Stralo> Geogr. lib. 7. Euftdtk.OdyJT.%. 
-p. $44..) and called' IVo^-raj and 2fAA?. The 
latter are fo called from Sellse, a town in Epirus, 
or from the river Selleis; (Eujlath. in Itiad o. 531.) 
They were alfo called EAAot; (Schol. in Homer. Iliad. 
IT. 234.) and ftyled wrrroirofa. They were alfo fly led 
Xap&isvmi, becaufe they Hept upon the ground in 
ikins; and avurTOTroks, becaufe, as they never went 
out of the temple, they had no occafion to wafh 
their feet; (Eurip. Erecht. 123.) Thefe diviners, 
when they were confulted, mounted an oak, from the 
top of which they gave their anfwers ; (Strabo 7. p. 
227.) Thence came the fable of the prophetic oak. 
In later times, the oracles were pronounced by three 
old women; which change was made, becaufe Jupiter 
admittedDione to his embraces, and to receive divine 
honours in this temple; (Strabo^ ibid.) TheBxotians 
alone received their anfwers from men; (Strab&y 
Geogr. lib. 9.) The prophets of this temple were cal- 
led To^Hoi,thepropheteffes,Tc>/x*0i, fromTomurus, 
a mountain in Thefprotia, at the foot of which the 
temple flood. The term was afterwards applied to 
any prophet 5 (Hefych. in Verb. Lycophr. Caff. 
2,23.) Some .have fuppcfed that all oracles were 
here delivered by women 5 and that the Selli, were 
inhabitants of the neighbouring country, and pub- 
lifhed the oracles received from the propheteffes to 
other men. Hence they are called TVapjjTaj, in- 
/lead of IIcopTaj. 



Near the temple was a facred grove, full of oaks, 
in which the Fauni, Dryades and Satyri, were ac- 
cuftomed to dwell. The acorns of this wood were 
highly efteemed, before the ufe of corn ; (Virg. Georg. 
1.7.5 and Georg. i . 1 49 .) From thele oaks proceeded 
a human voice, and the fpirit of prophecy; hence 
they were called n^oo-yiyo^ot, and Mai/r^ai ^y?, fpeak- 
ing and prophefying oaks. Argo,the Argonautic fhip, 
was built with the trees of this wood, and was endued 
with the fame fpirit of prophecy. Hence it is called 
A*Au0o xio-o-ay, a chattering magpie ; (Lycophr. Caff. 
1319.^ The prophets, when they gave anfwers, were 
placed in one of thefe trees, and thus the oak was 
thought to utter the oracle. Some have faid, that 
the oracles were delivered from the branches of the 
tree,becaufe the prophetical pigeon fatupon it; (He- 
rodot. in loc. Schol. in Soph. Trachin. 1 74.^) Others 
have laid, that oracles were pronounced from the 
hollow (lock; (Hefad. Eoa.) Some affirm, that bra- 
zen kettles were ufed in delivering oracles from this 
place ; and that they were fo artificially placed about 
the temple, that by flriking one, the found was 
communicated to the reft; (Dem. inSmdas.) Others 
fay, that there were two pillars, on one of which was 
a kettle, and on the other a boy holding a whip 
in his hand, with ladies of brafs, which, carried by 
the wind, ftruck againft the kettle, and caufecl a 
continued found. Hence the term, Aw<fo)i/a;o</ %#*,- 
x^iov fTrt TWV /xix^oAoyavTw^ as applied to talkative 
perfons. Hence alfo, Kff xu^aiw* /*ar* ; which was 
taken from this whip, which, as well as the kettle and 
boy, were dedicated to the Corey reans ; ( Epit. 
Strab. lib. *].} This oracle is (aid to have- ceafed 
about the time of Aguftus'Czefar; (-Strab.lib. j.) 
There was an oracle of Olympian Jupiter at Ells; 



(Strab. lib. 8.) The temple long preferred its 
ancient magnificence, although the oracle foon 
ceafed. There was an altar at Pifa, dedicated to 
Jupiter, where anfwers were given by the pofterity 
of Janus j (Pindar Olymp. Od. 6.) In Crete, 
there was an ancient oracle of Jupiter, from which 
Minos is faid to have received the laws, which were 
enacted by him ; (Slrabo. Homer.) This oracle 
was delivered in a cave underground ; (Diogen. 
Laert.) There was in the fame ifland a temple, 
dedicated to Jupiter; (Plato de Leg. lib. i.) Jt 
flood upon Mount Ida ; and was fometimes called 
X<noi/, from aX<ra*, to defend, becaufe the fons 
of Titan, when vanquifhed by Saturn, fled hither, 
and efcaped his fury ; (Etymolog. An ft.) 


Apollo was reputed to have the greater! fkill in 
predicting; and therefore prefided over all prophets 
and diviners, in fubordination to and participation 
with Jupiter; (JLfchyl. Sacerdot. MJchyL Rumen.) 
Some fay, that Apollo received the art of divina- 
tion from Pan ; (Apoll. RJiod. Argon, lib. 3.) others 
from Themis; (Orph. Hymn, in 'Them. 6.) others, 
fromGlaucus; (Athena, lib. 7.) From his know- 
ledge of future events, he is called K*<to0ff, gainful ; 
(Lycophr. Caff'. 208.) The oracles of Apollo were 
the moft numerous, and of the greateft repute. 

Amongft them, the Delphian claimed the firft 
place, for its antiquity, its truth, and the perfpicuity 
of its anfwers, the magnificence of its ftructures, the 
variety and value of its ava^ara, prefents, and for 
the multitudes which reforted thither. The place 
where the oracles were delivered was called Pythium ; 



the prieftefs, Py thia ; the fports in honour of Apollo, 
Pythian; and Apollo himfelf, Pythius from Py- 
thon, a ferpent ; or KTTO T iru0i>, to putrify 5 becaufe 
the carcafe of Py tho putrified there ; (Horn. Hymn, 
in ApolL v. 372.) or KTTO T* 7ru0o-0at, to confultj 
(Strabo, Geogr. lib. 9.) or from Pythis, the fon of 
Delphis, the fon of Apollo. The city of Delphi 
was fuppofed to be in the centre of the world ; 
(Strabo. Geogr. lib. 9.) The poets fay, that Jupiter, 
to know the centre of the earth, fent forth two 
eagles, or crows, (Pindar') or fwans, one from the 
eaft, the other from the weft, and that they met 
here. It was certainly in the middle of Greece ; 
(Strabo.) and hence called O^paAo?, a navel ; and 
hence this oracle is called Murop$a&ov /uamtov; 
(Sophocl.) In allufion to this name, there was in 
the temple the figure of a navel, made out of white 
Hone, with a riband hanging from it, upon which 
were placed two eagles; (Strabo and Paufan.) Others 
fay that this name is derived from the anfwers de- 
livered there, called O/Apa*; (LaRant. Varro.) The 
origin of this oracle is varioufly related. Some 
fay, it firft belonged to the Earth, by whom Daphne 
was conftituted prieftefs; (Diod. Si cut. lib. 16. cap. 
1 6. Paufan. Phoc.) Others, that it was facred. 
to Earth and Neptune; and that Earth gave an- 
fwers, but that Neptune had an interpreter, named 
Pyrco; and that afterwards Neptune gave up his 
fhare to Earth ; (Diod. SicuL) This goddefs was 
fucceeded by Themis ; (Ovid. Met.) Some fay, 
that Themis poffeffed this oracle at the begin- 
ning; hence the fame name given to. Themis and 
the Earth, TTO AX wy ovofArwv /uofpt) jwia ; ( JHfthyt. Pro- 
weth .208.) Hence Themis is called, 0tw irpvtvFonn, 



the oldeft of the gods ; (Arifl. Oral, dc Concord, ad 
Rhod.) It is again faid, that it was firft pofleffcd 
by the Earth, then by Themis, who refigned it to 
her fitter Phoebe, by whom it was given to Apollo ; 
(JEfchyl. Eumenid. initio.) Others fay, that Apollo 
having feized this oracle by force, Earth endeavoured 
to precipitate him into the infernal regions ; (Pin- 
j aTt Schol. insEfchyl.) Others, that Apollo having 
expelled Themis, was himfelf expelled by the Earth, 
, but by the affiftance of Jupiter, recovered the 
oracle; (Eurip. Iphig. 1259.) When it was pof- 
fefled by the Earth, (he returned anfwers by dreams ; 
(Eurip. Iphig.) and when Apollo was deprived of 
the oracle, he prayed Jupiter to expel the Earth; 
(Eurip. Iphig. 1271.) Others fay, that it belonged 
to Saturn; (C<elius. Rhodig. Left. Antiq. lib. 16. 
Lycophr. CaJJand. 202.) Apollo, when he obtained 
it, did not long enjoy it alone. In the war againft 
the fons of Triton, Bacchus, being much wounded, 
was afterwards reflored to his brother Apollo, who 
admitted him into his temple, and ordered divine 
honours to be paid him there; (Lycoph. Caff. 209.) 
Hence, Delphi, was called A&Apoi, brethren. 

It is faid, that this oracle was difcovered by goats; 
(Diod. Sic. Eibli. Hift. lib. \ 6.) On Parnaffus, where 
goats ufually fed, there was a deep cavern, with a 
{mail mouth, which when they approached, they 
were feized with agony and frenzy: the goat-herd ob- 
ferving this, went to view the cavern, and was himfelf 
feized with firnilar attacks of frenzy x in which he 
uttered ftrange and foreboding expreffions. Hence 
the curiofky of multitudes was excited, and as 
many as approached the cavern, were {truck in the 
fame manner. It was then forbidden any one to 



approach it ; and a tripod was placed at its mouth, 
upon which a virgin was ordered to fit, and there 
deliver the anfwers of the god. Some fay, the tripod 
was filled with dud, through which the afflatus 
paired into the virgin's belly, and thence proceeded 
through the mouth. It was a large pot, filled with 
4"jpo<, pebbles, by the motion of which the prophetefs 
formed her opinions, (Schol. in Ariftoph. Lyjiftr.) 
Others fay, it was a large vefTel, with three feet, 
into which the prophetefs plunged, when (lie ex- 
pected to be infpired. Others fay, it was not a 
veffel., but a feat, on which the prophetefs fat ; 
(C*lius..Le3. Ant. lib. 8. cap. i$.) The tripod or 
its cover, was called oA^o?, a mortar or round ftone; 
(Hefych. in Verb. Schol. ad. Ariftoph. Plut. 9.) 
Hence Apollo is called Ei/oX/xoj, and the prophetefs, 
is j (Sophocl.) Hence alfo the proverb Ev oxp<* 
, applied to thofe who fpoke prophetically. 
Others derive it from a diviner, named Holmus, 
Others, from the cuftom of fleeping in the oA^o?, 
when they withed to be infpired ; (Arift. in Zenod.) 
The tripod was facred to Apollo, in allufion to 
the number three, or to the three celeftial circles, 
two of which the fun touches, and in his annual 
circuit pafles over the third j (Phurnutus, de Natur* 
Deor.) The three legs o the tripod are faid 
to iignify the knowledge of the god, as dif- 
tinguimed by the pad, prefent, and future ; (Schol. 
in Ariftoph. Plut.) The firft tripod was placed 
thereby the neighbouring inhabitants ; the next 
by Pelops, at his marriage with Hippodamia, daugh- 
ter of ^Enomaus, king of the Eleans; it was wrought 
by Vulcan, and made of brafs. Another was of gold, 
prefented by the fifhermen of Miletus ; ( 
Ariftoph. initio Plut.) The Latins call the tripod 

H cortina, 


cortitia, becaufe, they fay, it was made of the fki/i 
of Python. Others fay, it fignified the tent, within 
which the facred tripod was kept. The woman 
who delivered the oracles was called Pythia, Py- 
thonifla, and Phsebas. Phasmonoe was the mod 
remarkable of them, as well from being the firft, as 
from Her delivering the oracles in verfe ; (Paujan. 
Photic.) Some fay, that prophets delivered this ora- 
cle ; (Milan, de Animal, lib. 10. cap. 2.6. Hero dot. 
lib. 8. cap. 37.) Apollo is faid to have chofen the 
men of Crete to publifh his oracles ; (Homer. Hymn, 
in Apoll. 393.) which may allude to the vn-oqwrca, 
before mentioned. Thefe women were at firft vir- 
gins ; till one of them was deflowered by Eche- 
chrates, a ThefFalian ; afterwards, they chofe women- 
of above fifty years of age, who wore the habit of 
virgins; (Diod. Sicul. lib. 16.) They were to ob- 
ferve the flricteft rules of temperance and chaflity ; 
being forbidden the ufe of all coftly apparel i. nor 
were they allowed to anoint themfelves, or to wear 
purple garments ; (Plutarch, lib. de Oracid.) Before 
the Pythia afcended the tripod, (he wafhed her hair 
and her body in the fountain of Caflalis, at the foot 
of ParnafTus. When me firft fat down upon the 
tripod, me fliook the laurel tree that grew near it, 
and fometimes eat the leaves. Both herfelf and 
the tripod were crowned with garlands of laurel ; 
(Schol. in Ariftoph. Pint.) The laurel was hence 
called pwrwov PUTOJ/, the proplietic plant. She then 
received the divine afflatus into her belly ; hence 
fhe is called fyfar^i/AuOof or fegvopowrig. She then 
iwelled, and foamed at the mouth, tore her hair, 
mangled her flefh, and appeared like one frantic ; 
(Plutarch, dt Defetf. Qracul.) Some fay y that a 
3 dragon 


clragon fometimes appeared under the tripod, which 
returned anfwers ; and that the Pythia was once 
killed by it ; (Eufeb.) This oracle was confulted 
only during one mouth of the year, which was 
.called fSuc-tcj, (Plutarch. )udft< Gr*ec. 9.) or puo-io?, 
from puais to fpring up; or TTUC-JO?, from Jta rw 7rv<riv 9 
becaufe in that month, they were allowed to inquire 
of the oracle. The fcventh day of the month, they 
called Apollo's birth-day, by -the name of 7roAup0oo?, 
becaufe he gave many anfwers on that day ; (Plu- 
tarch.) Afterwards, oracles were confulted only once 
every month. Large prefents were always brought 
by thofe who confulted the oracle. Hence Apollo 
was called APJT. They were required alfo to 
propofe their queftions in. as few words as poflible-; 
(Phtloftr. lib. 6. cap. 5.) Sacrifices were offered to 
Apollo, in which the prophetefs refufed to anfvver, 
unlefs the omens were propitious. Five prieils, 
named OG-IOJ, holy, officia ed at thefe facrifices ; (Pint. 
Gr#c. Qnxft. 9.) and affifled the prophets. One, 
who prelided over thefe, was called OO-IWTJ^, purifier. 
Another prieft, who aififted the prophetefs in ma- 
naging the oracle, was .called, as well as Apollo, 
ApuT. The anfwer was always returned in Greek; 
(Cicero de Divinat. lib. 2.) and at fir ft, for the moil 
part, in hexameter verfe. The ancient Greeks 
delivered thdr laws in verfe ; hence vo/*o?, a law, 
ibmetimes fignifies a verfe ; (Art/lot.) The verfes 
of the Pythia were, generally, rude and unpolifhed ; 
(Plutarch, de Pyth. Orac.) as (he herfelf was felected 
from amongft'the ioweft clafsj (Eurip. in Ion. 92.) 
of little education or capacity -, (Pint, de Pyth. 
Orac.) The cuftom of replying in verfe was after- 
wards difufed ; (Pint, de PytlCOrac.) The Del- 

N 2 phian 


phian oracles were fometimes perfpicuous; infomuch 
' that if an obfcure anfwer had been received at 
Dodona, reference was made to Apollo, to explain 
it. They were however generally fo obfcure and un- 
intelligible, that Apollo was called Aogia?, becaufe 
his anfwers were ambiguous ; and it was deemed a 
profanation of religion to communicate them to 
the ignorant in plain terms; (Clem. Alex. 5.) 

The veracity of this oracle was fo famous, that 
rot x retire &?, the anfwers given from the tripod, 
were proverbially ufed for infallible truths. In 
later times its reputation was much leffened. At 
what time this oracle ceafed, is uncertain. In the 
time of Auguflus Caefar it had loft its reputation; 
(Cicero. >Strabo. lib. q. Juvenal. Sat. 6. 554. 
Minut. Pel. Off. p. 242. Luc an, lib. 5.) Its cha- 
racter was however frequently attempted to be re- 
newed y (Lucian Alex. Pfeudom. Theodoret.) as it 
was confulted by Julian the apoftate. When Apollo 
forfook Delphi, it is faid that he betook himfelf to 
the Hyperborean Scythians ; (Claudian. Suidas in 
Verb. AZugie. Diodor. SicnL) 

There was an oracle of Apollo at Cirrha, a fea^port 
belonging to Delphi, and from it about fixty ftadia; 
(Statins Theb. lib. 7. 41 1.) At this place, only prof- 
perous oracles were pronounced. Here there was a 
cavern, as at Delphi; (Statins ^heb. lib. 3. 474.^ 
Some fpeak of it as the fame as the oracle at Delphi ; 
(Sencc. Hercul. CEt. 92.) and that it was attended 
by the fame prophetefs : (Senec. OEdip. 169.) 

There was an oracle of Apollo at Delos, an ifland 
of the Cyclades, in the JEgean fea. It was famdus for 
having been the birth-place of Apollo and Diana; 
and was hence confidered facred. In this place an 



image of Apollo was ereded, in the fliape of a dra- 
gon ; and here he gave anfwers, fome fay, more cer- 
tain and clear than at Delphi; (Alex, fib Alex.) Apol- 
lo only refided here in the fummer ; in the winter he 
retired toPatara, in Lycia; (Servius inVirg.JE.neid. 
4. 143.^) One of its altars was efteemed among 
the feven wonders of the world. It was erected by 
Apollo when four years of age, and competed of 
the horns of goats, killed by Diana, upon Mount 
Cynthus ; which were compacted together without 
any viiible cement ; (Epiji. Cyd. ad Ac. Plutarch. 
de Solert. Anim. Callimach. Hymn, in Apoll. <u. 58. 
Politian. bfifcell. cap. $2.) It was unlawful to 
profane this altar with blood. No dogs were per- 
mitted to enter into this iiland ; (Thucyd, lib. 4.} 
All pregnant women, and perfons fick of any dan- 
gerous diieafe, were ordered to depart to the iile 
of Rhena. And when the Athenians were com* 
rnanded to purify the ifland, they dug the dead 
bodies out of their graves, and conveyed them to 
one of the adjacent iilands to be buried. They 
made an annual proceflion in this place, Thefeus, 
when fent into Crete, to be devoured by the Mino- 
taur, made a vow to Apollo, that if he would grant 
them a fafe return, they would make a folemn 
voyage to his temple at Delos every year. This 
was called Aw^a*; thofe employed in it, f&^t, 
and ArjAtarat, from the name of the iiland j their 
chief was called, A^i^tu^s ; and ihe fnip in which 
they went, fw^j or AJJA.^; being the lame fhip ia 
which Thefeus and his companions failed to Crete; 
(Plutarch. Callim. Hymn, in Bel.) The com- 
mencement of the voyage was computed from the 
time that the pried crowned the (lei-n with garlands; 

N 3 (Plata 


(Plato in Phtfdon.) From which time they began 
to purify the city. It was unlawful to execute a 
malefactor till its return; for which reafon Socrates 
was reprieved for thirty days after his condemna- 
tion ; (Plato in Phad* Xenophon. Memorab. lib. 4.) 
The 0Wfoi wore garlands of laurel upon their heads, 
and were attended by two of the family of the 
Kufuxs?, who were appointed to be n^a<nT<n at 
Delos for that year. Men preceded them with 
axes in their hands, as if they defigned to clear the 
ways of robbers ; (j&fchyl. Eumen. inilio.) When 
they went thither, they were faid a.voxivtiV) to 1 
afcend ; when they returned, xaraSau/fu/, to defcend. 
Having arrived, they offered lacrifice, and cele- 
brated a feftival; they then failed homeward. At 
their return, the people ran to meet them, opened 
their doors, and paid their homage to them j (Eurip. 

There was another oracle, called Apollo Didy- 
mseus ; fo panned from the double light which he 
imparted to men ; one light from his own body, 
the other, by reflection from the moon. It was 
alfo called Didyma, and belonged to the Milefians; 
hence Apollo is called Milefius. It was alfo called 
the oracle of the Branchidas ; and Apollo was hence 
called Branch ides, from Branchus, who was the 
reputed fon of Macareus, but begotten by Apollo; 
(Varro.) Some derive the name from Branchus, 
a youth of Theifaly, beloved by Apollo, who received 
him into his own temple, and commanded that 
divine honours fhould be paid to him after death. 
It is again faid to have been facred to Jupiter and 
Apollo ; (Stephanas in Verb, A JujwajJ It was an 
ancient oracle, much frequented by the lonians and 
^Eolians 3 (Hcrodoliis.) and was accounted the beft 



of the oracles, that at Delphi excepted. This tem- 
ple was burned in the Perfian war, being delivered 
up by the Branchida? or priefts ; (Strabo, lib. 14.' 
Suidas in Verb. B^-y^Jai.) When peace was re- 
itored, it was rebuilt by the Milefians with great 
magnificence; (Strabo, lib. 14.^ 

There was another oracle of Apollo at Abie, a city 
of Phocis; (Herodot. lib. i. cap. 46.^ more ancient 
than that at Delphi; (Stephan. in Verb. A5ai. He- 
JycJi .Sopkocl. (Edip. Tyr. v. 908.) The temple of 
this oracle was burnt by Xerxes ; (Paufan. PJiocic.) 

There was another oracle facred to Apollo at Cla- 
ros, in Ionia. It was firft inflituted by Manto, the 
daughter of Tirefias, who fled thither in the fecond 
Theban war. The perfon, chofen to return anfwers, 
was of Miletus, (C*lins. lib. 27. cap. $.) He return- 
ed the oracles in verfes, adapted to the wifti of the 
inquirers, by virtue of a well, feigned to have fprung 
from the tears of Manto, when bewailing the defla- 
tion of her country. When any one came to con r 
fult him, he defcended the well; and by the practice 
of this unwholefome ceremony, he fhortened his life; 
(Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 2. cap. 103.) By this oracle, 
the death of Germanicus was foretold; (Tacitus 
Annal. lib. 2. cap. 54.,) 

There was an oracle of Apollo at LariiTa, a fort of 
the Argives. It was called Ana&T>j?, from Dims, a 
region belonging to Argos. The anfwers were deli- 
vered by a woman, who was forbidden any intercoude 
with men. She iiicriiiced a lamb, one night in every 
month ; and having tafted the blood of the victim, 
was inftantly feized with a divine frenzy ; (Paufan. 
Corinth.) There was an oracle of Apollo at Eutrcfis, 
a village in Bocotia; (Stephan. in forb. EvT^c-i?.) 

N 4 ApoJIo 


Apollo delivered oracles at Orope, a city of Eubsea ; 
hence he was called Oropseus; (Stsphan.) At 
Orobas in Eubsea, there was an oracle of A polio, called 
4/r^r*T6 pavTsio*, a mod infallible oracle ; (Strabo, 
lib. 10 .) There was an oracle at Corypae in Thef- 
faly ; (Nicander Theriac.) Another at Hybla, which 
the Carians confuited -, (Athene, lib. 15. cap. 4.) 
There was an oracle at Ichnae in Macedonia; 
(Hefych. in Verb. I^vativm.) At Tegyrse, a city of 
Boeotia, was an oracle of Apollo, frequented only 
till the Perfian war ; (Plut. Pelop.) The oracles 
given by Apollo at Ptous, a mountain in Boeotia, 
where he had a temple, were famous. It ceafed, 
when Thebes was demolished by Alexander; (Pan- 
Jan. Besot.) Apollo was called Aapt/*io?, from 
Daphne, his miftrefs,or the laurel, in to which (lie was 
transformed, ' and had an oracle near the Caftaiian 
fountain, the waters of which alfo were endued with 
prophetic virtue ; (Clem. Proterpt.) He was alfo 
called Ifmenius, from Ifmenus, a river and mountain 
in Bceotia, in which he had a temple. He was alfo 
called Spodius, from STTO^C?, athes; from a ftone in 
Bceotia, called 2w^ovrif, upon which he had an 
altar, erected out of the afhes of victims offered to 
him j (Paufan. Boeot. Suidas. Diodor.Sicul, 16. 26.) 


Trophonius .and Agamedes, fons of Erefmus, 
having built the temple of Apollo at Delphi; (Siddas 
in Verb. T^PWMO?,) requefted to be rewarded by 
him with the befl thing that could happen to man. 
He granted their requeft, and that it mould be 
effected on the third day afterwards ; and in the 
morning of that day they were found dead 5 (Cicera 


Tufc. Quceft. lib. i.) There are other accounts of 
their death ; (Schol. in Artftoph. in Nub.) one of 
which is, that Trophonius built himfelf a manfion 
under the ground, at Lebadea, a city of Bceotia, 
into which, when he entered, he pretended to be 
infpired with a knowledge of future events, and 
afterwards perillied in this hole ; (Phavonn.) He 
was worshipped by the name of Jupiter Trcphonius; 
CStralo, lib. y. Paufan. Exotic.) The place of this 
oracle was under the furface of the earth, and there- 
fore called X*TO&<X,V ; and the perfons who con- 
fulted it, xTaaiwT?. There are various fables 
concerning it ; (Paufan. Bceot. Plutarch.) 

Divine honours were paid to Amphiaraus, the 
fon of Oicleus, who married Eriphyle, the fitter 
of Adraftus, king of Argos. He was a fkiifui 
foothfayer ; and to avoid deftruction in the Theban 
war, he hid himfelf, but was difcovered by his 
wife, whom Polynices had corrupted with the pre- 
fent of a golden chain. He was then compelled, by 
Adraftus, to accompany the army to Thebes, where 
be was (wallowed up by the earth, together with his 
chariot and horfes, as he had foretold ; (Ovid.) The 
place where this happened, betwixt Thebes and Chal- 
cis, is called A^a, a chariot ; (Paufan. Attic.) The 
Oropians at firft, and afterwards all Greece, paid 
him divine honours. A {lately temple, with a 
flatue of white marble, was creeled to him in the 
place where he was {wallowed up. It was about 
twelve ftadia from Oropus. There was alfo a re- 
markable altar dedicated to him in the fame place. 
The anfwers were delivered in dreams. They who 
came to coniult this oracle, were firft to be purified 
by offering facrifke to Amphiaraus, and the other 
gods, whole names were infcribed on the altar. They 



were to fail twenty-four hours, and to abftam from 
wine three days; (Phykftr. Vit. Apollon. Tyan. lib. 
2.) They then offered a ram to him ; and falling 
afleep upon a victim's ikin, they expected a revela- 
tion by dream. All perfons were admitted to this, 
oracle, except the Thebans; (Herodot. lib. 8. cap. 
134.) It was held in great efteem ; (Herodot. lib. 
I. cap. 46. Vol. Max. lib. 8. cap. 15.) There 
was a fountain near the temple, out of which he 
afcended into ; which was deeded fo facred 
as to be a capital Crime to employ the waters of it 
to any common life, or to offer facrifice before it. 
They who had recovered of difeafe, through the 
advice of the oracle, were to caft a lilver or gold 
coin into it; (Paitfan. Attic.) At Pharce, in Achaia, 
divine honours were paid to Mercurias Ayo^a*oj, 
from Ayo^a, the market-place, where a ftatue of 
Hone was erected to him, which had a beard. A 
low {lone altar was placed before it, upon which 
flood brazen bafins, foldered with lead. They 
who confulted it, firft offered frankincenfe upon 
the altar, and lighted the lamps, pouring oil into 
them. They then offered upon the right fide of 
the altar a piece of the money of their own country, 
which was called ^AX? 9 and propofing their 
queflions, they placed their ear clofe to the ftatue ; 
and then departed, ftopping their ears with their 
hands, till they had paffed through the market- 
place. They then received the mil voice that pre- 
fente^ itfelf, as a divine oracle-; (Paitfan. A'ckaic.) 
There was an oracle of Hercules at Bura, in Achaia; 
from which he was called Barachius ; (Paitjan. 
Achaic.) The ftatue of Hercules was placed in a 
eave -, and predictions were made by throwing dice* 



They who confulted it, firfl prayed to the god ; 
and then threw four dice upon the table. Upon 
the dice were peculiar marks, which were inter- 
preted in a book, kept for the purpofe. As foon 
as they had caft the four dice, which were promif- 
cuoufly taken from a heap of them, they went to 
the book, and read their deftiny. There was a 
temple dedicated to Ceres at Patras, a city On the 
fea coaft of Achaia, not far from the grove of Apollo; 
in which were three flatties; two to Ceres and 
Proferpina, in an erect pofture ; and one to the 
Earth, fitting upon a throne. Before the temple 
was a fountain, in which oracles were delivered, 
which concerned only the events of difeafes. They 
who went to confult it, let down a looking-glafs 
by a fmall cord into the fountain, that the bottom 
of it might touch the furface of the water. They 
tiien offered incenfe and prayers to the goddefs $ 
and looking upon the glafs, from the figures- repre- 
fented in it, they made conjectures concerning the 
patient; (Panfan. Achaic .) At Tra^zan, a city of 
Peloponnefus, there was an altar dedicated to the' 
Mufes, by Ardalus, fon of Vulcan, who firfl in- 
Vented the flute. Hence the Mufes were called 
Ardalides. They who confulted it, were obliged 
to abflain a certain time froni wine. They then 
reclined near the altar, and fell afleep ; when, by 
the fecret infpiration of the Mufes, proper remedies 
for their diforders were revealed to them 5 (Paufan. 
Achaic.) There was a temple of ^Efculapius, at 
Epidaurus, a city of Peloponnefus, celebrated for 
the cure of difeafes ; the remedies of which were 
revealed in dreams ; (Paufan. Achaic. P/in. Nat. 
H\ft. lib. 15. Ovid Met. lib. 15.) There was a 



temple, facred to Bacchus, at Ampbiclea; con- 
fulted for the cure of difeafes, which was revealed 
in dreams - y and for foretelling future events, which 
were interpreted by priefts -, (Paufan. Photic.) Juno 
had an oracle in the territories of Corinth, between 
Lechseum and Pagas ; (Strabo, Geog.) There was, 
in Laconia, a pool facred to Juno ; and prediction* 
were made by calling cakes made of bread-corn 
into it. If they funk, the anfwer was favourable. 
The head of Orpheus at Lefbos gave anfwers. This 
oracle was confulted by Cyrus -, (Callus. Antiq. lib. 
35. cap. 9.) Perfons initiated into the myfteries of 
Orpheus, were called O^fOTfAcrat, who affured thofe 
admitted into their fociety, of certain happinefs 
after death. An oath of fecrecy was required at 
their admiiTion. There was an oracle of the Earth 
in the country of Elis j (Paufan. Ella, a.) There 
was an oracle of Pan, confulted by the people of 
Pi fa; (Statins Web aid. 3. v. 47 6. ) There was an 
oracle at My cense ; (Seneca, Thy eft. 677.) There 
was an oracle of the night ; (Paufan. Attic.) There 
was an oracle and temple of Ino, in Laconia, which 
delivered anfwers by dreams ; (Paufan. Laconic. )~ 
There was an oracle at Thalamiae, a city in Laconia, 
facred to Pafiphae ; (Plut. Agid.) and fome fay a 
to CafTandra ; and others, to Daphne. On the 
top of Cithceron, a mountain in Bceotia, there was 
a cave, called Sphragidium, where people were in* 
fpired by the nymphs, called Sphragit ides; and hence 
named Nv^oX^rro^ infpired by the nymphs; (Pan- 
fan.Eocotic.) There was an oracle facred to U lyrics, 
among the Eurytanes, a people of ^Etolia ; (Arifiot. 
Pollt. Lycophr. 799.) There were other oracles, 
facred to Tirefias, to ^Egeus 3 and to many others. 


t II E O M A N C V. 189 


, was a fpecies of divination different 
from all others ; the word is derived from 0so? and 
; (Fid. Schol. in Soph. CEdip. TyrJ The 
were allowed to offer facrifices, and per- 
form other prophetic rites, at any time, and in any 
place. It had many cuftoms in common with 
other oracles. They who pretended to divine in- 
fpiration were feized, like the Pythia, and the 
Sibyls, (Virg. SEn. 6. 47.) with frenzy. Hence 
Mam? is faid to be derived owo TH poMtttidti, from 
being mad. It refembled the Pythia in many in- 
fiances ; in crowning the head with laurel ; which 
is hence called /xavnxoj/ <PUTOJ>, the prophetic plant ; 
(Claudian. Eurip. Androm.) and in carrying a ftaff 
of laurel in the }&M,(MfchyJ.Agamcto. 1 273.) called 
from hence sOuj/Tn^ioi/ ; (Hefychius) and in chewing 
the leaves of it in the mouth, (Lycophr. Caff] 6. 

It was ufual for diviners to feed upon parts 
of the prophetic beafts, as upon the hearts of 
crows and vultures, fuppofing that they were par- 
takers of the fouls of thofe animals, and received 
the influence of the god, who accompanied the 
fouls; (Porph. dc Abftin. Anlm. lib. 2.) All diviners 
were maintained at Athens at the public charge, and 
were allowed their diet in the Tlgvravsiov, common 
hall ; (SchoL in Arijloph.) 

There were three forts of QEopxvrtig. One was 
poffefTed with prophefying demons, which dictated 
the anfwers, and fpoke out of the breafl or belly of 
the pofTeffed perfons, while they themfelves remained 
utterly fpeechlefs. Thefe were called Aa^oi/oAnTrroi, 



poifefTed with demons. On account of the fpirit 
lodging and fpeaking within their bodies, they are 
alib called Eyyarfif*y9o*,( which the demons were alfo 
named) Eyycur^powTus, ^rs^ofji^rei^ Eyy&rgiTxt, alfo 
Ei^yxXsif, and EvuxAf<Tai, from Eurycles, who firft 
praclited this art at Athens; (Schol. in Ariftoph. 
t\>/pjs.) They were alfo called nduvss and nuS&wxoj, 
from ITuOwi/, a prophefying demon ; (Hefychius. Sui- 
Jas.) derived, rnofl probably, from Apollo Pythius, 
the prefider over all forts of divination. Thefecond 
fort of fo^ami? was called Ev02(nara, EvOfarixot, and 
07j-vc'jr**, fuch as pretended to enthufiafoi. They 
were infpired by the deity, and inftru&ed by him 
in the knowledge of future events. Of this kind, 
were Orpheus, Amphion, Mufeus, and feveral of 
the Sibyls. The third fort was the Exranxoi, they 
who were call into ecflalies, in which they were 
deprived of fenfe and motion, for feme time ; when 
they recovered themfeives, they related ftrange ac- 
counts of what they had feen and heard; (PlaioPolit. 
lib. 10. Plutarch.) It was commonly believed, 
that the fouls of dying men could forefee future 
events; (Horn. Iliad %. 355. Firg* JEndd. 10. 
739* Cicero de Divin. lib. 2.) 


There were three forts of dreams by which 
predictions were made. The firfl was X^aaricr/xo?, 
when the gods, or fpirits, converfed with men ia 
their ileep; (Homer Iliad j3. Paufan. Bceoiic.) 
The fecond was >/*, in which, whatever was to 
happen, was to be reprefented in its own fhape. It. 
was alfo called e^r^TJxoj; (Valer.MaxJib. i.caf. 


. Herodot. lib. i.cap. 34.) The third was called 
which future events were revealed by types 
figures. Hence it was called AAA^yof xo?, an 
allegory, a figure, by which one thing is exprefled, 
and another fignified ; (Heracl. de Alkg. Homer.) 
They who interpreted this fpecies of dreams were 
called, OvioxiT#i ; Oi^arwv uTrox^tTat, from judg- 
ing of dreams Oi^go<ncoiroi, examiners of dreams 

underilanders of dreams. 

Jupiter was the author of dreams ; (Homer Iliad 
The Earth was fuppofed to be the caufe of 
^(Euripid.Hccub. Eujlath. mHom.OdyJJ'.r.) 
They were fometimes afcribed to the infernal manes; 
(Virg. Mn. b.Sophocl. E/effr. 480.) Sometimes 
they were afcribed to Hecate, and to the Moon, 
goddefies of the night. The god of ileep was the 
chief caufe, whofe habitation was among the Cim- 
merii, in a dark den in the way to hell; (Ovid. 
Met. lib. ii. Fab. 10.) Another place is affigned 
to falfe dreams; (Virg. J&m. 6. 283.) He had 
three attendants : Morpheus, who counterfeited 
the forms of men Phobetor or Icelos, who imi- 
tated the likenefs of brutes and Phantafus, who 
imitated the likenefs of inanimate creatures ; (Ovid. 
Met. lib. n.) He is fuppofed to rove through 
the air, and to difperfe his dreams among men ; 
(Mneid. 5. 838.) To another deity, called Brizo, 
from B^i^fiv, to ileep, the care of dreams was com- 
mitted. She was worshipped in the ifland of De- 
los ; and boats, laden with goods, of all kinds, 
except fifn, were offered to her ; (C<dius Antiq. 
Left. lib. 27. cap. 10.) She is alfo called B^^o- 
[Aumsi (Htjychhis. Athena, lib. 8.) Her votaries 
ufed to pray to her for the public fecurity, and for 



the prote&ion of their fhips. It was believed that 
hawks or vultures, i^axc?, when dead, prophefied 
and fent dreams; (TFJian. de Anim. lib. 11. cap. 
39.) Dreams were iuppofed to pafs through gates 
ot horn ; (Homer Odyff. r. 562. Virg. &neid.6. 
893.^ It was hence ufual to reprefent any dream 
in a white garment, wrapt over a black one, with a 
horn in the hand ; (Philojl.) True dreams were 
expedted at the time of NUXTO? a/xoAyo?; (Horn. 
Odyff. 4..) from a and /xcAsco, to walk, or pcy, to 
labour; or from a/^Ayw, to milk, (ignifying the 
early part of the morning; (Homer Iliad ^ 26.) 
At that time they were mod regarded 3 (Horat. lib. 
i. Sat. 10. 31. Ovid. Theocrit.) They who 
defired a prophetic dream, were careful of their 
diet, to eat nothing difficult of digeflion, as, in 
particular, raw fruit and beans. Some faded one 
day before, and abftained from wine for three. The 
eating of fifh was fuppofed to obflrucl: true dreams; 
(Athene, lib. 8.) and the head of the polypus was 
particularly prejudicial to them ; (Plutarch, de an- 
diend. Poet.) Dreams were thought to be clearer, 
if the perfons wore a white garment; (Suidas.) and 
before they went to bed, it was ufual to iacrifice to 
Mercury, whofe image was generally carved upon 
the feet of the bed, (as UTTZ/X <5Vrno, the giver of fleep,) 
which were hence, it is laid, called EppTvi$> (Homer 
Odyf. 6.278 . Homer Odyff. $ 1 9 8 J Mercury pre- 
fided over fleep; (Homer, in Hymn. 14.^ If dreams 
were obfcure, an interpreter was confulted. The firfl 
who held this office was Amphi&yon, fon of Deu- 
calion ; (Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 7. cap. $.) others 
fay, Amphiaraus; (Paufan.) others, the inhabitants 
of Telmiffus; (Clem. Alex. Strom, i.) In later 



times, dreams were more difregarded ; ( Proper t. 
lib. 2. EL 4.) When any dreams were obfcure or 
frightful, they confulted the gods, offering incenfc 
to them, and intreating their favour; fomctimes to 
Hercules; fometimes to Jupiter; (Plaittus.) but 
more particularly to Veda ; ( Proper t. lib. i . Eleg. 
29.) fometimes to Apollo, under the title of Eax*- 
fiof, ccTrorgoTra.ioS) or Averruncus, or or^oj-aT^io?, 
as the protector of houfes; on which account images 
were erected to him in the porches; (Sophocl. EleRr. 
(>$$) They fometimes related their dreams to 
the fun ; (Sophocl. Eleftr. 42 7. ) fometimes to the 
heavens; (Euripid. Iphigen. ^aur. 43.) which they 
called a7r<>7rj.7r<r9ai, a7ro<ho7ro|tA7naff'0#i,&c. Before they 
approached the divine altars, they purified them- 
felves from the pollutions of the night ; (MfchyL 
Perf.) taking water out of the river in their hands j 
(Virg. &n. lib. 8. 67.) or by wafhing their bodies; 
(Statins, ^heb. lib. 8 .) or by dipping their heads 
'five times in water; (Prjius. Sat. 2. 16. Horn. //. a, 
63. Paufan. Attic. 34, Paufan. Eliac. 23.- 
jEffhyl. Prometh, 484,^ 


Divination by facrifices, was called Ify*avra or 
J^o(rx7rta. They firft formed conjectures from the 
external parts and motions of the victim ; afterwards, 
from his entrails, from the flame which confumed it f 
from the cakes and flour, from the wine and water, 
and other things. The practice of obferving the 
killing and cutting up of the victim, was called 
ur>oj. It was an unlucky omen when the beaft 
was dragged by force to the altar, or when it at- 
tempted to efcape, or when it kicked, or bellowed, 
or did not bleed freely, was long in dying, or when 

o it 


5t expired in agonies, or if it died fuddenly, before 
the knife touched it ; (Pint. Pyrr.) It was deem- 
ed a fortunate omen, if the beaft fubmitted pa- 
tiently, and bled freely, and died calmly ; (Sense. 
in Here. Furent.) Hence it was ufual to pour water 
into the ear of the victim. Predictions were 
made from its tail ; and the knife was hence 
drawn from its head to its tail; efpecially when 
it curled in the flame, it portended evil; when 
it hung downwards or extended its length, it fore- 
told an overthrow; but when erect, it foretold 
victory; (Eitrip. Schol. Phanifs.) The victim being 
opened, obfervation was made upon the entrails, 
which were termed spwgx, from the fire in which 
they were burned. The omens were called 
(Plato) and the divination, u 

The Delphian Sibyl, whofe dead body 
being reduced to earth, was fuppofed to have im- 
parted ic the herbs, and through them to the beafts, 
a power of divining. The other parts of her which 
mixed with the air, are faid to have occafioned the. 
divination by ominous words; (Clem. Alex. Strom. 
i. p. 304.^ If the entrails were found, and pro- 
perly proportioned, it was a good omen; if decayed 
or irregular, it was an evil omen; (Sencc. (Edip. v. 
36 7. ) If they palpitated, it was ill ominous; 
(Senec. (Edip. v. 353.^ If the liver was corrupted, 
they ceaied to examine further, fuppofing the whole 
body to be affected. Thefe figns were called XAU$; 
(Hefyckius in V.) The examination of the liver 
was called H?rTO(rxc7r, If the liver had its proper 
colour, if it was found, of a large head, or if it had 
two heads, or if there were two livers, or if its lap- 
pets were inclined inwards, it was a profperous 
omen. But dangers and misfortunes were foreboded, 



if there was h$x<;, drynefs or & 07*0?, a knot be- 
tween the parts or if it was aA*o?, without a lappet ; 
(Arrian. Exped. Alex. lib. j.) If there were any blif- 
ters or ulcers, if it was hard and thin, or difcoloured, 
had any humour upon it, or if in boiling it became 
foft or was difplaced, ill omens were foreboded. 
The concave part of the liver was called fria?, be- 
longing to the family, becaufe the ligns upon this 
particular part were applied to themfelves. The 
gibbous fide was called ams-cm? or n0A*f, becaufe 
the tokens in it concerned their enemies. If either 
ofthefe parts was fhrivelled or corrupted, or irregu- 
lar, it, foretold misfortune; if large and found, it 
was a profperous omen; (Senec. CEdip. v. 360. 
Lucan. Pharfal.) The feat of the liver was called 
JiJf and faw The pl ace between the parts in the 
middle was called wuXa; lu^u^w^a; (Demqfth. 
Interp, in Oral, de Cor.) cJo* ; txrgoTrxi ; (Hefychius,) 
andwuAa*, (Euripid.) If this part was compreiTed 
or clofed, it was ill ominous ; (Dio Caracal!.) If 
there was no heart to be found in the victim, or if it 
palpitated, or was wrinkled or lean, it was an ill 
omen. If there were two galls, or if the gall was 
large, (harp, or bloody, profperous battles were ex- 
pected. If the fpleen was well coloured, clear and 
found, it foreboded -fuccefs. If the entrails flipped 
out of the hands of the perfon who.facrificed ; or if 
they were bloody, or fpotted, corrupt or fhrunk j 
if crawling ferpents were found in them, misfortune 
was foreboded. If the lungs were cloven, the bufinefs 
was to be deferred; ifintire, expedition and vigour 
were to be ufed. Other parts of the victim fore- 
boded things to come; (Plin. lib. n. cap* $j.) 
Divination was made by the fire of the facrifice, 
called nt&/A<*vTcia ; if the flames immediately con- 
o 2 fumed 


fumed the victim*; if it was bright, without 
noife or fmoke ; if the fparks afcended pyramidally ; 
and if the fire continued till the vidim was re- 
duced to ames; the profpects were favourable. 
But if the fire was kindled with difficulty; if 
the flame was divided ; if it did not fpeedily fpread 
itfelf to every part of the victim ; if the flame 
was feparated ; or extinguished by any accident, 
by rain or wind ; if it caft forth black fmoke, 
made a crackling noife, or went out before the 
victim was con fumed, then the profpects were 
unfavourable, and portended the difpleafure of the 
gods ; (SofJwcl. Antig. v. 1122.) 

When the prieft had diflected the entrails, and 
could make no certain obfervations; he took the 
bladder, and binding the neck of it with wool, (hence 
they are called ^xx^ro^ xurif ; Sophocl.) he threw 
it into the fire, to obferve in what part it would burrt, 
and which way it would difcharge the urine; (Eurip. 
SchoL Phtenifs .) They fometimes took pitch from 
the torches, and throwing it into the fire, obferved 
if there arofe one flame only, which was efteemed a 
good omen. In times of war they particularly no- 
ticed the **<* \otpir K$, uppermoft part of the flame, 
and the gall ; hence ?nx 01 1^^ enemies as bitter 
as gall. KaTrvo^amta, divination by the fmoke 
of iacrifices, was obferved in the manner of the 
fmoke afcending, whether it winded or took a direct 
courfe, or whether its fmell was ofFenfive. Ai&otvtp* 
VT, was divination by frankincenfe, which if it 
caught fire and emitted a grateful odour, was efteem- 
ed a good pmenj but if the fire did not catch it, or it 


* To encourage the flame IA pfyyova, dry flicks, were 
ufually prepared. 


produced an offenfive fmell, it wns a bad omen. 
OivopcwTiia and T^on*ai>Ta, divination by wine and 
by water, was, when conjectures were made from 
the colour, noife or motion of the wine, or the liba- 
tions ; or the water in which the victims were 
wafhed, and fome parts of them boiled ; (Mneid. 
A. A.C2. K0t@oAavTi<fc and Afavoavrsux.) divina- 

tions made from the flour with which the victim 
was fprinkled. IxflvopavriiK, divination by the en- 
trails of fifties. *!io<rxo7na, divination by eggs. 
Divination by facrifices was ancient ; (Clem. Alex- 
and. i. p. 306. Cicer.lib. ^. de Divinat. Litcan. 
lib. i. Diodor. SicuL I. 53. JEfchyLPrometh* 497. 
Barnes ad Eurip. Helen. 


The invention of divination by birds is by fome 
afcribed to Prometheus, or to Melampus ; by- 
others, to Car; (Plin. lib. 7. cap. $$.) or to Par- 
nafluss (Paufan. Phoc.) or to the Phrygians , (Clem. 
jflex. i. p. 306.^ It was in high eftimation j and 
an art ftudied even by kings ; (Calms . Antiq. Left* 
lib. 8. cap. i.) In all matters of importance the 
approbation of birds was firft obtained. At Lace- 
damon, the king and fenate were always attended 
by an augur. Birds, becaufe they continually flew 
about, were fuppofed to know the fecret actions of 
men ; (Ariftoph. Avib.) Omens given by birds 
Were called o^viif, ^i/or>co7rxa, ai-/*a, eiwvot, 
^ara, &c. ; and the obfervers of them, 
^j/t9o/xai/Tftc, o^vtOocrxoTrot, oicoj/tra*, oiwj/OTroAot, &C. 
Thefe names were afterwards applied to all kinds of 
artificial divination j (Arijlo-ph. Schol. Avib.) 

When the augurs made obfervations, they were 

clothed in white, with a crown of gold upon their 

o 3 heads ; 


heads; (Alex. ab. Alex. Gen. Dier. 15. cap. loj 
They alfo had oiwviruf ov, a feat, appointed for that 
purpofe, fometimes alfo called axc? and o/xo?; 
(Sophocl. Antig. v. 1115.^ They fometimes carried 
writing tables, on which they wrote the names and 
flights of the birds. The omens that appeared 
towards the earl, were deemed fortunate; thofe 
towards the wed, unfortunate. When they made 
obfervations, the augurs looked towards the north, 
with the eaft on their right hand, and the weft on 
their left; (Iliad p. v. 239 v * Hence the right hand 
fignified, prudence, and the left hand, folly ; (Schol. 
in Sophocl. Ajac. 184.^ Unlucky birds were called 
f^wAai^uot, pernicious ; an-eOujWioi, ungrateful j 
troublefome ; hence alfo they were called 
and i igKTMKiy becaufe they reftrained men from their 
defigns. Thofe which appeared in an unufual 
place were called JW^ot and sg ty. Lucky birds 
are Called attnoi, a;<nwo, tmuripoi, oJjoi and 
Ominous birds were of two forts ; the 
whofe flight was obferved by the augurs ; and the 
wJWi, which gave omens by their voices and fing- 
ing. If a flock of various kinds of birds flew about 
any one, it was fuppofed to portend unufual fuccefs. 
If the eagle clapped her wings, and fported in the 
air, flying from the right hand to the left, it was a 
moft prosperous omen ; (Niph. in App. de Augur, 
lib. i. cap. 9.) The manner of taking their prey 
was alfo aufpicious ; (Horn. Odyff. w. v. 1 60. Plu- 
tarch. Dion.) The flight of vultures was fuppofed 
to portend fomething extraordinary. They were 
reckoned among the unlucky birds, (Plin. mArijlot.) 
as they ufually appeared before any great flaughter, 
and with eagles, kites, and -other birds of prey, were 



certain (igns of death and bloodQied, if they followed 
an army, or continued for any time in any particular 
place. The hawk was an unlucky bird, and por- 
tended death if ihe was feen feizing her prey ; 
(Niph. in App. de Augur, lib. i. cap. 9.) if the prey 
efcaped, it iignified deliverance from danger. The 
buzzard, called T^c^rf, having three ftones, was 
accounted an ominous bird. The falcon-hawk, 
called Ki^xH, (Plin. lib. 10. cap. 13.) was edeemed 
lucky to people before marriage, or undertaking 
any money-bufmefs. It was facred to Apollo; 
(Horn. Odyff. o. 525*^ Swallows flying about, and 
refting upon any place, were an unlucky omen. 
Owls were accounted generally unlucky. At Athens, 
they were omens of fuccefs, becaufe they were 
facred to Minerva, the protectrefs of Athens. The 
proverb, TA*U rraTa, was ufually applied to fuc- 
cefsful perfons ; (Plutarch. 'Themift. Juftin. lib. 3.) 
They were generally ill ominous ; (jElian. Hi/tor. 
Anim. lib. 15. cap. 59. Homer. Iliad x.) A hern, 
f w&of, was an omen of fuccefs ; (Euflatk. in Horn. 
Iliad K.) The dove was efteemed a lucky bird ; 
(Homer.) The fwan was aufpicious to mariners, 
as an omen of fair weather; (^Emil.) Ravens were 
facred to Apollo; (/Elian, de Animal, lib, i. cap. 
48.^ and were thought to receive a power of por- 
tending future events from him. When they ap- 
peared about an army, they were dangerous omens. 
If they croaked on the right hand, it was a good 
omen ; if on the left, a bad one. Thefe birds were 
thought to underiland their own predictions; (Plin. 
lib. 10. cap. 12.) The chattering of magpies feems 
to have been an unfavourable omen. Cocks were 
efteemed prophetical, eipecially in times of war. 

04 They 


They were facred to Mars, and called 
(Ariftoph.) as they were offered in facrifice to him, 
and they were always reprefented together. The 
crowing of cocks was an aufpicious omen, and pre- 
faged the victory of Themiflocles over the Perfians. 
In commemoration of which he inftituted an an- 
nual feftival, called Atorfuoiw aywv, which was 
obferved by fighting cocks at the theatre ; (Plu- 
tarch.) If a hen was heard to crow, it was thought 
to forebode fome dreadful misfortune. Bats were 
accounted ill ominous. When any unlucky night 
bird got into a houfe, it was a dreadful omen j and 
they took care to catch it, and hang it before their 
doors, that the birds themfelves might atone for 
the evils they portended the family; (Apuleius.) 
Many people pretended to underftand the language 
of birds, and therefore to be privy to the fecret tranf- 
adions of others ; (Plin. Nat. Hi/I. lib. 9. cap. 49. 
Euftath. in Horn* Suidas. deer* de Div. 2. 3.9. 
Patifan. Attic. 34.^ 


Ants were ufed in divination, and generally fore- 
told good ; (Plutarch.) Bees were accounted an 
omen of future eloquence. There was a locuft, 
called Mam?, green, and flow in motion, which 
was obferved in foothfaying. Snakes and ferpents 
were ominous; (Homer. Iliad (3J Boars were 
always deemed unlucky omens to all who met them. 
If the hare appeared in time of war, it lignified 



Comets were always thought to portend fome- 
thing dreadful. Eclipfes of the fun or moon por- 


tended evil. If lightning appeared on the right 
hand, it was a good omen; if on the left, unlucky; 
{Euftath. in Horn. Iliad p.) The ignis lambens 
was an excellent omen, and prefaged future prof- 
perity ; (Apoll. Rhod. in Argon. T/zeocrit. 
Hor at. Carm. lib. i.) If one flame appeared fingle, 
it was called Helena, and was a dangerous omen, 
portending dorms and fhipwrecks. Though where 
Helena appeared, fometimes good was portended ; 
(Eurip. Orefi.) Earthquakes were unfortunate 
omens ; (Senec. thyeft. v. 693.^ Where they ap- 
peared, they were fuppofed to be caufed by Nep- 
tune, who is hence called fmcnyaior, and tvogri%Qw. 
It was ufual to fing pseans, and offer facrifices to 
avert his anger ; (Xenopfi, Grac. Hift. lib. 4.) The 
winds were thought to be prophetical; (Siatius 
fheba. lib. %.) If thunder was heard on the right 
hand, it was efteemed lucky ; if on the left, un- 
fortunate. If it was heard in a clear and ferenc 
/ky, it was an aufpicious fign ; (Horn. Odyff. .T. 
102.) If any thing was thunderflruck, it was un- 
fortunate; (Virgil EcL i. v. 16. Ovid, Ep. ad. 
Liviam.) To avert unlucky omens from thunder, 
they ufually made a libation of wine, pouring it 
forth in cups. Lightning was fo much dreaded 
by them that they worfhipped it ; (Plin. lib. 28. 
cap. 2.) They endeavoured to avert its malignant 
influence, by hifling and whittling at it, which they 
called *rinruv; (Ariftoph. Vefp.) Altars were 
creeled, and oblations made, in places which had 
fuffered by thunder, to avert the anger of the gods; 
(Arfemidor. Oneirocref. lib. i.) 




Of the prophetical lots there were two forts, 

ficc and KAij^o^aj/Tna. Srip^OjuavrfJos Was 

a fort of divination by verfcs, in which it was 
nfual to take fatidical verfes, and having wrote 
them upon little pieces of paper, to put them into 
a vefTel, and drawing them out, to expect to read 
their fate in the firft draught. This was often 
practifed upon the Sibylline oracles; hence the Sortes 
Sibylline. Sometimes they took up' the writings 
of a poet, and opening them, read the firft verfe 
that prefented itfelf for a prediction. This was 
called Pe\f^c/***9 from the rhapfodies of Homer. 
JDinf ojuamia, was a kind of divination, in which 
they made conjectures by throwing TK$ xA^sr, lots; 
xAufo?; in the fmgular, ufually fignified the hint 
given to diviners, by which they formed their con- 
jectures ; (SchoL in Eurip.) Thefe xAu^ , were ufually 
black and white beans, pebbles, or dice. Hence 
this divination was called ^po^aj/Tf j, argayaXopx.*- 
TU, >cuo^ai/Tia, 7T<T(ro/xa^Tfia, &C. They Caft the 

lots into a veffel, and having made fuppli cation to 
the gods to direct them, drew them out, and thus 
made their conjectures concerning them. All lots 
were facred to Mercury, who was fuppofed to pre- 
fide over this divination. Hence wsfpias mxa, for 
good luck's fake, they put in, together with the 
reft, one lot, which they called E^a XAT^OIS Mer- 
cury's lot, which was an olive leaf, and was drawn 
out before the reft. Sometimes the lots were not 
caft into veflels, but upon tables confecrated for 
that purpofe j (Pindar Sclwl. in Pythian. Od. 4. v. 


338.^ This divination was either invented orprao 
tifed by the Thriae, who were three nymphs that 
nurfed Apollo, that at length the word tyxi was 
fynonymous with xXygot. 

There is another fpecies of divination, called Pa&fo- 
pavwa, or prophefying by rods; (Cyril. Theophyl.) 
Having erected two flicks, they muttered a certain 
charm, and as the flicks fell, towards the right or 
left, they fo gave advice. Similar to this was BfAo- 
/*avTia, in which divination was made by arrows, 
fliaken together in a quiver. Another method was 
ufed, by catting the arrows into the air, and the man 
was to fleer his courfe the fame way the arrow in- 
clined in its defcent. Another method of divination 
by rods, was ufed by the Scythians ; (Herodot. lib. 4.) 
There were alfo other ways of divination; (Strab. 
lib. de Morib. German. Athena, lib. 15. Amman, 
Mar cell. lib. 29. j Another way ufed was, when the 
perfon defirous to learn his fortune, carried with him 
a certain number of lots, diftinguifhed by various 
characters, and walking in the public road, defired 
the firft boy that met him to draw ; and if that which 
was drawn, agreed with the thoughts of his mind, it 
was confidered an infallible prophecy ; (Pint, de Is. 
tt OJir.)It was ufual for a perfon, called 
to ftand with a little tablet, called wti/a 
or a-yufmrj <rccvi$, upon which were written certain 
fatidical verfes, which, according as the dice fell 
upon them, told thofe, who consulted, the fortune 
they were to expect. Inflead of tablets,, they fome- 
times ufed pots or urns, into which the lots or 
fatidical verfes were thrown, and thence drawn out 
by the boys; (Tibull. lib. i. Elc~, 3. Jiiven. Sat. 
6. v. 851. Cicer. de Divin. 11. 4-1. Paufan. 
Achaic. 25.) 




All marks upon the body, as shzix, fpots like 
oil, were omens of various fignifkation. Sudden 
emotions and perturbations in body or mind were 
confidered as evil omens ; (Odyff. u. 345.^ They 
were imputed to the operation of demons, efpecially 
of Pan; (Simonid. Epig.) The HaA/xot or natyuxo* 
eiwiuc-^ara, as palpitations of the heart or the mufcies, 
were omens. The palpitation of the right eye was 
a lucky omen; (Theocrit. Idyll.) Bo^oj, or a ring- 
ing cf the ears, was ominous. In the right ear, 
it was lucky ; (Niphus de Augur, lib. i. cap. 9.) 
The Ilraf/EAot, fneezings, were fo fuperftitioufly ob- 
ferved, that divine worfhip was thought due to 
them. Others fuppofed, it was a difeafe; and 
therefore when any one fneezed, it was ufual to fay, 
ZtiOi, may you live, or Zcu <ru<rov, God blefs you ; 
(Cafaib. in Athene, lib. 2. cap. 25.) It was cer- 
tainly accounted facred ; (Athena, lib. i. cap. 25.} 
it was even accounted a deity ; (Ariflot. Problem. 
fecJ. 33. cap. 7.) and often worfhipped ; (Xenop/i. 
De Exp. Cyr. lib. $.) If any one fneezed, at cer- 
tain times, or on a particular fide, it either encou- 
raged or difluaded them from particular buiinefs 5 
(Plutarch. Themift.) The fuperftitious obfervation 
of freezing was very ancient 3 (Theocrit. Idyll. 18. 
v. 16.) It v&as generally a lucky omen; (Horn. 
Odyl- 0-) but fometimes unfortunate; (Theocrit. 
Idyll, j. v. 96.) If any perfon fneezed between 
midnight and the following noontide, it was for- 
tunate; but if, between noontide and midnight, it 
was unfortunate - 3 (4riflot. Problem. feft. 33. cap. i u) 



If any one fneezed at the table, while tKey were 
removing the things; or if another happened to 
fneeze upon his left hand, it was unlucky ; if on 
the right hand, fortunate. If, in undertaking any 
bufinefs, two or four fneezes happened, it was fortu- 
nate; if more than four, it was neither good nor bad; 
if one or three, it was unlucky; (Nip A. de Aug. cap. 
S.J The beginning of any bufmefs was ftippofed to 
contain fomething ominous ; (Ovid. Fqft. lib. i .} A 
fudden and unufual fplendour in any houfe, was a 
fortunate omen. Darknefs was an unfortunate omen; 
(Horn. Odyff. <r. v. 36.^ When any unufual thing 
befel the temples, altars, or flatues of the gods, it was 
a dreadful omen; (Paufan. MeJJ'eniac. Cicero deDi* 
vin.lib. T.J The doors of temples opening of them- 
felves, and the filling down of images, were un- 
fortunate omens. All monflrous and frightful 
births, fudden and unufual inundations, the unex- 
pected decay or flourifhing of fruits or trees, unufual 
noife of beafts, were fure figns of the difpleafure 
of the gods; (Virg. Georg. lib. i. v. 469.) The 
Eko^a <ru/*oAa, omens offering themfelves upon the 
road ; as the unexpected meeting of an ape, a 
bitch with whelps, a fnake lying in the way, a 
hare crofling the road, were unfortunate omens. 
A woman working at her fpindle, or carrying it 
uncovered, was an unfortunate prefage. A weazel 
crofling the road, was alfo among the omens, called 

^u<r#j>T)'jT<fc > JWoia'r<fc and UTTOTPOITOHOC Qictp&Ta, lin- 
lucky. The divination that obferved omens hap* 
pening at home was called ro ojxofrxoTnxoi/; as, a black 
dog coming to the houfe ; a moufe eating a bag of 
fait ; a fnake or weazel being feen on the top of 
the houfe; the throwing down of fait; the fpilling 
of water, wine or honey ; and various other acci- 


dents. In putting on their clothes, the right fide 
was ferved fir ft; (Sueton. in Augufi. cap. 92. Plm. 
Nat. Hift. lib. 7. cap. 7.) When the crown fell 
from any one's head, it was a dreadful omen ; ( Se- 
nec. Thy eft.) At feafts, it was accounted lucky to 
crown the cup with a garland ; (Virg. ALneid. lib. 
3.^.525. Mneld. lib. i. v. *jz8>) It was ufual 
to carry home the fragments left at facrifices, 
as contributing to health; (Hefychius.) ominous 
words, good or bad, were called OTT, xAn<Joi/$ 
or 9f*i, becaufc they proceed from the mouth ; 
(Ftjlus. Cicero, lib. i. de Divin.) This divina- 
tion was moft in ufe at Smyrna, (Paufanias.) 
where they had xXyfowv isgcv, a temple, in which 
anfwers were returned. Some fay, Ceres was the 
inventor of them ; (Hefych.) others, the Delphian 
Sibyl ; (Clem. Alex. Strom, i.p. 304 J Words that 
boded ill, were called /caxai orrai, or Juo-^upai ; and 
he who fpoke them was faid (3Aa<rpjjWu/, ffoyyirtai 
P7.<r^>ipjav; (Euripid.) They were careful to avoid 
thefe words; (Hor. Carm.lib. Pint. S^on* Hellad. 
apud. Phot. Bibliothec. Lib. i . Cic. de Dfa.) 

Some words imported fuccefs, according to their 
natural fignification ; (Herod. Euterp. cap. 90.^ 
^s^ic-Oat otcoyoy,wasufed to fignify the accepting of an 
omen, and applying it to any bufinefs in hand. If 
the omen was immediately underftood by the hearer, 
it was efficacious; but if it was neglected, it became 
of no force; (P tin. Nat. Hift. Virg. J?n. 7. 1 1 6.) 
Whenever they applied themfelves to bulmefs, they 
exclaimed, for luck's fake, 6fo?, snrafapsv or Eraiptv 
u, Erai/^iv ayaSu rv^n ; (Theocrit. Idyll. 17. A7rf, 
Eel. 3. Aratns. Xenopk. lib. dt Ration.) Some 
times alfo were ominous; (Hefiod,) which obferva-. 



tion was called i<na<r0a r<*?^atj ; (Sueton. A'ig. 
cap. 92.) To avert an omen, a (lone was fome- 
times thrown at the thing, and it was killed ; that the 
evil portended by it, might fall upon its own head : 
if it was an unlucky fpeech, it was ufual to retort it 
upon the fpeaker, with an us xepaAuv <ro, let it fall 
upon your own head. This is faid to have been 
an Egyptian cuitom ; (Herod. Euterp, cap. %y.) 
Sometimes they faid EK ayaQov uo* or M*j ycwro, God 
forbid. It was a puftom to fpit three times into 
their bofoms, at the fight of a madman, or an 
epileptic perfon ; (Theocr. Idyll. 20. v. nj which 
they did in defiance of the omen. Sometimes 
they prayed that the ominous thing, as prodigies, 
or monftrous birds, which were efteemed profane, 
might be caft into the fea, or removed to a great 
diftance from them ; (ttbullus.) Sometimes the 
ominous thing was burned with ligna Jnfelicia, 
wood, which was facred to the gods, as thorns, 
which averted evil omens ; (Macrob. Satur. lib. 3. 
cap. 20,} Sometimes, when burnt, it was caft into 
the water; (Theocrit. Idyll. 24. v. 86 .) If an 
unlucky omen was met, any undertaking was pre- 
vented, or begun again; ( Euripid. Ion. v. 11.91.- 
Xenoph. ATTO^VH/A. /. i. Herodot. 9. 90. En'rip* 
Phanifs. 1500. Ion. 1189.^) 


There are other methods of foretelling futur 
events, named Mya and ETTO^I, magic and incanta- 

The Mayo*, applied themfelves to the ftudy of 
philofophy, and of the various works and myfteries 
of nature. They ufually officiated at religious rites 
and ceremonies ; attended kings, to affift them by 



their counfel ; and generally were men of eminence* 
But when they afterwards betook themfelves to the 
invocation of demons, and other mean arts, their 
credit was diminifhed. 

AifopotvTiix, divination which foretold future events 
from certain fpe&res, or other appearances in the 
air. They fometimes wrapped their head in a cloth, 
and having placed a bowl full of water in the open 
air, propofed their queftion in a whifper -, at which 
time, if the water boiled or bubbled, they fuppofed 
what they faid was approved. 

AXfXTvo/Aam<a, was an 'extraordinary divination. 
They wrote in the dud the twenty-four letters of 
the alphabet, and laid a grain of corn upon each 
of them 5 a cock then, magically prepared, was let 
loofe among them, and thofe letters, out of which 
he picked the corns, being joined together, were 
thought to declare their purpofe. 

Aw/A*m, from AU/TJ, a hatchet, which they 
fixt fo firm in a round ftake, that neither end might 
overbalance the other; they then prayed, and re- 
peated the names of thofe they fufpedled * and the 
perfon, at whofe name the hatchet moved, was 
deemed guilty. 

Ba<nwwa, fafcination ; an influence was believed 
to dart from the eyes of *ngry perfons, which in- 
fedled the air, and thus corrupted the bodies, of 
animals , (Heliodor. JEthiop. lib. 3^ The younger 
animals were thought to receive more eafily this 
impreflion; (Virg. Eel 3. v. 103.) The eyes of 
fome men were deftrucflive to infants, but had no 
power over grown perfons ; (Plut. Sympos. lib. 5, 
. 7.) Women, who had double eye-balls, 


Lad the power of hurting thofe on whom they fixt 
their eyes; (Plin. Nat. Hifl. lib. 7. cap. 2.) They, 
who were happy and fuccefsful, were more liable to 
fafcination; (Hor. lib. u Ep. 14. v. 26.} They 
who were commended by others were in danger of 
fafcination ; {fertull. lib. de Virg. vel.Plin. Nat. 
Eift. Plautus. Afin. aft. 2. fcen. 4. v. $4.) Gar- 
lands of the herb Baccharis were fuppofed to have 
power over fafcination; (Vvrg. Eel. j. v. 27.} 
Necklaces, bracelets, compofed of (hells, corals, and 
precious ftones> were applied by fome, to avert faf- 
cination. Certain herbs prepared with incan- 
tations and magical rites were alfo ufed. The 
figure of a man's privities, hung upon the necks 
of children, were thought to prevent fafcination; 
(Vano. lib. 6. Pint. Symp. lib. $. Qjuaft. 7.} They 
were fometimes hung upon the doors of houfes and 
gardens ; (Plin. Nat. Hifl. lib. 1 9. cap. 4. ) Smiths 
commonly placed them before their forges ; (Pol- 
lux. Onomaft. lib. 7. cap. i^.) Sometimes they wore 
the figures of Priapus, who was fuppofed to punifh 
(uch perfons, as hurt by fafcination; (Diodor. Sycul, 
lib. 4.) Some averted fafcination by thrice fpitting 
into their bofoms; (SchoL in tfheocrit.* ^heocrit*. 
Idyll. 6. v. 39 .) Others, by tying a thread of vari- 
ous colours upon the neck of an infant, and fpitting 
upon the ground, and mixing it with the dirt, put 
it upon the infant's lips and forehead ; (Perf. Sat, 
z.v. 31.; 

, divination by herbs, efpectally 
fage y or by fig-leaves, and hence 
called 2vxc///.akTia. They who confulted, wrote 
their own names, and their queilions upon leaves, 
ivliich they cxpofed to the wind; and as many let- 


tcrs as remained in their own places, were taken 
up, and being joined together, contained an anfwcr 
to the queflion. 

FarfOjWamia. They filled round glafTes with clear 
. water, about which were placed lighted torches; then 
invoked a demon, praying in a murmuring voice, 
and propofed the queftiorr to be folved. A chafte 
boy, or a pregnant woman was appointed to obferve 
the alterations in the glaffes ; defiring an tmfwer, 
which the demon returned by images in the glaiTes ; 
which, by reflection from the water, reprefented 
what fhould come to -pafs. 

AaxTUAo/xavTi ice, was a divination by rings, encliant- 
cd, or formed according to fome polition of the 
heavenly bodies. 

KaTOTTTflOjEAamta. Sometimes glafTes were ufed, 
and the images of what was to happen, were repre- 
fented without water. Sometimes it was performed 
in a vefiel of water, the middle part of which wa^ 
called r*rf n. See rarfo^ayrna. 

Kf*xxojuavTi*, was a divination by the head of 
an afs, which vyas broiled on coals. After mutter- 
\ng fome prayers, they repeated the names of thofe 
they fufpecled, or the crime; at which, if the jaws, 
moved, or the teeth chattered, they thought they 
bad difcovered the villain. 

Kao/xvTia, divination by wax, which they melN 
cd over a veflel of water, dropping it within three 
Certain fpaces, and obferving the figure, fituation, 
diftance and concretion of the drops. 

Kco-xivcjuavTfi^, was a divination practifed to dif* 
cpvcr thieves j they tied a thread to a deve, by 


which it was upheld ; or elfe placed a pair of fheers, 
which they held up by two fingers ; then praying 
the gods to direct them, they repeated the names 
of the fufpe&ed perfons -, and he, at whofe name 
the fieve moved, was thought to be the thief ; (The* 
cent. Idyll. 3. v. 28.) 

Kf ur^Aojwamia, was performed by poliflied and 
enchanted cryftals, in which future events were 
iignified by certain figures. 

Acavojt*amj. They diftinguifhed the ftofles of 
wedges with certain characters put into a bafin, and, 
then, having invoked the demon in a certain form, 
propofed their queftion ; to which an anfwer was, 
returned in a fmall voice, like a hifs, proceeding 
from the water $ (Schol. in Lycop/ir. Alexand. v* 
813. p. 84.^ 

Ai0oj**mn*, was fometimes performed by a pre- 
cious ftone y which they warned at night by can* 
die-light with fpring water. The perfon, who 
confulted it, was to be purified from all pollution, 
and to have his face covered. He then repeatedl 
fome prayers, and placed certain characters in order. 
The ftone then moved of itfelf, and in a foft mur- 
mur, returned an anfwer. 

MoAu&tyAamja, was by obferving the figures of 
melted lead. 

Nfjc^amia, was a divination, in which anfwers 
were given by deceafed perfons. It was fometimes 
performed by the magical uie of a bone, or vein 
of a dead body ; or by pouring warm blood into 
a carcafe; (Lucian.) Sometimes they attempted tg 
r^ife departed fpirits by invocations and ceremonies \ 

? z (Horn. 


(Horn. Odyff. 9. Statins, fheb. Vakr. Place.-* 
Pirn. Nat. Hift.Senec. CEdip. v. 547.) 

NXUC/X*T*, the place where the above divina- 
tion was performed ; (Herodot. Terpfich.) 

Oifv^ofAotvrnaty was performed by the nails of a 
chafte boy, covered with oil and foot, which they 
turned to the fun, the reflection of whofe rays was 
believed, by certain images, to reprefent their pur- 

nuyo/Aamia, a divination by fountain water. They 
obferved the various changes, impreffions, fluxes, 
colours, and images in the water. Sometimes they 
dipped a looking-glafs into the water, when they 
defired .to know what would become of a fick per- 
fort. Sometimes they filled a bowl with* water, and 
fufpending a ring in it, by a thread tied to one of 
the ringers, then praying the gods to folve the 
queftion ; if the thing propofed was true,' the ring 
would itrike againft the fides of the bowl, a certain 
number of times. Sometimes they cad three flones 
into the water, and obferved the turns they made 
in linking. Inftead of water, they fometimes ufed 
oil, and wine, which was called ^yrA. Inftead of 
{tones, they fometimes ufed wedges of gold or 


, was performed by red hot Iron, 
upon which they laid an odd number of draws, and 
gbferved the figures they reprefented in burning. 

2xEo/Amia, was fo called, if the dead only ap- 
peared in airy forms. See No^vma. It was 
ibmctiaies called 


divination by ames; the queftioa 
was written in afhes upon a board, which they ex- 
pofed in the open air; and thofe letters which re- 
mained perfect were thought to contain a iblution 
of the queftion. 

fee TlyycpwrsHz. 

was performed by certain medicated 
and enchanted compofitions of herbs, or minerals ; 
which they called $apax*. Some of thcfe taken 
internally caufed blindnefs, madnefs, love, &c. 
Others infected by a touch. Others operated on 
perfons at a diftance, which were called Qa^Kx, 
truTYigux, which were amulets againft the former; 
fuch were the herb moly, the laurel, the jafper 
ftone, &c,; {Arijloph, Pint. Ovid, Met. 7. Fab. 
2. Vivg. JLclog. 8. Euripid. Med. v. 395. Apol-* 
Ion. Argon. 3. <u 1028.^ To this divination may 
be referred charms againft poifon, difeafes or venom; 
(Suidas.Hom, Od)f. L v. 456. Plin. Nat. Ilift. 
lib. 38. cap. l.Pind. Pyth, Od. 3. v. %$.Paitfan. 
Eliac. 2. p. 383. Euripid. Ale eft. v. 96$.} To 
this may alfo be added, enchanted girdles, to ex~ 
cite love. 

There were many other forts of divination, as 


Feflivals were chiefly inftituted in honour of .the 
gods ; to obtain fome good or to avert fomp evil ; 
(Diod. Sicul. 5. 68. Cicer. de Leg. 2. 14.^ in me- 
mory of departed friends; (Arijtyh. Ran, 664.^ 


or as reft and recreation to labourers. In ancient 
times there were few befides rural feftivals ; (Ariftot. 
Ethic, ad. JJicomach. lib. 8. cap. y.) The Athenians 
Exceeded all others in the number of their feftivals ; 
(Xenoph. de Rep. Ath.) They were chiefly cele- 
brated at the public expence. The following were 
the moft celebrated :- 

Aynrogziov and AyjTo^a, probably belonged to 
Venus, whofe prieft was called Ayyru(>, in Cyprus- 
It is fuppofed to be the fame as Kf y*>* 3 (Hefy chins. 
. lib, 4. Euftath. in Iliad w.) 

was celebrated at Argos, (Hefychius.) 
in memory of a daughter of Pnetus. 

Ay^avta, probably the fame as the former. It 
was alfo celebrated at Thebes, 

Ayf auAia, was celebrated at Athens in honour of 
Agraulus, daughter of Cecrops. The Cyprians 
honoured Jier by the celebration of an annual fefti- 
val in the month Aphrodiiius, at which human 
victims were offered ; (Porphyr. de Abftin. lib. 2.) 

, in honour of Bacchus, furnamed Aygw- 
for his cruelty ; (Plut. Anton.) It was ob- 
ferved in the night ; (Plut, Sympos. lib. 8. >it<eft. i .) 
arid celebrated by women. 

AyOT65 uo-^ -, an annual facrifice of five hun- 
dred goats, offered at Athens to Minerva, furnamed 
Ay^T^a, from Agr*e in Attica 3 (Xeuotohi Exped. 

Aygu-vff, was a nodurnal feftival; (HefycJiitts) 
celebrated in honour of Bacchus, at Arbela, in 
Sicily ; and fo called bccaufe the worfhippers were 
ccuilomed, Aypww, to watch all night. 


or A^WVEIK, was in honour of Venus and 
Adonis, It lafted two days ; (Siddas. Proclus. in 
Chrejlom.) Upon the firft day, images of Adonis 
and Venus were brought forth, in proceffions iltnilar 
to thofe ufed at funerals; (Pint. Nicia, p. 532. 
Macrob. 'Sat. i . 2 1 . ) The women tore their hair, 
beat their breads, and exprefled other figns of 
forrow and lamentation; which was called aJWi- 
cjcr^tcf, (Etymol. Altffi.) or a<Jawa; hence a^wviav &yzw 9 
lignifies AJWikxAaivfiv, to weep for Adonis; (Suidas.) 
The fongs on this occafion were called Atiwiha. 5* 
They alto carried fliells filled with earth, in which 
feveral forts of herbs grew, particularly lettuces; 
in memory,,that Adonis was laid out by Venus upon 
a bed of lettuces. Thefe were called K*j*-o<, gar- 
dens. The flutes, ufed upon this day, were called 
r*yga, from TiygK, the Phoenician name of Adonis. 
Hence to play .on this inflrument was called yiy^v 
or yiy^Knuv ; the mulic, ^^ao-jtxoj, and the fongs 
yiygavrx. The facrifice was called xaO^as. The 
fecond day was paiTed in joy and merriment; m 
commemoration, that Adonis was reftored to life, by^ 
the favour of Proferpine obtained by Venus, and 
was to dwell with her half of every year; (Pint* 
Nic.p. 532. Macrob. Sat. I. 21.) 

A0ipt, two feftivals obferved at Athens, in ho- 
nour of Minerva; one was called UuvyfiwauK, the 
other X#Axf<#. 

Aax<a, fports at /Egina, in honour of ^acus, 
who had a temple in that ifland; in which, after 
the folemnity, the victors prefented a garland of 
flowers; (Pindar. SchoL New. Od. 6.) 

Ata>Tia, in honour of Ajax, in the ifle of Sala- 
mis ; (Hefy chins) and in Attica, where his memory 
was religioufly honoured. 



Aiywruv f<?fTi, was a feflival at JEgina, in ho- 
nour of Neptune, which lafted fixteen days. It 
was performed by free denizens. It was ended with 
;i facrifice to Venus j (Pint. Gr<ec. Qua ft.) The 
denizens were called Movopayoi, eaters by themfelves. 

Ajjuaxotita, obferved in Peloponnefys, in which 
boys (xa>oi) were whipped at the fepulchreof Pelops, 
till (<*iua) blood was drawn. 

AJO), tugct, ivSiivitos, AAijTif ; a feflival, (Hygin* 
Aftronom. lib. 2.) and iblemn facrifice, celebrated by 
'the Athenians, with vocal muiic, in honour of 
Erigone, fometimes called Aletis, the daughter of 
Jcarius ; who at the lofs of her father hanged her- 
feif. Some fay, it was obferved in honour of king Te- 
maleus, or of ^Egifthas and Cly temneftra : (Hefy* 
thins. Etymolog. Autt,). 

Ax-na, a triennial feftival, obferved at A6Hum in 
Epirus, with wreflling, horfe-racing," and a fight of 
Ihips, in honour of Apollo, who was called AcTius* 
from that place j (Stephan. Byzant. Milan. Hiji\ 
Aninf. lib.. \ i . cap. 8 '.) 

AXaia or A>a, in honour of Minerva, furnamed 
Alea, at Tegea in Arcadia ; (Pan/an. Arc ad.) 

AXfXT^uovwv aywv, an annual cock-fight at Athens, 
in memory of the cocks, from whofe crowing The- 
miilocles received an omen of his fuccefs againfl 
the Perfians; (JElianlib. 2. eap. 28.J 

Axa, folemn games celebrated at Rhodes; (Pind. 
SchoL Olymp. Od. 8.) on the twenty-fourth day of 
the month r07n<ua, which is the fame as the Athe- 
outyoaiwv, in honour of the fun, HXio? and 
, 'yvho is laid to have been born there, the in- 


habitants of which were hence called HAia&*; (Stra* 
bq<> lib. 14.) The victors were crowned with poplar. 
A:\xa0oi*, at Megara, (Find. SchoL New. $.) in 
honour of Alcathous, ion of Pclops : who, being fuf- 
pecled of having murdered his brother Chryfippus, 
Ifled to Megara, where, having ilain a terrible lion, 
he w?,s honoured with the daughter of, king Mega- 
reus. in marriage j and became his fuccefTor, 

AAwaj, at Athens, in the month IIo<r<fewi/, in, 
honour of Geres and Bacchus, by whole bleiiing 
the hufbandmen received the recompence of their 
labour. Their oblations were the fruits of the 
earth ; (Demofth. in Near.) Some fay, it was in 
commemoration of the primitive Greeks who lived 
IS x<n, in their corn fields, or vineyards ; (Har-> 
, Eujlath. Iliad o.) 

, to Minerva, by the Arcadians, in com- 
memoration of a vidlory, in which they took many 
of the Lacedemonians prifoners, which were called 
; (Paufan. Arc ad.) 

or A|ua^u(rta, was celebrated with games, 
in honour of Diana, furnamed Amarynthia and 
Amaryfia, from a town in Euboea, 

Af*Sf oo-*, in honour of Bacchus, (ScJiol. Htfiod. 
Oper. et Di. lib. 2.) in the month of Lenaon, in 
moil of the cities of Greece. 

, belonged to Jupiter; (Hefy chins.) 
an Athenian feftival ;. (Hefy chins.) 

a, at Oropus, in honour of Amphiaraus^ 
(Pindar. SchoL Olymp. 7.) 

A^i^oji*a, was obferved by private families at 
Athens, upon tlie fifth day after the birth of every 



child. It was fo called a?ro ns itjjiQiffApuv, from run- 
ning round : becaufe it was cuflomary to run round 
the fire with the infant in their arms. 

Aj/aycoyia, to Venus, ( jElian. Var. Hifl. lib. I . cap. 
15.^ at Eryx, in Sicily, where me was honoured 
with a magnificent temple. 

Avxi*, an Athenian feflival, in honour of the 
Diofcuri, who were called Avax?, and honoured* 
with a temple, called Ai/a^oi/. Thefe facrifices were 
named Hfi<r^oi, becaufe thofe deities / were eyot 9 
ftrangers; (Pindar SchoL Olymp. 3.) and confided 
of three offerings, (Paufan.) which were called 
TiTu<*. Plays were acted in honour of thefe deities; 
(At hen. Dipnos. lib. 2.) 

AvajcAnTa, obferved at the proclamation of kings 
and princes, when they became of age to affume. 
the reins of government 5 (Polyb. Hift. 1 8.) 

Avaxrwi/ iruiSuv ; at Amphyfla, in Locris, either 
In honour of the Diofcuri, Curetes, or Cabin j ( Pau~ 
fan. Photic.) 

Av*%otyofit<x, obferved by boys, on the anniverfary 
of the death of Anaxagoras ; (Dwg. Laert.) 

Avfyoyzwiciy or Aywi/ff VTT* Evgvyvriy annual games 
(Hefychius) celebrated in the Ceramicus at Athens, 
in memory of Androgeos, or Eurygyas, fon of Minos; 
(Pint. T/ies.) 

Av6ff^a, obferved at Athens, in honour of Bac- 
chus, on the i ith, 1 2th and I3th days of the month 
The firft day was named ILfiotyia, OCTTQ ra 
/, becaufe they then tapped their barrels, 
By the Chasrorteans it was called Ay*9a Aa^ucvo?, the 
day of good genius, becaufe they were merry on that 
day. The fecondday was called Xo^from themea- 



ure Xoa, becaufe every one drank out of his own vef- 
fel. They drank copioufly, and the longed liver, in 
token of victory, was rewarded with a crown of leaves, 
or a crown of gold, (Milan. Var.Hift. lib. 2. cap. 41.) 
and a velTel of wine. On this day, Bacchus had the 
furname of Ko OK orris. The third day was called XUT^OI, 
from Xur^a, a pot, which was full of feeds, facred to 
Mercurius Xtavio?, the infernal, and from which they 
abftained. On this day the comedians acted. The 
flaves were allowed to be merry on this day ; (Ari 
Jloph. Schol. ad Acharn. 960. Pint. Sympos. 3.^ 
Athene. 10. 10.) 

, obferved in Sicily, fo named a rx 
from carrying flowers, in honour of 
Proferpine. Another of this name was obferved at 
Argos in honour cf Juno ; (Panfan. Corinth.) under 
the name of A>9*. 

Ai/Ttyovi, facrifices in honour of Antigonus^ 
(Pint. Agid. and Cleom.) 

AVTUOSW, annual facrifices and quinquennial games, 
in memory of Antinous the Bithynianj obferved at 
Mantinea in Arcadia ; (Panfan. Arcad.) where An- 
tinous had a temple. 

ATrarou^ja, firft obferved at Athens ; (Ariftoph. 
ScJiol. Acharn. 960. Hefy chins. Suidas.) it received 
its name from aTraru, deceit ; becaufe it was firft in- 
ftituted in memory of a ftratagem by which Mela^i- 
thius, the Athenian king, overcame Xanthus, king 
of Boeotia. Jupiter was hence furnamed Avarwug, 
deceiver. It was celebrated in the month IIua\J/w>i 
and lafted three days. The firft day was called 
A0f , from AO^TTC?, fupper > becaufe each tribe 
ziflernbled, a t ev^wing, at an entertainment. The 



fecond day was named Ai/a^us-K, azro T* ayy 
becaufe viclims were offered to Jupiter ; (Schol. 
Ariftoph. Pac. 890. //<?w. //. a. 459 J At this facrit 
fice, the children, enrolled amongft the citizens, 
were placed clofe to the altar. The third day was 
named Kaj *TK, from Ka^of, a youth ; or xjjjoa, tonfio, 
becaufe the children were fhaved before they were 
regiflered. Two ewes and a fhe-goat were offered 
in facrifice to Diana, which they called flusu/ ^r^M 9 
J:he fhe-goat was called a% QcxTgw, and the ewe 
oVf $<*ryg ; (Pollux.) It was to be of a certain 
weight > and becaufe it was once found to be (J>wv 9 
too little, it was afterwards called Utw, and they 
who offered it, Mtiayuyoi. Some add a fourth day, 
(Hejyckms.) called ETH&JV. This feftival was ob- 
ferved five days by the Protenthas, who began it a 
day fooner than others -, (Athen* lib. 4.-*- Schol. An- 
fioph. Acharn. 146. %enoph. llift. Gr<fc.lib+ i t 
Hero dot. Vit. Homer. Poly anus. Strat. I. 19.) 
, on the fecond day of a marriage. 

, obferved ^t uEgialea, to Apollo $ (P#0s 
Jan. Corinth.) 

certain days (HeJycJiius) called ITo/*-* 
in which facrifices were offered to the godsj 
(Sophocl.) who were thought to avert evils. 

A{5aTa, at Sicyon, (Pint. Arat.) on the birth- 
day of Aratus, celebrated with mufic. The.prieft 
wore a ribband, (potted with white and purple ; the 
chorifters of Bacchus carried harps, 

Afy*wwori,the name of feveral feftivals at Argos j 
(Parthen. Erotic. 13. Pint. Gr<tc. <2/K/?. M** 
Pvliorcet. cap. 17.) 

A^iaJvcia, two festivals (Pint, fyes.) at Naxos, 
in honour of two women, who were both called 

Ariadne i 


Ariadne ; one was obferved with mirth ; the other 
with mourning. 

Af yupof , at Athens, (Harpocrat. Suidas.) in 
the month Zx^gopof *, in honour of Minerva, and 
Erfa, one of the daughters of Cecrops ; hence it is 
fometimes called Ej o-upo^i* or Eggn$o^a ; (EtymoL 
AuEl. Athena, lib. 3. Snidas. Pint. Ifocr.) 
fyffiQogia, is derived ano TK atgcurat Qffeu, becaufe 
of certain myfteries, which were carried by four noble 
virgins not under feven nor more than eleven years 
of age, and hence called A^u^o*. Their apparel 
was white, ornamented with gold ; (Etymol. Auft.) 
They had a particular fort of bread, which was called 
tariff; (Athena, lib. 3.) and cakes called avararei. 
There was a Zp<uoiruoiov, ball-court, in the Acropolis, 
in which flood a brazen ftatue of liberates on horfe- 
>back. From thefe were chofen two, to weave a 
*ri7rA0s or garment for Minerva : which cuflom be- 
gan on the thirtieth of Pyanepfion. 

ATE 4 ui<n<*, in honour of Diana ^ celebrate*} in 
many places of Greece, particularly at Delphi, 
where a mullet was offered to her, becaufe it is faid 
to hunt and kill the fea-hare; (Athena, lib. j.) the 
bread offered to the goddefs was termed Ao^i* and 
the women, who performed the facred rites, were 
called Aojw#u Another of this name, was obferved 
ar Syracufe, and celebrated, during three days, with 
fports and banquets 5 (Liv. lib. 23. Hcjychins.) 

A<rxXT)7Tt,in honour of ^fculapius; (Plato lone,) 
It was alto called MnyK\*<rxiwrti, the great feftival 
of ^Efculapius. It chiefly confided of mufic, in 
which muficians and poets contended ; hence it was 
called Jfoj ajy, the facred contention. 


A<r;cwAi, in honour of Bacchus, celebrated by the 
Athenian hufbandmen ; ( P hiirmttus deBacc/io. Ari- 
Jloph* Schol. Pint. Hefy chins.) who facrificed a he- 
goat to Bacchus ; and from the fkin of the victim they 
made a bottle, which being rilled with oil and wine, 
they endeavoured to leap upon it with one foot, and 
he who firil flood upon it, was the victor, and re- 
ceived the bottle. It was called acrxwAta^f, *%* 
70 7n TOV ao-xov aAAf<r0a*, that is, from leaping upon 
the bottle. 

Apo<&<n, in honour of Venus 5 obferved in vari- 
ous parts of Greece, and with many myfterious 
folemnities. The mod remarkable feflival was at 
Cyprus, firft inftituted by Cinyras ; out of whofe 
family priefls of Venus were elected, and hence 
called Kiw^aJai. All who were initiated offered a 
piece of money to Venus, as an harlot, and received, 
as a token of her favour, a meafure of fait and a 
CaAAo? : the former, becaufe fait is a concretion of 
fea water, from whence Venus was faid to owe her 
birth; the latter, becaufe fhe was the daughter of 
wantonnefs. At Amathus, in Cyprus, facrifices 
were offered to Venus, and called K^7rwo-if, from 
Ka^Tro?, fruit. It was obferved at both the Paphi, 
by multitudes from other cities; and at Corinth, 
by harlots ; (Clem. Protrept. Arnob. lib. 5. Hefy- 
fhhts. Pindar. SchoL -Strabo> lib. 14. At hen* 

c, at Sparta, in honour of Achilles; ( Pau+ 
fun. La con. 

Baxxna, to Bacchus ; (Hefychius.) 
BAArTj?, at Eleufis, to Demophoon, fon of Ce- 
-, (Athcn*. lib. g.Hefychiui.) 

F E S T I V A L . 22j 

at Threfpotia, in which the ftrongefl 
obtained the victory ; (Hefy chins.) 

Ba<nA, at'Lebadea in Boeotia; (Pindar. Schol. 
Clymp. 7.) 

Xivhfeicty in Thrace, in honour of Diana, who 
was called B^K. It was afterwards celebrated in 
the Pineus at Athens, on the nineteenth or twen- 
tieth of QotgynXiuv y (Strabo lib. 9. Hefychius.) 

Bcj^o/xia, at Athens, fo called onro T to^opt**) 
from coming to help. It was in memory of Ion, 
fon of Xuthus y (Suidas. Harpocrat.) It is alfo 
faid, that it was in commemoration of a victory 
obtained by Thefeus ;%ainft the Amazons, in the? 
month Boi^o/xtwj/ ; (Plutarch, fhef.) 

Bo^(r/Ao<, in honour of Boreas ; (Plat, in PJuedr. 
Hefychiiis. Paufan. Attic.) He had alfo a tem- 
ple at Megalopolis in Arcadia ; (Paufan. Arc ad.) 

BOTTIWV zogrv ; (Plutarch* Thef. Qu<*ft. Grxc.) 
At this folemnity, the virgins ufed to fay, Iwpw f*j 
A9jvaf, let us go to Athens* 

Bf*t!ra, was annually obferved at Sparta, by- 
free-born citizens, in memory of Braiidas, a Lace- 
dsemonian captain. It was celebrated with games; 
and thofe who negle&ed to attend, were fined; 
(Paufan. Laconic. Thucyd. lib. $.Suidas.) 

B^au^tfvi*, to Diana, furnamed Brauronia. It 
was celebrated once in five years, and managed by 
ten men, called ItgoTrow. The victim offered in 
facrifice, was a goat ; and it was ufual for fome men 
to (ing one of the Iliads of Homer. Young virgins 
attended, habited in yellow, and confecrated to 
piana, who were about ten years of age ; hence to 



conlecrate them, was called &X&TCVW, from 
ten. It was alto called OI^XTEUEIV, from a^xrot, bears : 
which arofe, becaufe among the Phlanidae, inha- 
bitants of a borough in Attica, there was a bear, 
which was fo far diverted of its natural ferocity, 
that they admitted it to eat and to play with them ; 
but a young virgin once becoming too familiar with 
it, the bead tore her to pieces, and was afterwards 
killed by the brothers of the girl. Upon this, a 
feftival enfued, which proved fatal to many of the 
inhabitants of Attica; to remedy which, an oracle 
adviled them to appeafe the anger of Diana, by 
confecrating virgins to her ip memory of it. This 
command was punctually executed, and a law 
enacted that no virgin mould be married, till me 
had undergone this folemnity; (Hefych. Paufan. 
Attic, c. 23. Pollux, viii. 9. and 31. Ariftopk. 
i 644. Harpocrat.) 

, in which they boiled rw yoc,\&%i<x,v y a 
fixture of barley-pulfe and milk; (Hefyckius.) 
Others fay, it was celebrated to Apollo, who was 
furnamed Galaxius, from a place in Boeotia ; (Pro- 


FaXi>9*a^a, a folemn facriflce at Thebes, offered 
to Galinthias, a daughter of Pratus. 
, obferved at marriages. 
, in memory of the birth of any perfon. 
, in memory of the death of any perfon. 

Aif, celebrated by women, in honour of 
Venus, called Gennetyllis, the goddefs of that fex, 
to whom they offered dogs ; (Hejychius. Arijlopk. 
interp. ad 


at Gerceftus, in Eubsea, in honour of 
Neptune, where he had a temple s (Pindar. Schol. 
Qlymp. 13.) 

ttf otyuiuv lojori,. in honour of Mars, annually ob- 
ferved at Geronthrae; (Paufan.Lacoh. Milan. Hift. 
lib. 4 cap. 43.^ Here was a grove* which no one 
might enter* during this folemnity. 

ru? CfTu, in honour df mother Earth* at Athens 5 
(Thucyd. lib. 2* Pindar. Pythion. lib. $.) Solemn 
games were celebrated to her. 

TvpvQiraijitX) or Tv^voTron^etoc, a folemn dance by 
Spartan boys ; (Plutarch. Apoph.) 

AaiJif* laded three days, during which time 
torches, called ^*&?- 5 were burned j (Lucian. Pfeu+ 
dom.) The firft day was in honour of Latona's 
labour and Apollo's birth ; the fecond of Glycon's 
and the god's nativity ; the third of the marriage of 
Podalirius, and the mother of Alexander. 

AaiJ^Aa, two fefiivals in Boeotia, celebrated in a" 
grove; (Eufeb. de prxpar. Evangi lib. 3 J In one 
they aflembled-, and expofing pieces of fodden flefli 
in the air* they obferved whether the erows, that 
came to prey upon the' m* flew j and then hewed 
down thofe trees upon which any of them alighted, 
and formed them into flatUes* which were called 
taifaxb, from Daedalus, the artificer of them, The 
Other was celebrated once in fixty years, as a recom- 
pence for the intermiflion of the leffer feftival, the 
fame number of years during which the Platseans 
had lived in exile. All the cities in Boeotia joined 
in its celebration j (Vid. Paufanias.) 

?, (Hefy chins.) 


at Argos, when they reprefented the com* 
bat of Prastus and Acrifius. 

) a novennial feftival, in honour of 
Apollo; (Paufan. Exotic. loj An olive bough 
was adorned with" garlands of laurel, and various 
flowers; on the top of which was placed a globe of 
brafs, and from it hung other fmall globes. About 
the middle were fixed to it purple crowns, and a 
fmaller globe than that at the top ; the bottom 
was covered with a faflfron-coloured garment. The 
higheft globe was an emblem of the fun, or Apollo ; 
that under it, fignified the moon; the fmaller globes, 
the ilars 3 and the fixty-five crowns, were types of 
the fun's annual revolution. The bough was car- 
ried in proceffion; the chief in which was a boy 
of d, beautiful countenance and good family, whofe 
parents were both alive. He was drefted in a fump- 
tuous garment, reaching to his ancles ; his hair 
hung loofe and difhevelled ; on his head was a crown 
of gold, and upon his feet, fhoes, called Iphicra- 
tidse, from Iphicratcs an Athenian, who firft in- 
vented them. He executed the prieft's office, and 
Was called ot,$w$Q$ot 9 laurel-bearer. Before him 
went one of his neareft relations, bearing a rod, 
adorned with garlands ; after the boy, a choir of vir- 
gins followed, with branches in their hands. Thus 
they proceeded to the temple of Apollo, called 
Ifmenius and Galaxius, where they fung hymns 
to him; (Enftath. de Ifmen. Amor. lib. 8. and 9.) 

AcApwa, at^Egina, in honour of Apollo ; (Find. 
Schol. Ofymp. $.) 

ArjAia, a quinquennial feftival at Delos; (fhucyd. 
lib. 3. Callim. Hymn, in Detm, Plutarch, fhef.) 



in honour of Venus, celebrated with mufic, horie- 
racing, and a dance, called yef avo?, a crane. 

AnfAijTfta, in honour of Ceres; (Poltitx. Onom. 
lib. \. cap. i. Hefy chius.) in which it was ufual to 
lafli themfelves with whips, made from the bark of 
trees, and called /AUJOWTO*. There was another feitival 
of this name at Athens, in honour of Demetrius 
Poliocrates; (Pint. Demetr. Diod. Sic. lib.i%. 
Euftath. II. .) 

Atajuas-iywtn?, at Sparta, in honour of Diana Or- 
thia, fo called a?ro T /Aanyw, from whipping, be^ 
caufe it was ufual to lafh boys upon the goddefs's 
altar; (Plutarch. Lacon. Inft. et. Ariftide. Paufan* 
Lacon. Cicero TnfcuL Quxft. 2.) Thefe boys 
were at firil free-born, but afterwards the offspring 
offlaves, and called Bw/x-omxai, from the laming at 
the altar: and left any part of the punimment 
fhould be remitted, the prieftefs of Diana attended, 
holding the image of the goddefs in her hand, 
\vhich of itfelf was light j but if the boys were fpared, 
became fo heavy, as (lie could fcarcely fupport it. 
The parents of the boys ufually attended to encou- 
rage them to bear the punimment with Spartan 
fortitude ; which was fometimes fo fevere as to kill 
them. Thofe, who thus died, were buried with 
garlands upon their heads, in token of joy or victory, 
and were honoured with a public funeral. 

at Sparta. 

Athens, in honour of Jupiter, furnamed 
?, the propitious ; (Thucyd.lib. i. Ariftoph. 
Schol. Nub* Suidas.) It was fo called mro T* A<cf, 
from Jupiter and misfortune. At this 
Q ^ feftival 


feftival a public mart was held ; (Artftoph. Nub.~ 
Plutarch. Phocion.) 

AtiTroXsia, at Athens, celebrated on the fourteenth 
of 2xif opov, fo named, becaufe it was facred TWIT 
AiV rioAifi, to Jupiter, furnamed Polieus, or pro- 
tector of the city. It was fometimes called Bapovta, 
from killing an ox. It was ufual to place the fame 
fort of cakes, ufed at facrifices, upon a brafs table ; 
around which were driven afelecl: number of oxen, of 
which he who eat any of the cakes was ilaughtered. 
He, who killed the ox, was called par*!? or fitxpoitos, 
Three families were employed in this ceremony, and 
received different names from their different offices. 
They who drove the oxen were called xwrgiufsK 
from XEI/T^OK, a fpur; they who knocked him down, 
- 3 they who ilaughtered, and cut him up, 
, butchers ; (Porphyr. Paitfan. Attic. He- 
fychius. Smdas. &&**. Var. Hift. lib. 8. cap. 3.} 

AtxTuvwa, at Sparta ; fPaufan. Lacon.) in honour 
of Diana, furnamed Di&ynna, from a city of Crete: 
or from a Cretan nymph of that name, who invent- 
ed hunting nets, called A*XTU*. 

S^xAiwt, at Megara, in the fpring, in memory 
cf Diodes; (Pindar. ScJioL Pythion. Od. 13. 
Theocrit. Idyll. 12. v. zj.) who died in de- 
fence of a youth he loved. There was a contefl at 
his tomb, in which a garland was given to him who- 
gave the fweeteft kifs. 

Ao^n, in honour of Jupiter Diomeus - y or of 
Diomus, an Athenian hero ; (Euftath. IL ^.) 

Atoi/y<rta, fometimes called O^KX, in honour of 
Bacchus - 9 (Herod, lib. 2. Plutarch, dc 


IJi d. et Ofir.) They were obferved with great fplen- 
dour. The years were numbered from the firft day 
of them, (Sitidas.) the chief archon had a part of 
the management of them, (Pollux, lib. 8.) and the 
priefts who officiated, were honoured with the firft 
feats at public (hows; (Ariftopk. Schol. Ran. 299.) 
They were at firft obferved without fplendour ; 
(Plutarch. Trsgt ptAoTrA.) a veiTel of wine, adorned with 
a vine branch; a goat; a bafket of figs, and the 
phalli : afterwards they put on fawns fkins, fine linen, 
and mitres; carried Thyrfi, drums, flutes; crowned 
themfelves with garlands of ivy, fir, vine, &c. 
Some imitated Pan, Silenus, and the fatyrs -, fome 
rode on afles ; both fexes running about the hills 
and deferts, like infane perfons, yelling aloud Ei 
(TW*O{ Eucu Baxp co Iaxp or Iw Bax^f ; ( Euripid. 
SchoL Phanifs. 789. Bacch, in. 833. 695. Ari 
Jioph. Ran. 1242. Eurip. Bacch. 81. 106. Ovid. 
Met. vl. $>7*Virg- &n. 11.737, Diodor. Sic. iv. 
3, 4, 5. Ariflopk. @fc-^. 999. 1003. Avib. 874.) 
They were followed by perfons carrying facred vef- 
fels, the firft of which was filled with water. Then fol- 
lowed a feled number of honourable virgins, called 
KavTipoooi, carrying bafkets of gold, filled with fruit ; 
next, the ntfipaAAia, crowned with violets and 
ivy, carrying T? ^AAf, poles, on which the pri- 
vities of a man were reprefented : they were called 
, and the fongs they repeated <paAAH* 
Then followed the I0u<paXXo*, in women's 
apparel, with garlands on their heads, and their 
hands covered with flowers, imitating drunken men. 
The Aiwruff, or Aixi/opo^ot attended ; carrying the 
Aixw, or myftical van of Bacchus. The feftival-s 
of Bacchus were innumerable. Some of them are 
; (T/mcyd. lib. 2.Hefychius. 
Q 3 Demojilu 


Demofth. Orat. in Ne#r. Pollux, lib. 8.) 
vtuTtgtx. ; CThucyd. lib. 1.) Atoj/u<na f/.jyaA* ; (De- 
mofth. Oral, in Leptin.) fometimes called Ar*x&; 
becaufe they were celebrated within the city : (Schol. 
Ariftoph.*Acharn. $03.) Aom<na ^x^a, fometimes 
called rot, XOLT ay{v;, becaufe it was obferved in the 
country. It was celebrated in autumn ; (Arijloph. 
Schol. Acharn.) Aiomo-ia Aju/aia, named from ADI/O?, a 
wine-prefs; (Hefy chins.) Aioi/u<na|3au&wa, (Arijloph. 
Schol. inPac.) obferved at Brauron in Attica: Atovu<n* 
>uxTnA, (Paufan. Attic.) Beoivw, to Bacchus, 
lurnamed totvoj, god of wine : Ityceayja, to Bac- 
chus, furnamed lpo<payog and fl/*>jr>i?, becaufe hu- 
man facrifices were offered to him at that time ; 
(Plutarch. Themift.) or from their eating raw flefh : 
dixos,', (Polyb. lib. 4.) Atoi/u<r*os T^UTH- 
(Virg. JEn. 4.) a triennial folemnity. 

, in honour of Aio<8i, or Caftor and 
Pollux ; (Pin Jar. SchoL Pythion. Od. 5. Paufan. 
Meffen.) celebrated with fports and merriment ; 
(Schol. Euripid. Ph<enifs. 789. Arijloph. Ran. 124.2. 
Euripid. Eacch. in. 833, 695, 81, 106.) 

Aio? j3ouf, a Melefian feftival, in which an ox was 
offered to Jupiter; (Hefy chins.) 

A^uo7rta, in memory of Dryops, one of Apollo's 
fons, at Afine ; (Paufan. Meffen.) 

Aco^xaO, fo called, becaufe it was celebrated of 
the twelfth of Ai/9fr wv ; (Hefychhts.) 

EWo/Aij, on the feventh of every lunar month ; 
(Suidas) in honour of Apollo ; to whom all feventh 
days were facred ; becaufe one of them was his 
birth-day, whence he was fometimes called E<To- 
/uayevrjf ) (Pint. Sympos. lib. 8. Quxft. l. Hejiod. 
Dieb.) They fung hymns $ and carried in their 



hands branches of laurel, with which alfo they adorn- 
ed their difhes. A feftival of this name was obferved 
on the feventh day after the birth of a child. 

Ei<niTiia, the day in which the magiflrates at 
Athens entered upon their offices - a (Suidas. An- 
tiphon. Oraf. pro Chor.) and offered facrifices for 
the fafety of the commonwealth, in the temple of 
Jupiter BsAaio?, and Minerva BaAaia, counfellors. 

ExaXrj<7i, to Jupiter, furnamed Hecalus/ from 
Hecale, in Attica -, (Stephan. Byzant, Plutarch. 

, in honour of Hecate, (Strabo, lib. 14. ) 
At Athens, they paid great reverence to this god- 
defs, believing me was overfeer of their families and 
children. Statues were erected to her before the. 
doors of their hpufes, which were called EKT<X ; 
(Ariftqph. Sfhol. in F^efp.) Every new moon there 
was a public fupper called Exam; famov, ferved up 
in a place where three ways met, becaufe (he was 
fuppofed to have a triple nature; hence the names 
given to her, T^ywnros, T^tyA^o?, T^yXafiijMi, 
Tf ioJTj. She was placed in the high-ways, it is faid, 
becaufe fheprefidecj over piacular pollutions -, (Scho!. 
in Theocr, Idyll, 2.) and thefe fuppers were expiatory 
facrifices, to induce her to avert any evils on ac- 
count of piacular crimes committed on the public 
ways; (Plutarch.) 

ExaTo^Co^, in honour of Juno $ (Pindar. Schol* 
Olymp. 7. 8.) by the Argians; and in Laconiaj 
(Euftath. II. |3.) One hundred oxen were killed, 
and the relicks difhributed among the citizens. 
There were fports, with prizes of a, brazen 
and a crown of myrtle. 


t, to Jupiter, by the MefTenians, when 
they killed one hundred enemies , (Paufan. Mejjbi.) 

ExJWta, in honour of Latona -, (Ovid. Met. 17.) 

EA*poAia, in honour of Diana, furnamed EA#- 
f ioAo?, the huntrefs; (Athena. AeiTn/ocrop. lib. 14. 
Plut. de Virt. Mid.) A cake made in the form of 
a deer, on that account called *Aapo?, was offered 
to her. 

EAfna, in honour of Helena ; (Hefychius.) It 
was celebrated by virgins riding upon mules, or in 
chariots compofed of rufhes and reeds, and called 

, at Platsea, with great folemnity, (Pau- 
fan. Boeot. Pint. Ariflid.) to Jupiter Eleutherius ; 
alfo obferved by the Samians, in honour of the god 
of love; (Atkwa.&HVY. 3. P-lautm. Perf. aft. I. 
fcen. i .} Slaves who obtained their liberty, kept a 
holiday, called by this name. 

EAu<rwa, was the moft celebrated and myflerious 
folemnity ; and faid to have been firft inftituted by 
Ceres herfelf. Perfons of both fexes and all ages 
were initiated at this folemnity. He who attend- 
ed at the initiation was called I^c^ai/r??, a revealer 
of holy things. He was a citizen of Athens, and 
held his office during life, and was devoted to a 
chafte life. He had three affiftants ; culled 
torch-bearer, who was allowed to marry 
the crier O *TH jSw^w, becaufe he miniftered at the 
altar. ItgoQuvTYis is laid to be a type of the Great 
Creator ; Aa^^o;, of the fun ; Knf uj, of Mercury , 
and O ?ri TW (3cofxw, of the moon. There were many 
public officers Ba<nAjuf, the king, who was one 



of the archons there were four E7nuA>iT*, curators, 
elected by the people ten other peribns were em- 
ployed, called IffOTroioi, becaufe they offered facri- 
fices. It was celebrated in the month Bo^o/^w*, 
and continued nine days; during which, no man 
could be arrefted, or prefent a petition, They, 
who were initiated, were not allowed to fit on the 
covering of a well, or to eat beans, mullets or 
weazels. If any woman rode in a chariot to Eleu- 
fis, flie was fined fix thoufand drachms; (Milan. 
Var. Hift. 12. 24. Petit, ad Leg. Attic.) The firft 
of the nine days was called Ayu^o?, an afTembly. 
The fecond, AAa h Mur^, becaufe they purified 
themfelves by wafhing in the lea. On the third, 
they offered facrifices, confifting chiefly of r^y\^ y 
the mullet, and barley, out of the Rharium, a field 
of Eleufis. Thefe oblations were called vct. On 
the fourth, they made a folemn proceffion, in which 
the KaAaQw, bafket of Ceres, was carried in a 
confecrated cart; crowds of people fhouting, 
Kctigs, An/.*}jr!, hail Ceres. Then followed women, 
called Kropooi, bafket-carriers, in which were con- 
tained carded wool, grains of fait, a ferpent, 
pomegranates, reeds, ivy-boughs, cakes called $9oj 5 ', 
poppies, &c. The fifth was called, H TK Aa/*7raov 
the torch - day. The fixth was called 
from lacchus, fon of Jupiter and Ceres ; 
who, with a torch in his hand, accompanied 
the goddefs in her fearch after Proferpine. His 
flatue was carried in a folemn proceffion, called 
lax^o?. The flatue, and thofe who accornpaniecl 
it, were crowned with myrtle. Thefe were called 
Jax^oywyoi, who danced and fung, and beat brazen 
fettles. The way by which they ifTued out of the 



city was called, I^a c<fo, the facred way : the reft- 
ing-place, Ii/> o-ux>?, from a fig-tree, which grew 
there. They alfo refled upon a bridge over the 
river Cephiffus, where they jefted upon travellers 
as they paired. . Hence, y^f^uv, from y^u^, a 
bridge, is expounded p^Xoua^wv, mocking; (Suidas.) 
and yepuf irt are interpreted o-xowTa*, fcoffers ; (Hz- 
fychius.) From this bridge they went to Eleufis, 
the way into which was called Munxjj mrcJlflf, the 
myftical entrance. On the feventh day, there were 
iports, in which the victors were rewarded with a 
meafure of barley. The eighth was called ETTI^V- 
iuv !***, becaufe ./Efculapius, coming from Epi- 
daurus to Athens, and defiring to be initiated, the 
leffer myfteries were repeated. The ninth day was 
called IlADjtxo^oaf, earthen veffels : becaufe two 
earthen veffels were filled with wine, one placed 
towards the eaft, the other towards the weft ; when, 
after repeating feveral myftical words, they were 
thrown down, and the wine fpilt upon the ground 
was offered as a libation 5 (Pau/an. Phoc. c. 3 1 . 
Socrat. Pamgyr. 6. Schol, Ariftoph. Pint, 846. 1014, 
Diog. Laert. 7. 186.) The drefs in which one 
had been initiated was deemed facred, and, when 
worn out, was confecrated to Ceres and Proferpine$ 
(Schol. Ariftoph. Plut. 843. 846 .) 

Etewfojiia, an Athenian feftival, (Pollux. Onom. 
lib. i o. cap. 53. Hefy chius) called from EA C -J/*<, veflels 
made of bulrufhes, with cars of willow, in which 
myfterious things were carried. 

EAAwTia, two feftivals ; (Hefy chins. Athene. 
&iww$tib. 15. Pindar. SchoL Olymp. Od. 13.) 
one of which was celebrated in Crete, in honour of 
Europa, called EAAwna, from the rape of Jupiter in 



the form of a bull. Europa's bones were carried in 
proceffion, with a myrtle garland, called EAAWTK or 
EAAWTK, which was twenty cubits in circumference. 
The other feftival was celebrated by the Corinthians 
with games and races, in which young men con- 
tended, running with lighted torches in their hands. 
Jt was in honour of Minerva. 

EAw^a, games in Sicily, near the river Helloris ; 

&, celebrated at Athens ; (Hefychius.) 

or Ei/yaAia^Kj (Meurjius) in honour of 
Enyalius, (Hefychius). who is faid to be Mars, or 
one of his minifters. 

Egirr^ia, oblations or prayers to the gods, vtg TU; 
*oJ, for profperous departure. They were offered 
by generals before they went to war, and by men 
going from home, or about to die ; { Suidas.) 

ETra^Orjf, to Ceres, named A^O^a, (Plutarch de 
Ifid. et Ofirid.) from Ap/dof, grief, in memory of her 
forrow for the lofs of her daughter Proferpina. 

ETn^ua, private feftivals, and times of rejoicing 
on account of a friend returning from a journey; 
(Himerius in Propempt. Flavian.) 

ETT^HUIOC, A-TroAAwi/o?, a Delphic feftival, in memory 
of a journey of Apollo. 

in honour of Apollo ; (Hefychius.) 

z, an Athenian feftival, in honour of 
Ceres j (Hefychius.) 

ETnxgwta, to Ceres, by the Laconiansj (Hefy- 

E7rii/i)cj, ETHJ/IXIO? EO^TTJ, a day of rejoicing after 


, afeftival at Rhodes; (Hefychmi.) 
, a Spartan feftival ; (Hefychius.) 
, Ea-nrxjfBirif, at Scira in Attica, to Ceres 

and Proferpina; (&*. Gtorg. lib. ^.Stephan. m 

V. Exif of.) 

. EfBrJ,*, by the Thefpians, in honour of 
Cupid, the god of love; (Euftath. II. a.) 

Ej , perhaps the fame as the formers (Plutarch 
Erotic -Paufan. Exotic.) celebrated every fifth year 
With fports and games. 

, to Hercules, a Laconian feftival; 

B f w, or E fxW v,, to Ceres, (Hefychius) fur 
named .Hercynna; (^^A-. fi$ v . I 53 .-P W 
/(W. Exotic:) 

Eff., in honour of E^ w , Mercury, by the 
Pheneat* m Arcadia; (Paufan. Arcad.) and the 
Cyllemans m Elis , P>. ^J B the Tana . 
gans,n Boeotia, (Paufan. Exotic.) where he was 
Rf^*t, the ram-bearer, and reprefented 
with a ram upon his moulder. It was obferved in 
Crete, where the matters attended, while the fervants 
fat down at the table; (Athen*.^^. ^.) Ano . 
her feftival to Mercury was obferved by boys i 

exercife at Athensi 

E.JT,, to the furies; . 

Who were "lied j 
venerable goddefles hv ti o- * 

-s, by the Sicyonians, E/f,,j ( , 


FESTIVALS. , s ft 

favourable. It was obferved annually with facri- 
fices, in which pregnant ewes, cakes made by young 
men who were decked with flowers, and a libation 
of honey and wine, were offered to the goddefTes, 
At Athens, none were admitted but free citizens, 

, to Ceres 3 (Hefy chins.) 
, a Spartan feftival. 

, an armiverfary folerfin'ity obferved by 
the Phigaleans in Arcadia, (Paufan. Arc ad.) to 
Eurynome ; who was either Diana, or a daughter 
of Oceanus. 

horfe-races in Laconia ; (Hefychim.) 

, a Laconian feftival, to Helacatus, 
(Hefych.) a boy beloved by Hercules. 

Hfgia, a feftival at Argos, in honour of Juna, 
called H^n. See ExarojixSota. Another of this name 
was celebrated every fifth year with games at Elis ; 
where fixteen matrons were appointed to weave a 
garment for Juno ; they prefided over the games. 
Virgins, according to their ages, ran races : their 
hair was dilhevelled, their right moulders bare to 
their breafts, and their drefs reached only to their 
knees. They had a fecond race in the Olympic 
Stadium, which at that time was (hortened about a 
iixth part. The victors were rewarded with crowns 
of olive, a (hare of the ox that was offered in facri - 
fice, and were permitted to dedicate their own 
pidures to Juno. This name was given alfo to a 
day of mourning at Corinth, for the children of 
Medea; (Sehol. in Lycophr.) by the Pellenjeans, 
with games, in which the victor was rewarded with 
a rich garment, called 


, an Athenian feftival, every fifth year to 
Hercules; (Pollux, lib. 8. cap. 9.) The Thebans 
obferved a folemn feftival to Hercules, furnamed 
MrjXwv, becaufe ra juuAa, apples, were offered to him ; 
(Pollux, lib. I. cap. i.) There were other feftivals 
to him, at Coos, and at Lindus. 

Ho<rav0aa, a Peloponnefian feftival, in which 
women met and gathered flowers ; (Hefychius.) 

H^o^ta, (Hefychius.) 

H<OK> celebrated every ninth year by the Del- 
phians > (Plutarch. Gr*c. Qu*ft.) 

Hpajffta, to Vulcan, an Athenian feftival. There 
was a race with torches, called Ayuv Xa/ATraJ'a^of $ in 
the academy ; (Paufan. Hefychius. Per/ii. Fet. 
SchoL) He who carried the torch alight to the 
end of the race, was the vidlor, and called Aa/x?ra- 
fa<pogo$ or irvga-vKpogQt ; (slriftoph. SchoL in Ran. 
Lucret. lib. 2.) 

axvc-i*, a facrifice offered by hufbandmen after 
harveft. The whole feftival was called AAa, and 
^uyxo^trifta, from the gathering of fruits. Some 
fay, it was obferved in honour of Ceres aild Bac- 
chus; ( Menand. Rhetor, cap. vi AatAXia*.) others^ 
of Neptune; (Euflath. II. \. 590.) Hence aXua-ioj 
a^ro?, fometimes called QagyyXos, (Athena, lib. 2.) 
which was the firft bread made of the new corn. 

GatfynXia, an Athenian feftival, either to the furi 
and the hours, or to Diana, and Delian Apollo. It 
was celebrated on the fixth and feventh of Oa^nAiwr. 
They carried the fruits of the earth in pots, called 
^ayjjApi. On the fecond day it was ufual to luftrate 
the city, which was done by two perfons, called 
<P^axo, or Su/Agax^ot. They were either both 
men, or a man and a woman. The man carried 



about his neck figs, called i<rx*&r> of a black co- 
lour ; and the woman, white. The Qotfpaxoe, was 
called KjaJtifl-iTuf, from figs called x^cJai^ and ufed 
in luftrations - y hence x^a^f vo^e?, was a tune upon 
the flute, which was played as he went to perform 
his office* A choir of fingers contended for victory ; 
and the conqueror dedicated a tripod in the Py- 
theum, a temple of Apollo. At this feftival, the^ 
Athenians enrolled their adopted fons in the public 
regifter j (Tzetzes Chiliad. Hift. 5* cap. 23 J The 
Milefians had a feftival of the fame name. 

ya/*, the marriage of the gods ; a Sicilian 
feftival, in honour of Proferpinaj (Pollux, lib. i. 
tap. i.) 

, feeAiowi*. 

, a feftival to all the gods ; (HefycMus. 
Paufan. Achaic. SchoL in Pind. Ofymp. 1 1. Sckol. 
in Pind. Olymp. 3.) The Pellenzeans had folemn 
games, in which the victors were rewarded with a 
piece of plate, and a garment called ^Xaiva. A 
feftival was alfo held of this name by the Diofcuri. 

G*opavaa or opvia, the appearance of God ; ob- 
ferved by the Delphians -, (Herod, lib. i . Suidas.) 

, a Laconian feftival ; (Hefyckius.) 
TJ, an ./Etolian feftival 5 (Polib.lib. 5.) 

t, in honour of Ceres, called Gcff/topotof, 
lawgiver ; (Virgil. JSLn. 4.) It was celebrated with 
various ceremonies in many different cities of 
Greece ; (fkefmophor. in Arijloph. -- Sepal, dc 
divifwn. u*ft. Hefych. Plutarch. Pelopid. Pan- 
Jan. Attic. Schol. Theocrit, Idyll. 4. 25.; It is 

fome times 


fometimes called MfyaAa^na. It was obfervecl 
by the Athenians with the greateft folemnity. The 
worfliippers were free-born, whofe hufbands de- 
frayed the charges of the folemnity, if the portion 
of their wives amounted to three talents. Thefe 
tvere afliiled by a prieft, called ^r^owooo^ot : and 
by certain virgins, who were finally confined, 
and maintained at the public charge in a place, 
called iYAopoov. The women were drefled in 
white, as an emblem of chafiity, for five or three 
days before it ; and ftrewed upon their beds, agnus 
caftus, flea bane, vine branches, and other herbs, that 
they might not be tempted to violate their chaflity< 
They were not allowed to eat the kernels of pome- 
granates, or to be adorned with garlands. On the 
1 1 th of Pyaneplion, the women, carrying books 
on their heads, containing the laws, went to Eleufis, 
where the ceremony was obferved. Hence this day 
was called AJ/O^OJ, the afcent. On the i^th the 
feflival began, which lafted till the feventeenth. 
On the fixteenth they kept a fafl, fitting on the 
ground, in token of humiliation, when prayers were 
offered to Ceres, Proferpine, Pluto, and Galligenia, 
the nurfe or prieflefs of Ceres. Hence the day was 
called Nnreia, a fail. There was alfo a myflerious 
facrifice, called Awy^* ; and another called Z^os, 
a muldl, ' which was offered to expiate any crime 
committed during the ceremony. At this feftival* 
prifoners were releafed; (Diodor. Sicul. i. 14. 
Schol. tfheocrit. Idyll. 4. 25. Ovid. Met. 10. 431.- 
-Milan. Var. Hift. 9. 2,6<Ariftoph. Tnefm. 86. 
Athene. 7. 16.) 

f<T5ia, in honour of Thefeus; (Plutarch. The/.* 
Arifloph. Sckof. in Pint.) The facrifices were called 


, from OyXos the eighth, becaufe they were 
offered on the eighth of the month ; (Hefychius.) 
It was celebrated with iports and games. 

0tu;, to Apollo; ( Hefychius.) The three nurfes 
of Apollo were called iia*. 

vux.> to Bacchus, obferved by the Elians ; (Pai*~ 
fan. Eliac. .) 

, to Venus ; (Hefychius.) 

, fo called from @u^o?,a tunny, which fifli- 
ermen offered to Neptune, after a fuccefsful draught ; 
(Athene, lib. 7.) 

IE^O? ya/xo?, the facred marriage. In honour of 
Jupiter and Juno ; (Hefychius.) 

I0wp*ia, in which muficians contended in honour 
of Jupiter; (Stephan. Byzant.) furnamed lOw/*jTif, 
from Ithome in Theffaly. 

Iva^ta, a feftival of Leucothea in Crete, derivefl 
from Inachus, (Hefych,} or from Ino, the fame as 
Leucothea and A^o?, grief. 

Imia, at Lemnos. 

Ii/wa,tolno, (fzet.inLycophr.) by the Corinthians, 
the Megarians, (Paufan. Attic.) and in Laconia ; 
(Paufan. Lacon.) 

,, to Bacchus. 

, the fame with H^axAfta ; ^Pindar. Schol. in, 
Olymp. 7.) In honour of Hercules and lolaus. It 
lafted ieveral days; (Pindar. Schol. in Ifthm* 
and Nemeon.) and celebrated with facrifices and 
horfe-races; in which the vidors obtained garlands 
of myrtle and tripods of brafs. 


in honour of Ifis, (Diodor* SiciiL lib. i .) 
Avho taught the life of corn. 

Ia-%wiot y celebrated annually at Olympia, in me- 
mory of Ifchenus, grandfon of Mercury and Hierea; 
(fzetz. in Lycoph. v. 42*) 

Kafia, at Thebes and Lemnos, and particularly 
at Imbrus and Samothrace, iflands, which were con- 
fecrated to the Cabiri ; (C*lius.Rhadig.< Lit. Gy- 
rald.) They who Were initiated into thefe myfleries, 
were fuppofed to be fecured from ftorms at fea ; 
(Diodor. Sicul. lib, 5. Plat. Euthydem. Hefy chins. 
in i). (>Qvi(r(*.o<;.} 

KaAaoj^a, in honour of Diana, by the Laconians; 
(Horn. SchoL in II. .) 

KaAXtrna, the rewards of beauty. A Lefbiaa 
feflival, in which women prefented themfelves in 
Juno's temple, and the prize was affigned to the 
faireft ; (Athene* Amrvoc^, //. 12.) It was alfo 
celebrated by the Parrhafians, (At/ten, ibid.) and 
the Eleans ; (Suidas.) 

, at Athens. 

obferved in moft of the cities of Greece. 
In honour of Apollo, named Carneus, (Aloman.) 
or from Carnus, fon of Jupiter and Europa ; (Hefy- 
chius) and beloved by Apollo; (Theocrit. Schol.) 
It lafted nine days; (Plutarch. Nic. Athene, lib. 4. 
Callim. Hymn, in ApolL Pind. Pyth.) in which 
prizes were given to muficians. 

Ka^ua or Ka^uart?, in honour of Diana, (Pmifan. 
Lacon.) furnamed Caryathis, from Caryum in La- 
conia ; (Luc. TT^ c^g-sef.) virgins joined in a dance, 
called K. 


j> in honour of Hebe, the goddefs of 
youth ; (Paitfau. Corinth.) 

, or B*<raia, (Hefychius.) 

annually celebrated upon Mount 
Cnacalos, by the Caphyatse, in honour of Diana ; 

(Paufan. Arcad.) 

KowJ, obferved the day before the feftival of 
Thcfeus, in which a ram was facrificed to Connidas, 
the preceptor of Thefeus ; (Plutarch, tfhef.) 

Kof ia, in honour of Proferpina, named Ko^ ; 


Ko?0t;arnx<x, in memory of the Corybantes, held 
at CnofTus in Crete. 

Koroma, or KOTUTTK, a no&urnal feftival in ho- 
nour of Cotys or Cotytto, the goddefs of wanton- 
nefs; (Suidas. Juvenal, Sat. 2.) Her priefts were 
called B7rTai > from BaTrrw, to paint. Another, of this 
name, was obferved in Sicily \ (Plutarch. Proverb.) 

K^OHB, to Saturn, who is called K^oi/o? ; (Ariftoph. 
Schol. in Nub. Hefychius.) It was obferved at 
Athens in the month Exarojugajcov, which was an- 
ciently called K^OHO? . Another, to Saturn, was cele- 
brated at Rhodes, where they offered, in facrifice, a 
condemned criminal ; (Porphyr. apud. Theod. lib. 7.) 

Ku&^vuo-ta, in memory of Naufitheus and Phseax, 
who were the xuS^iT*t, pilots, of Thefeus, in his 
voyage to Crete ; (Plutarch. Thef.) 

Kui/opMTic, obferved in the dog-days at, Argosj 
(At hen. lib. $.) 

Aax&u/Aonwv Eo^ra, (everal feflivals obferved at 
Lacedsemon; (Athene, lib. 13.) 


Aa/x7rTj^a, at Pellene in Achaia; (Paufan. A chatc.) 
in honour of Bacchus, furnamed Aupirrvig, from 
/, to flune. 

rc-ouuv EO^TJ, games at Larifla ; (Apol. Schol. 
lib. 4) 

Aa^ucna, at Laryfium, to Bacchus ; (Paufan. 

Aottpgiot, held annually at Patra? in Achaia, in ho- 
nour of Diana, (Paufan.Achaic.) furnamed Laphria, 
from fpoils taken in hunting. It lafted two days, 
attended with facriflces. 

Atonfoiot, annually at Sparta, in memory of Leo- 
nidas ; (Paufan. Lacon.) 

AEOVTIX 5 (Porphyr. de Ant. Nymph.) celebrated 
with an oration and fports. 

Asgmtx, at Lernaj in honour of Bacchus, Profer- 
pina, and Ceres 5 (Paufan. Corinth.) 

AfjvK*,'to Bacchus, furnamed Lenseus, from Ar^r, 
awine-prefs; (Arifloph. Schol. Eqtiit. Dtog. Laert. 
Platone.) In this feftival, poets contended foe 
victory 5 and tragedies were acted. 

A*.0oA*a, lapidation; celebrated by the Trseze- 
nians, in memory of Lamia, and Auxelia, who were 
two virgins, {toned to death in a time of tumult ; 
(Paufan. Corinth.) 

AifMKTifiKy in honour of Diana, (Paufan. Ach.) 
furnamed Limnatis, from Limne, a fchool of exer- 
cile at Trsezen, in which (lie was worfhipped $ or 
from Tujwaj, lakes, becaufe fhe had the care of fiih- 
ermenj (Artemid.) 

Aivsio, in memory of Linus, an old poet ; (Pau 


AUXK, an Arcadian feftival, (Plutarch. Cxfar. 
Paufan. Arcad.) obferved firft by Lycaon, in honour 
of Jupiter, furnamed Lyoeus. 

Auxeta, in honour of Apollo Auxo?, held at Argos; 
(Pindar. Schol. in. Pyth.Sophocl. Schol. in Eleftr.) 
A human facrifice was offered at this feilival. 

Aux^y^a, by the Spartans, to Lycurgus 5 (Plu- 
tarch. Lycurg. Strab.lib. 8.) 

Auo-av^ia, a Samian feftival, in honour of Lyfan* 
der ; (Plutarch. Lyfandr. Hefychius.) It was au- 
ciently called H^ata. 

Mai/*axTji&, offered by the Athenians in Masmac- 
terion, which was a winter month, to Jupiter Mat- 
^axTu?, to induce him to fend mild weather ; (Har- 
f Deration. Siddas. Hefy chins. Plutarch. TTZ^ 

, fee 

in honour of Menelaus, (Ifocrat. in. 
Helen. Encom. Paufan. Lacon.) together with 

days upon which theLefbians 
offered facrifices -, (Hefychius.) 

MfrayfiTj/ta, fo called from the name of the month; 
in honour of Apollo, by the inhabitants of Melite, 
(Suidas. HarpocraL Plutarch, de Exil.) 

MiA-na&ia, facrifices, with horfe-races, in memory 
of Miltiades ; (Herod, lib. 4.) 

Mimta, celebrated by the Orchomenians ; (Pin* 
dar. Schol. Ifthm. Od. i.) who were called Minyze. 

R 3 


ogTYi, celebrated by the inhabitants 
of Mitylene, in honour of Apollo MaAAosjf ; (Hefy- 
chius. Thucyd. lib. 3.) 

Moui/u;a, obferved annually at Athens, on the 
fixteenth of the month Mavu^twv, in honour of Diana. 
They offered cakes, called *p.$iQwriq y from fliining 
on every fide ; becaufe lighted torches hung round 
them, when they were carried into the temple, or 
becaufe they were offered at full moon $ (Harpocrat. 
Suidas. Enflath. 1L 6.) 

Mouo-fta, in honour of the mufes ; (Pollux^ lib. i. 
cap. i. jEfckin^ in Timarch. Paitfan. Bceotic. 
Diodor. Sicul. lib. 1 7. Plutarch. Erotic.) 

Muo-i*, in honour of Ceres, furnamed Myfia, from 
Mylius an Argian -, (Paufan. Acliaic.) It lafted 
feven days ; on the third, men and dogs were fhut 
out of the temple, and the women and bitches 

MwAsta, an Arcadian feftival ; (Apolion. RJwd. 
Sc/iol. lib. i. v. 164.) from MwAoj, a fight 5 inilituted 
in memory of a battle, in which Lycurgus flew 

N*xu<na, in memory of deceafed perfons. 

Nf/xfo-tia or Nejt*cri, in memory of deceafed per- 
fons ; fo called, from Nemefis ; (SophocL EleEtr. v. 
793. Demofth.Orat. adv. Spud. p. 650. Suidas. 

Nfowa, to Bacchus, when the new wine was firft 
tailed ; (Hefy chius.) 

N07rToAgjuta, celebrated by the Delphians, (Heli* 
odor. Ethiop. lib. 3.) in memory of Neoptolemus : 
with much pomp and fpleudour. 


, a Milefian feftival, in honour of Diana, 
furnamed Neleis, from Neleus, of Miletus ; (Plu- 
tarch, de Virt. Mid. Lycophr. Caff.) 

Ni>c>i r si/ Maoa9ow, obferved upon the lixth of 
Bovfypiuv, in memory of that famous victory, which 
Miltiades obtained againft the Perfians , (Plutarch. 
de Glor. Athen.) 

N*xuT{ia AOnvaf, in memory of Minerva's vi&ory 
over Neptune, when they contended which fhould 
give name to the city, afterwards called Athens 5 
(Prod, in Tinitf. Comm. i.) 

Noupii/ia or NP]VJ, obferved at the beginning 
of every lunar month, (Horn. Schol. Ody. u. 
Euftatk. Odyjf. v. ^^/ $.Befychius. Herod, lib. 
8.) which was upon the new moon. It was ob- 
ferved with games and entertainments ; in honour 
of the gods, efpecially of Apollo, who was called 
NW/AHI/IO? ; (Plutarch, de Grac. Quaft.) Becaufe 
they were offered every month, theie facrifices were 
called jt*juniva Jc-^a or HFipwioe,, and thofe who performed 
them twtpwioi, and y^oyiq. The cakes offered 
were called v/xxjnot, and the worfluppers, ^a^^nra. 

HavOtxa, a Macedonian feftival, (Hefychius. Liv* 
lib, 40, ^. Curt. lib. 10.) fo called, becauie it was 
obferved in the month Xanthus, which was the 
feme with April ; (S-uidas.) The army was at this 
time purified by a folemn luftratioru 

Suvoixta or MfToixta, annually obferved by the 
Athenians, in honour of Minerva, (Thncyd. lib. 2. 
Plutarch. The/.) on the fixteenth of EXTO,<**WI/, 
in memory of the Athenians uniting in one body. 

* 4 


Oy^nria, a Boeotian feftival, in honour of Nep- 
tune, iurnamed Oncheftius, from Oncheftus, a town 
in Boeotia ; (Palifan. Bocotic.) 

OAu/ATna, celebrated in honour of Olympian Ju- 

O^oAana, a Theban feftival, in honour of Jupiter 
Homoloius, or Ceres Homoloia; (tfheocr. Schol. 
Idyll. 8.) fo called from Homole in Boeotia. 

O<r;o<poia or Ilo-^o^c^a, an Athenian feftival, fo 
called fijom cairying boughs hung with grapes, 
which were termed o<r^tj (Hefychius. Harpocrat. 
Plutarch. Thef.) There was always a race at this 
feftival > (Pavfan. Attic. Athena, lib. 1 1 . Htfy- 
chins.) The reward of the victor was a cup, called 
JI^TstTTAoa or ncvronrXy, fivefold ; becaufe it was a 
mixture of five things, wine, honey, cheefe, meal, 
and oil. 

nayKAa^ja, fo called, from all forts of boughs. 
It was celebrated by the Rhodians, when they 
pruned their vines ; (Hefy chins.) 

n/>t-oi&ma, celebrated by all the Boeotians, 
(StrabJib. 9. Paujan. Exotic.) who afTembled near 

Ilavaltovaifli, in honour of Minerva, the prote6lrefs 
of Athens. At firft it continued only one day ; 
but was afterwards prolonged feveral days; and 
celebrated with great magnificence. * There were 
two folemnities of this name, MeyaA* HoivxQwxtK, 
the great Panathensea, which was celebrated once 
in five years; and Mtx^a navaQwcua, the leffer 
Puiiathensa, which was kept every third year. In 
the latter there were three games, managed by ten 
prefidents, elected from the ten tribes, who con- 
5 tinued 


tinued in office four, years. On the firft day was a 
race with torches, in which footmen and horfemen 
contended. The fecond contention was, suavJ^as 
aywi/, a gymnical exercife, in a place near the river, 
called irwoiQwixov. The laft was a muiical con- 
tention j in which the poets alfo contended in four 
plays, named TET^aAoyia. There was a contention 
in imitation of a fea-iight, in which the viclor was 
rewarded with a veffel of oil, and a crown of thofe 
olives, which grew in the academy, called /* *** ; 
from /x0o;, death, or ju^e?, a part. There was alib 
a dance, performed by boys in armour, called Py- 
rrichia. No man was allowed to be prefent at thefe 
games in dyed garments, under a penalty to be im- 
pofed by the AywoQtrrig, prefident of the games. 
They facrificed fumptuouily, towards which, every 
Athenian borough contributed an ox ; of the flefli 
that remained, a public entertainment was made 
for the whole affembly. In the greater feflival, the 
fame rites were nearly obferved ; but with yet more 
magnificence: with the addition of the proceffion, 
in which Minerva's facred WOTAC^, garment, was 
carried. This TrnrXos was woven by a number of 
virgins, called E^yarwa*, from t^yon, work : thefe 
were fuperintended by two of the A^j^^ot, and 
commenced their employment at the feftival x aA * 
Mft, on the thirtieth of Pyanepfion. It was white, 
without fleeves, and embroidered with gold ; upon 
it, the atchievements of Minerva and Jupiter, of 
the heroes, and of men renowned for courage, were 
defcribed ; hence men of courage are faid to be 
o&oi TrtTrXz; (driftoph. Equit. 563.) In the Cera- 
micus, without the city, was an engine built in the 
form of a (Lip, upon which the TTETTAQS was hung, 



as a fail, and the whole was conveyed, by Tub terra- 
neous machines, to the temple of Ceres Eleufmia ; 
and thence to the citadel ; where the -nnrXos was put 
upon Minerva's flatue, which was laid upon a bed 
ftrewed with flowers, and called TrAaxif. Perfons of 
all ages and fexes attended. It was led up by old 
men, with old women, carrying olive branches in 
their hands, hence they were called OaAAopo^oj, car- 
riers of green boughs. Then followed the men of 
full age, with (hields and fpears, and attended by 
the /tArrcjxoi, fojourners,who carried imall boats, as an 
emblem of their coming from other countries, and 
were hence called Sxaptipc^ot, boat -bearers: then fol- 
lowed the women, attended by the wives of the fo- 
journers, who were called Ttyta^of , from carrying 
water-pots. Then followed young men, finging 
hymns to Minerva ; they were crowned with millet ; 
next proceeded felecl virgins of high rank, called 
K<Mn<pogoi, bearers of bafkets; becaufe they carried 
bafkets, which contained neceflaries for the celebra- 
tion of the ceremonies, which were in thecuftody of 
the manager of them, and hence called A^iOwfof. 
Thefe virgins were attended by the daughters of 
fojourners, who carried umbrellas and little feats, 
and called Aipf >jpo, feat -carriers. The boys fol- 
lowed, in coats worn ,at proceflions, and called ?rav- 
^pHOi. At this folemnity there was a gaol delivery ; 
and it was alfo ufual to prefent golden crowns to 
thofe who deferved well of the commonwealth, and 
to appoint fome to ling Homer's poems ; (jElian. 
Far. Hijt. viii . 2. Lycurg. adv. Leocrat. p. 1 8 1 .} In 
thefe and other quinquennial folemnities,they prayed 
for the profperity of the Platseans ; (Pan/an. Arcad* 
\\. 14, 7^*P/tf/, Thef* Barpocrat. 


Suidas. Thucydid. 6. 56. PoJ/ux 9 8. Liter et. 2. 
j j . > Schol. Arijtoph. Ran. 131. Schol. Arijloph. 
Nub. i oo i. Schol. Pindar. Nem. OcL 10. 65. 
Schol, Sophocl. (Ed. Col. 6S$.Euripid. Hecub. 468.) 
, in honour of Panacej (Theodoref.) 
the fame with AOnvaia and 

s, an Athenian feftival, fo called from Pan- 
dion, by whom it was inftituted ; (Suidas.) It 
was celebrated after the Aiwuo-**, 

Ilaj^oero?, an Athenian feftival, (Hefychius.) in 
memory of Pandrofus, daughter of Cecrops. 

nanfo<n, public rejoicings, (Prochis. in Hejiod* 
E^y. /3.) when intemperate feafons forced the mu~ 
riner to ftay at home. 

IlaffAAni/ta, celebrated by an afTembly of people 

J J i A 

from all parts of Greece ; (Euftath. II. ]3.) 

nai/wi/Kfc, celebrated by people from all the cities 
of Ionia; (Herod, lib. i. Strabo. lib. 5. Euftath. 
II. y.) It was in honour of Neptune. If the bull, 
in this facrifice, happened to bellow, it was account- 
ed a favourable omen, becaufe that found was 
efteemed acceptable to Neptune 3 (Horn. II. J.) 

ITi/of EoTij, obferved annually in honour of Pan 
at Athens ; (Herod, lib. 6. cap. 106.) Pan had alfo 
a feftival in Arcadia ; (^heocrit. Schol. Idyll. 7.) at 
which hisftatue was beaten with SxiAXai, fea-onions, 
i, fee IIiiaKfiJ/a. 

5, in honour of Paralus, an ancient hero -, 
(Euftath. Odyff.) 

llawc-avna, at this feftival, an oration was made in 
praife of Paufanias, the Spartan General, who con- 
quered Maaionius at Platea 5 (Paufan. Lacon.) 


&, in honour of Pelops, obferved by the 
Eleans ; (Paufan. Eliac.) 

nAw^aThefTalianfeftival, fimilarto the Roman 
Saturnalias (Athene, lib. 14-) 

i, a Macedonian folemnity ; (Hefy chins.} 
the fame with <&aAAwy&>v/. See 

EO^TJJ, gymnical exercifes at Pitana; 
(Hejychius ) 

Uxwrygito, m honour of Aglaurus, daughter of 
Cecrops, or Minerva j (Hefychius. Plut. Alcib. 
Athena, lib. 3. Pollux, lib. 8. cap. 12.) They un- 
dreffed the ftatue of Minerva, and wafhed it, hence 
it was called 7rAui/Tij^i,. from TTAUJ/SJ^, to wafh. It 
was accounted an inaufpicious day; and the temples 
were furrounded with ropes, to prevent men from 
admiflion -, (Plutarch. Alcibid.) They carried in 
proceffion a cluftre of figs, called Hyuro^a, or Hyn- 
Tgioty from nyio/Aau 

IIoXii^, a Theban folemnity, in honour of Apol- 
lo, furnamed IloAto?, grey, becaufe he was here re- 
prefented with grey hairs ; (Paufan. Bceotic.) The 
victim was a bull. 

TlopTrzuv A&ifAovos EO^T ; (Hefychius.) There was 
an image at this folemnity, called 2T/A/*,Ta*ov. 

IIflffi^a, or no<rfi^wpi, in honour of no<m<SW, Nep- 
tune, to whom they alfo offered another facrifice, 
called OvftAtov ; (Hefychius.) 

, in honour of Priapus. 

or n^^oo-ta, facrifices offered, (Hefy- 
. Suidas. Ariftoph. Sfhol, Eydt.) v^o TUJ 


, before feed time, to Ceres, furnamed IT^oir- 

celebrated by the people of Laconia, 
before they gathered their fruits ; (Hefy chins.) 

ngopuxiot, a feftival, in which the Lacedemonians 
crowned themfelves with reeds ; (Athen. lib. 15.) 

ITo/A0, in honour of Prometheus, at Athens; 
(Ariftoph. Schol. Ran.) 

II^o(r^at^r*i^a, a day of rejoicing, when a new 
married wife went to the houfe of her irufband ; 

(Suidas. Harpocration.) 

6, a folemnity before marriage. 

5, in honour of Neptune and of Bacchus, 
fHefychws) furnamed n^oT^uyuf, from new wine. 

Il^opOatria, fo called onro 73 ri'goftatafftj from pre-* 
venting, or coming before ; (Dlod. Sic. lib. 15.) 

n^o^a^pif**, was annually obferved by the Athe- 
nian magiftrates, to Minerva, when the fpring firft 
appeared; (Suidas.) 

IlttT<r*Aafls, celebrated by the Cherfonefians, 
and TheiTalians, (Pindar. Schol. IJlhm. Od. i. - 
Lucian. Deor. Con.) in memory of Protefilaus, who 
was the firft Grecian flain by Hedor. 

, an Athenian feftival, fometimes called 
or Hao$fia 9 (Harpocration. Hefy chins. 

Plutarch. Thef.) from boiling pulfe, as was ufual on 

that day. 

IIuAata, a feftival at Pylse, called alfo Thermo- 
pylae, in honour of Ceres ; (Strab. lib. 9.) 

rii^o-wi/ EO^TM, the feftival of torches ; obferved at 
Argos, in memory of the torches lighted by Lyn- 



ecus and Hypermneftra, to fignify to each other, 
that they had both efcaped from danger ; (Paufan. 

Pa& t/aAu4>K,the elevation of the rod; annually 
obferved in the ifland of Cos, at which the priefts 
carried a cyprefs tree. 

Pa4/Jiw Eo^Ttt, a part of the Atoiwria, or feftival 
of Bacchus, at which they repeated fcraps of longs 
or poems, as thev walked by his ftatue ; (At hen. 

, nocturnal myfteries in honour of Jupiter 
Sabazius ; ( Clemens , Proterp.) or in honour of Bac- 
chus, furnamed Sabazius , from the Sabs, a people 
of Thrace ; (Diodor. SicuL lib. 4. Ariftoph* SchoL 
Fefp .Harpocration.) 

Ta^wvia, in honour of Diana, furnamed Saronia, 
from Saro, the third king of Trxzen ; (Paufan* 

Si<rap0, making off the burden. A public 
Athenian facrifice, in memory of Solon's ordinance, 
by which the debts of the poor were remitted $ 
(Pint. So/one.) 

2*/AA, in honour of Semele, the mother of Bac- 
chus; (Hefy chins.) 

2Mrnjiov, a Delphian feftival, every ninth year, in 
memory of Apollo's victory over Python ; (Pint. 

26s n, at Argos ; (Hefxchhis.) 

2/csioa, or Sx^a, or 2xiopoa,an annual folemnity 
at Athens, (Ariftopk. SchoL Conci. Suidas. Har- 
pocration.) upon the twelfth of Sxi^o^iw^ in ho- 
nour of Minerva, or of Ceres and Profernina. At 


P S T I V A L S. 25$ 

this feilival was a race called exr^o^o^ja, becaufe they 
carried vine branches full of grapes in their hands. 

>*, or Zxi5, at Alea in Arcadia, (Paufan. 
Arcad. Pollux, lib. 8. ^. 33.) in honour of Bac- 
chus, whofe image was VTTQ r-n o-xia^, under a 

SxiAAwi/ EoT, the feftival of fea-onions. It was 
obferved in Sicily , and was a combat, in which 
boys beat each other with fea-onions, and the victor 
was rewarded with a bull ; (Theotrit. Schol. Idyll. 7.) 

2?roTia ; (Hefychius.) 

Zrwia, at Athens, (Hefychius. Suidas.) in which 
the women lampooned each other. 

STO<PI, at Eretria, in honour of Diana Stophea ; 
(Athena, lib. 6.) 

SrujiApaAia, at Stymphalus, in Arcadia, in honour 
of Diana; (Paufan. Arcad.) 

2tyxoji*trif*, fee 0aAu<naj (fheocrit, Idyll, y** 
Ariftot. ad. Nicom. 8. n.) 

2u^axouo-twv Eo^rai, Syracufian feftivals; (Plat. 
Epift. ad. Dion, prop.) It lafted ten days. Another 
was celebrated annually ; (Cicero. Or at. in Verr. 4.) 

2ujua*a, games at Sparta ; (Hefychhts) the prize 
of which was ru^aia, a mixture of fat and honey. 

facrifices for deliverance from danger; 
. Arat.Polyb. lib. <2.Cicer. de Off. lib. 3.) 

, in honour of Neptune, furnamed Ts- 

Tax*! &TK, gymnical exercifes in honour of Jupi- 
ter TaAaioj ; (Hefychius.) 


Tau^fi*, in honour of Neptune ; (Hefychius. 
Atltena. lib, 10.) 

TayoiroAia, in honour of Diana TufowoXoy 

at Cyzicus ; Hefychius.) 
the fortieth day after childbirth. 

, a Spartan feftival, in which 
nurfes, conveyed the male infants committed to 
their charge to the temple of Diana Corythalliaj 
at which certain ceremonies were performed ; (Hefy- 
chius.) Young pigs were offered in facrifice ; when 
fome danced, who were called Ko^OaAAjr^t ; others 
employed themfelves in buffoonry, and were called 
Ku^iTTOi. The entertainment was called -Ko^*?, and to 
partake of it, Ko-mgtiv. Tents were erected near the 
temple, in which were beds, covered with tapeflry; 
every one had his portion at fupper, and a fmall 
loaf, called <&y<nxuAAf j a new cheefe, part of the 
belly and tripes, figs., beans and green vetches. 

, in memory of the Titanes. 

games celebrated at Rhodes, in me- 
mory of Tlepolemus, on the twenty-fourth of Gor- 
piaeus; (Pindar. SchoL Olymp. Od. j.J 

Tovsta, obferved atSamos; (Athene, lib. 15.} in 
which they carried Juno's image to the fea thore, 
and oiFered cakes to it. 

a, at Athens, in memory of Toxaris, a 
Scythian hero; (Lucian. Scyth.) 

annually celebrated by the lonians, in 
honour of Diana Triclaria; (.Paufan. Achaic.) 


games facred to Apollo Triopius. The 
prizes were tripods of brafs - 9 (Herod, lib. i. cap. 44.^ 

ir^TOTraTo^i^, in which they prayed for children 
to the <3>o ym0A6i, gods of generation, who were 
called TiT07r*Tf{ ; (Etymokg. Auft.) 

; (HefychtUS.) 

, celebrated annually at Lebadea, in ho- 
nour of Triphonius; (Pindar. Sfhol. Olymp.Od. y.) 

; (Hefy chins.) 

, In honour of Bacchus, by the Achseans ; 
(Paufan. Corinth.) 

Txi^*ct, annually obferved at Amyclse in Laco- 
nia, (Paufan. Lacon.) in memory of the beautiful 
youth Hyacfftthus, with games in honour of Apol- 
lo ; (Athena, lib. 4. Hefychins.) 

T^rH<, at Argos ; (Plutarch. Virt. MuL Po- 
ly*n. lib. 8 .) 

T#0poia, fo called a?ro ra Qigttii uJw^, from bearing 
water; and obferved at Athens, in memory of thofe 
who periflied in the deluge ; (EtymoL Auft.) Ano- 
ther of this name was obferved at jEgina, to Apollo; 
(Pindar. Sthol. Nem. Od. $.) 

7>vi<*, in honour of Diana Hymnia, at Man- 

Tp^*, at Argos, in honour of Venus; (Athene 
lib. 3.) from *, a fow ; becaufe fows were facrificed 
to this goddefs. 

Qzyw*, fo called from $ayi*y, to eat ; (Athen*. 
lib. J.) It belonged to Bacchus. 

; (EuJiath.Qdyfs.q.) 


y (Hefychius.) 

to Bacchus: (Suidas. Aflflopi. SchoL 

'Qffs<pxrria 9 at Cyzicum, in which a black heifer 
was lacrificed to Prolcrpine ; (Plutarch. Lucull.) 

Qu<rfQix 9 in honour of Phofphorus or Lucifer; 
(Hefychius. P hit arch. in Colot.) 

XaAxfi*, from XaAxo*-, brafs; in memory of the 
firft invention of working brafs; (Euftath. 11. (3. 
Suidas. Harfocration.) It was called Hwoypo*, 
and fometimes AQivow*. 

XaAxioixia, annually obferved at Sparta, on which 
young men affembled in- arms, to celebrate a facri- 
tice in the temple of Minerva, furnamed X*Axwxe? - 9 
Polyb. lib. 4. Paufan. Photic, and Laconic.) 

XCUHHX, celebrated by the Chaonians in Epirus* 
(Par then. Erot. 32.) 

X^Aa, obferved once in nine years by the Del- 
phians ; (Plutarch. Gr*c. Quxft.) 

Xa^r*, in honour of Charites, the graces, with 
dances, which continued all night ; and he who was 
awake the longeft,,was rewarded with a cake,, called 

a thankfgiving at Athens, 
en the twelfth of B^OJWIW!/, which was the day on 
which Thrafybulus expelled the thirty tyrants, and 
reftored the Athenians their liberty -, (Plutarch, dt 
Glor. Athen.) 

, at Athens ; (Hefychius.) 

, celebrated by the Xigwww, or handi- 
craftsmen s (Athen. lib. 8.) 


at Rhodes, when the boys begged from 
tloor to door, and fung a certain fong ; which cere- 
mony was called Xtfatoigw, and the fong itfelf 
XAiJevJcyxa, becaufe it was begun with an invocation 
of the XfAJwfr, fwallow ; (Athene.) 

X0ai/ia, in honour of Ceres, annually obferved by 
the Hermionians > (Paufan. Corinth.) 

XiTw>ta, in honour of Diana, furnamed Chitonia t 
from Chito in Attica, where it was oblerved ; (Cal- 
lim. Sthol. Hymn, in Diem-*- Athene, lib. 14.) Ano- 
ther of this name was celebrated at Syracufe; (Ste- 
fhan, Byzant. v. X*Ti>n.) 

XAcfja, at Athens, on the fixth of aoyyjAiwi/, (He- 
fychius. Etiftath. II. LPaufan. Att.) to Ceres, 
iurnamed Ev^Aee;, fertile ; (SophocL CEdip. Colon.) 

, fee ArfeMgiz. 
, in honour of Bacchus ; (Hefychius.) 

, in honour of Bacchus, Ci^oipccyo^ eater 
of raw fiefh ; (Clem. Proterp.) 

n^at, facrificesj conlifting offruits^ offered in 
fpring, fummer, autumn and winter, for mild and 
temperate weather ; (Athena, lib. 14.) 


The games were inftituted in honour of the gods 
or of deified heroes ; and always began and ended 
with a facrifice. They who obtained the vidory* 
efpecially in the Olympic games, were highly ho* 
noured. On their return home, they rode in a 
triumphal chariot into the city, the walls being 
s z throws 


thrown clown to give them admittance; (Pfa- 
tarch. lib. 2. Quteft. 6.) They were honoured with 
the firfl places at all mows and games, and main- 
tained at the public charge; (XenopJi. Coloph. 
in Epigr. Clcer. Or at. pro Place. Plutarch. 
LuculL) The honour defcendcd to their relations 
and to the place of their birth ; (Plutarch. Pelop.) 
To every Athenian, one hundred drachms were al- 
lowed, who obtained a prize in the Ifthmian games ; 
and five hundred drachms to thofe who were victors 
in the Olympic games ; (Pint. Solon.) It was for- 
bidden to give Haves or harlots their names from 
any of the games ; (Athena, lib. 13.) There were 
umpires appointed to decide difputes, and adjudge 
the prizes, who were called 

When the fentence was determined, a herald pro- 
claimed the victor; and a palm-branch was delivered 
into his hand -, (Plut. f/ief.) The games were 
termed Ayi/? ; (Nicoph. Schol. ad Syn. de Infomn. p. 
428.) Their principal exercifes were, J^ojuo?, run- 
ning, called alfo WO^WXEJTJ; ^c-xoj, the difcus or quoit; 
X/xa, leaping ; Truy^*!, boxing ; TraXn, wreftling ; 
(Virg. JEn. 3. 281.) They were called by the gene- 
ral name, flnvrafaov, quinqiiertium. 


A^ojuof , running. This game was in high efteemj 
(Horn. Qdyff. 6. 147.) It was performed in a fpace of 
ground, called fahw, which contained one hundred 
and twenty-five paces. It was alfo called auAoj ; 
(Athena. 3. p. 189.) The runners were called 
(Pan/an. Eliac. ii, 20.) 



There were four kinds of races ; (Schol, Ariftoph. 
. 293.) The jWtoi/ ; ' the (JUuAo?, which courfe 
was twice run over, in making to the goal, and in 
returning from it ; the <foAijeo?, a fpace of feven 
fladia; (Schol. Ariftoph. Avib. Demofth. Encom. p. 
686.) the oTrAmj?; (Ariftoph. Schol. Av. 293.) 
whence are derived the names given to the runners, 

rcthofyQitoi, ififltutafijfflpW) fytylfffyf'th an d oirAiTc^tyAOij 
(Pollux, iii. 30. 146.) 

The rhofyof/,oi, were thofe who ran once over the 
ground; (Ariftoph. Schol: Av. 293.) the howXtfyopot, 
thofe who ran twice over it ; (Schol. Ariftoph. ibid.) 
the hhixofyopoi, thofe who ran over it fix or feven 
times ; the QirXirofyofAQi, thofe who ran over it in ar- 
mour 5 (Sckel. Ariftoph. ibid.) The ftadium had 
two boundaries ; the firft, where the courfe began ; 
the fecond, where it terminated. The firft was term- 
edtf^o-if, (Po/Iux^m. 30. 147 .) j3oAi?, ( Schol. Ariftopk. 
Equ. n$6.-yefp. $46.) y^p) ; (Schol. Ariftoph. 
Acharn. 482.^ It is alfo called a^iru^a, (Schol. 
Ariftoph. Tefp. 546.) and yo-TrAjjygj ( Ant hoi. i. i.) 

The fecond was termed TfAo?, (Pollux, iii. 30. 
147.) r^jwa, 1 ^'^/^l yt*wn 9 (Pindar. Pyth. Od. 9. 
208. Euripid. Antig. 29, Eleftr. 955. 7o^ 
1514.) ax^as 7fa/x^j o-fOTro? ; it is called alfo rafyunv, 
and xa/x7rj ; (Eurip. Elettr. 659.) 

Many combatants ran at the fame time on the 
ftadium; .(Ant hoi. ii. />/r. 5.) Thofe who ran 
together were called 0-wayewra*, amTraApt, &c. To 
endeavour to overtake each other was called 
(Hefych.) to come up with him, xT 
(Lucian. Hermot. 564-) He, who firft reached the 
goal, received a prize, called a&Aoj/ 3 and ^aCsiovi 

s 3 (Schot* 


(Schol. Pind. Olymp. Od. i.) It was adjudged and* 
decreed by the prefidents of the games, who were 
called (S^a&uTw ; (Pollux, iii. 30. 145.) aywi 
Jia0fT ; arAoTfraj; (Pollux, iii. 30. 
j (Anthol. i. 2. Sueton. Ner. 53.) 

The prizes were crowns of little value ; of olive ; 
(Paufan. Eliac. Prior, vii. />. Syi.AriJloph. Ptut. 
586. P//>/. 15. 4.) of pine ; (Lucictn.. de Gymn. fc 
572. Plin. 15. 10.) of branches of the apple tree, 
loaded with their fruit ; and of parfley ; (Pindar. 
Olymp. 13. 45.^-- Lutian. de Gymn. p. 272. P// 4 
19.8. Jwven. 8. 226.) Thefe crowns were alfo 
the reward of the other combatants, as well as of 
the runners. 

To be one of the laft in the race> was called 


, leaping, from aAXso-Sat, was performed 
fometimes with the hands empty ; (Artflot. de Ani~* 
m*l. Incefs. c. 3.) fometimes with weights oflead, 
either in their hands, or on their heads and 
flioulders. Thefe were called AT^? ; which were 
mafles of lead or ftone, which they held in their 
hands ; and which they threw into the air to aug- 
ment the elaflicity of the body in leaping ; (Lvcian* 
Gymn. p. 289. Juvenal^ 6. 421. Senec. Epift. 

'5- 58.) 

The place from which they leaped was called 
paTU ; (Pollux, iii. 30. 151.) that to which they 
leaped, Ec-xa/A^j/a, (Pollux, ibid.) becaufe it was 
marked by digging the earth, from <rxp/*a, a ditch^ 
pr c-xfcTTTw, to dig. Hence arofe the proverbial 


cxpreffion, TTK^V vireg ra, ta-Kxppwa, to leap beyond 
the bounds; meaning, an extravagant perfon. 
The meafure, or the rule to be obferved in leaping 
was termed xaj/wv ', (Pollux, ibid.) 


was a fort of round quoit, (Star. 
6. 648 656. Ovid. Met. 10. 184.) three or four 
inches thick, which they threw by the help of a 
thong through a hole in the middle ; (Eujlalh. in 
Odyff. 9. 1 86.) which was called xaAu^oy. He who 
launched it, held one of his hands near his bread, 
the other balancing the diik a fhort time, which was 
thrown with a circular motion \ (Propert. iii. 12. 10. 
Philqft. Icon, i.2 4. p. 798.) It was heavy, (Stat. 
Theb. 6. 658 700. Lucian. Gymn. p. 289.) and 
compofed of ftone, brafs, copper, or iron ; (Evftath. 
Odyff. 0, 1 86.) The name of it was <roAo?; (Horn. 
Iliad. \[/. 826.) The word ^o-xo?, is derived from 
^ocfjv, for ^ixfii/, to cad ; (Euftath. Iliad. |3. 281. 
Euftath. ad Odyff. A, 20. Euripid. Bacch. 600.) be- 
caufe thefe quoits were launched into the air; (Ovid. 
Met. 10. 178. Stat. ^heb. 6. 68 1. HOT at. Sat. 
ii. 2. 13.) 

To throw the diik, was called Auncoif yu/A*a<r0ai, 
(Lnciaiu Dial. p. 209.) tfisw ws^i ^j<rx*, (Elian. Var, 
Hi/I. i. 24. Plilofi. Icon. \.p. 799.) ^o-xiujty, fP/- 
. xiv. p. 886.) <JWu/, fi/ow. Ody/. 6. 188.) 
^i7rrij/, (Lucian. Deor. Dial. p. I&y.Hom. 
//. v}v. 842.) ^<rxa? CaAAstv, oj<rxo?0AfJV ; (Plin. 34. 
8. ^////. ii. 13. 10. Pollux, iii. 30. 151.) the 
name which was given to the combatants was <JWxo- 
He was the vidor who threw his difk 
s 4 fartheft; 


fartheft; (Luclan. Gymn.p. 289 Horn. II. 
Odyff. 0. 1 92. Stat. <?heb. 6.713.) This healthful 
exercife is faid to have been invented by the Lacedae- 
monians ; (Lucia fa Gymn.p. 298 . Martial. 1 4, 


Iluyjujf, boxing, was performed by the combatants^ 
holding balls of ft one or lead in their hands, calle4 
cpf i. Hence this exercife was called <r^ge/*a^i. 
The combatant was called ITUJTOJ?, (Pollux, iii. 30. 
T.$o.Phadr. 4. 24. Euftath. in Iliad. \f/. 2.) of 
jruy^a^o?, (Horn. Qdyjf. 0, 246.) Whence were 
formed ffUJtrrjfw, (Euftatk. ad II. <J> 6,53.) and TTUX- 
T;UEIV ; from JTU, a fift. The combatants at firit 
only ufed their fills ; afterwards they ufed the 
ceftusj (Horn. Iliad. $. 684. Apgllon. Rhod. ii fl 
50. ffir JEneid $. 400. Valer. Place. 4. 250. 
Stat. "TJicb. 6. 720.) 

The ceflus was a thong of the hide of an ox 
newly killed, (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 52. Valer. Flacc* 
ibid.) with a mafs of lead, (Virg. Mneid. 5. 404. 
Stat. ^heb. 6. 729.) brafs, (Theocrti. 22. 3. ^^ 80.) 
or iron, (Horn. Iliad. $>. 684.-^^ Apollon. Rhod. ibid.) 
at the end of it. It was tied round the arm 3 (The- 
ocrit. ibid.) It was called ^a; or i/xaj Poeiat, be- 
caufe it was of the hide of an ox. 

The combatant endeavoured to elude the blews 
of his adverfary, by {looping dextroufly, (Virg. JEn, 
$ 437- ^heocrit. 22. 120. Stat. c Theb. 6. 767.) 
and to avoid ftriking himfelf with his own ceftus. 
He endeavoured to flrike at the face of his adver r 
fary; (Anthol. ii. i. Epig. i.) The blow on the 
face was called urwTrja^ (Arifloph. Vefp. 1377 and 



$clioL Pac. 540.) The combatant tried to render 
himfelf flefhy, that he might be more able to bear 
the blows. Hence corpulent perfons were called 
pugiles $ (Cerent. Eunuch, att. 2. fc. 3.) He whq 
yielded the victory to his antagonift, acknowledged 
his defeat by letting his wearied arms fall, (Theocrit. 
22. 129 .) or by finking to the ground $ (MenuriaL 
}i. 9.) 


HaXu, the exercife of wreftling, was the mofl; 
ancient of the exercifes ; (Plutarch. Sympos. ii. Pro-* 
bkm 4.) It was performed in the xyftus; under 
a covered portico, where two naked wrefllers, (Virg* 
&n. 3. 281. Stat. Theb. 6. 832. -Ovid. Met. 9. 
3i.Lucian. de Gymn. p. 270.) anointed with oil, 
(Theocrit. IdylL ii, 51. Diog. Laert. Anachars.) 
and rubbed over with duft, (Qvid. M&. 9. 35. 
Stat. Theb. 6. 846.^ their arms intertwined, en- 
deavouring to bring each other to the ground; 
(Ovid. Met. 9. 57. Stat. neb. 6. 859. Horn. 
fliad. if/. 7 1 1 .) The oil was called xi^a ; (Juve- 
nal, 6. 246. 3. 68. Martial, n. 48. Plin. 15. 
4. 28. 9.) The duft was taken from a place where 
it was kept for the purpofe $ (Plutarch. Sympos. ii. 
Probl. 4. p. 638.) The phrafe axovm VM&V, to 
conquer with eafe, alludes to this cuftom ; (Hero- 
dian. 8, 6.-r-Gellius. 5. 6. Martial. 7. 66. Ef/flef. 
gnchirid. c. 35.^ 

In the mofl ancient times, the combatant pre- 
vailed whofe ftrength and lize were fuperior. It is 
faid that Thefeus was the firft who improved this 
txercife into an art ; (Paufan. Attic, c. 39. p. 94.^ 

Aj&ivj (Ariftot. Rhetor, i. 5. 36.) xaTf^y, 



(AriftQt. ibid.) o-vvsxsiv, aynXa/uCawDai, (Lucian. de 
Gymn. p. 289.^ x&Ta<*XA5r./, (Horn. Iliad. $. J2J.) 
and PV&I, were words ufually applied to this conteft. 

He who brought his antagonifl thrice to the 
gr6und, was the victor; (Schol. ad. jEfchyL Eu- 
menid. 592.) Hence the words, Tgizfai, and KTTQ- 
Taa, fignify, to conquer, and KTTOT^^^^X^ to be 
vanquifhed; (Sitidas. -~ Hefy chins. Pollux, lib. 3. 
*-. 30. Ant hoi , lib, 2. c. i. Epig. n. SEfchyL 
/igamem. 179.) and hence the victor was called 

This conteft was fometimes called 
becaufe the combatants endeavoured to throw each 
other down ; (Pavfau. Attic.) 

There were two kinds of wreflling ; one in which 
the combatants wreftled on their feet, and eredl^ 
which was called o0< 7raA>?, or p^oTraAu ; another, 
in which they contended rolling on the ground, 
which was called esvAxAivo-nraAu, volutaria. The 
conquered combatant acknowledged his defeat with 
his voice, or by holding up his finger. Hence the 
expreffion, &igt ^aHruAoi/, raife your finger, importing, 
own your defeat, 

The rUyx^cmoi/, comprized both boxing and 
wreftling; (Ariftot.Rhet. i, 5. 36.^' 

When they fought on the ground, they were 
fometimes called xoA*r*xoi. This conteft was fome- 
times called irafApKwov ; and the combatants 
> ( Pollux. Sttida$< Hyginus.) 


Horfe- races were either performed by finglc 

horfes, which were called jaArjr^, or HAOJ^UTTUXI? ; or 

2 by 


by two horfes, on one of which the)'' performed the 
race, and leaped upon the other at the goal. Thefe 
men were called av6Ti : if it was a mare on 
which they leaped, it was called xa/\7rj f 

In chariots, two, three, or four horfes drew them. 
Hence the words Juw^oj, T^JTTTTOI, Tir^aw^oi. After- 
wards, the two middle horfes were coupled, and 
called uy*oi ; the reft were governed by reins, and 
called erapOOJ, trf^aic;, Trfj^atrii^fli, 7r&(>%QpQi 3 ao^rn^f?, 
Mules were fometimes ufed inftead of horfes ; and 
the chariots drawn by them were called aTmi/a*. 
The art of the charioteer was to avoid the wo-rau, 
goals 5 in which, if he failed, it was difgraceful. 

There were other exercifes lefs public, in which 
muficians, poets and artifts contended. In the 
ninety-firft Olympiad, Euripides and Xenocles con- 
tended for the honour of being accounted the beft 
tragedian; (jElian. Var. Hi/1, iib.i. cap. 8.) Cleo- 
menes recommended himfelf by repeating fome 
verfes of Empedocles, which he had compiled, 
(Athene, lib. 13,) Herodotus is faid to have 
fired Thucydides, when a youth, with emulation, 
by repeating his hiftory at the Olympic games ; 

Pi\f/if, the exercife of throwing or darting, was per- 
formed fometimes with a javelin, rod, or other large 
inflrument, which they threw out of their hands; 
which was called a^omer/Aa ; if an arrow, or a javelin 
call from a bow, it was called rojixjj. 


There were four folemn games in Greece, con* 
(berated by religion^ and called ayw^ wu, (Pollux, 

iii. 30, 


iii, 30, 153. Pindar. Nem. Od. 2. 5.) itga 
(Pindar. Olymp. Od. 8. 84. Od. 13. 20.) aiyj 
fpawT#j ayo?i/ ; (Xenoph. Memorab. iii. 7.) 

The Olympic games derived their name from 
Olympian Jupiter; or from Olympia, a city of the 
Pi (jeans ; or the fame with Pifa ; (StepJian. Eyzant.) 
They are faid to have been firft inflitiited after the 
victory of Jupiter over the fons of Titan j (Arijlopk. 
Schol.) Others fay, they were firft inflituted by 
Pifus ; others, by one of the Dactyli, named Her- 
cules ; (Ariftot. Ariftoph. Schol.) by Pelops, to 
the honour of Neptune ; by Hercules, to the ho- 
jiour of Pelops ; (Statins. Theb. 6.) or by Hercules, 
to Olympian Jupiter, from the fpoils taken by 
Argus, king of Elis, whom he had dethroned and 
plundered; (Find. Olymp.Od. 2. Diodor. Sicul. 
lib. 4.) Hercules propofed a crown to the victors, in 
memory of his own labours. It is alfo reported 
that ^ |ie wa.s himfelf conqueror in all the exercifes* 
except wreflling, and being unable to find a com- 
batant, Jupiter, having affumed a human fhape, 
contended with him ; when, after much grappling, 
the victory remaining doubtful, the god difcovered 
himfelf to his fon ; hence, he was furnamed UocX^f^ 
wreftler ; (Lycophr. CaJJ'. ^.41.) It is certain they 
were in high repute in the time of Iphitus, who 
was contemporary with Lycurgus ; (Ariftot. in Pint. 
Lycurg. * Paufanias.) He revived thefe gamea 
about four hundred and eight years after the Trojan* 
war, from which time the number of the Olympiads 
is reckoned; (Solin. Polyhtft. cap. i.J They were 
afterwards neglected till the time of Chorsebus, who. 

/sd in the twenty-eighth Olympiad after Iphitus ; 



after which they were conftantly celebrated. This 
happened in the four hundred and eighth year after 
the deftruction of Troy. 

They were celebrated every fifth year, that is, 
every fiftieth month, which is the fecond month 
after the completion of four years. They continued 
five days ; beginning upon the eleventh, and end- 
ing upon the fifteenth day of the lunar month, when 
the moon was at the full. The management of 
thefe games belonged fometimes to the Pifeans, 
but, for the moil part, to Eleans, by whom the 
Pifaeans were deftroyed ; (Polyb. lib. ^.} The 
1 04th Olympiad was celebrated by order of the 
Arcadians, but it was called by the Elians, AvoAu^- 
*naJff, unlawful Olympiads, and left them out of 
their, annals, in which the occurrences at thefe 
games, and the names of the victors were recorded. 

Till the fiftieth Olympiad one perfon prefided ; 
when two were appointed to that office. In the 
1 03d Olympiad the number was increafed to twelve, 
according to the number of the Elean tribes. In 
the following Olympiad, the tribes were reduced to 
eight, by war with the Arcadians, and there were 
eight prefidents. In the iO5th, one more was 
added, and in the io6th, another; and the number 
of them was ten, till the reign of Adrian the Roman 
emperor. They were called EMni/oJWj, and alTem- 
bled in a place called EAA^oJWiov, in the Elean 
forum. Here they redded ten months before the 
celebration of the games, to fuperintend the TT^O- 
f vpvourpQcra, preparatory exercifes, and to be pro- 
perly inftruded by the No^opuAaxtf, keepers of the 
laws. At the folemnity they fat naked, having the 



crown of victory before them, till they adjudged it 
to the victor. 

There was a liberty of appeal from the EAXni/c^xaj 
to the Olympian fcnatc ; (Paufan.Eliac. p. 457.) 

There were officers appointed to keep order, who 
were called aXura, the fame as the liftores of the 
Romans. There was a prefident over thefe, called 
*AuTa$xj ; (Etymolog. Auftor.) 

Women were not allowed to be prefent, under 
the fevere fentence of being caft headlong from a 
rocks (Paujan. Eliac.) It is however faid that 
Cynifca, the daughter of Archidamus, contended 
in thefe games and won the prize ; (Paufan. Lacon.) 
No one, who had not been ten months at the Gym- 
nan' um at Elis, to perform the preparatory exercifes, 
was allowed to contend. No criminal, or relation 
to a criminal, was allowed to contend. If any one 
was convicted of bribing his adverfary, he fuffered a 
heavy fine. The combatants were compelled to 
fwear that they had fpent ten months in prepara- 
tory exercifes ; and their fathers and brethren fwore, 
that no unlawful means Ihould be ufed to obtain 
the rewards ; (Paufan. Eliac. Prior, c. 24. p. 441.) 

The wreftlers were appointed by lot. Into a filver 
urn, called xaAvn?, little pellets were put, about the 
lize of beans, upon each of which was marked a 
letter, the fame letter belonging to every pair- 
Thofe, with the fame letters, wreflled together. 
If the number was not even, he who chofe the odd 
pellet, contended with him that had the maftery, 
and was called tq>sfys, coming after tire reft. This 
was efteemed the mod fortunate chance, becaufe 
he contended with one already weary and exhauft- 

ed ; 


edf; (Ccd. Rhodig. Autiq. Left. lib. 22, cap. 17. 
Sirabo. 8. Hefydins. Arift&ph. Ran. 804.) 

There were alfo mental as well as corporeal con- 
tefts at thefe games. The prize of eloquence, 
(Paufan. Eliac. Pofl. 17. p. 495,} of poetry, (Milan. 
Far. Hift. ii. 8.) and the other fine arts was dif- 
puted; (Suidas.) The prize of the victor in each 
of thefe combats was a wreath of wild olive, termed 
xoTivofj (Ariftoph. Pint. 586 .) A prize of fmall 
value was choien, that the combatants might be 
animated with glory, not Simulated with a hope of 
gain ; (Ltitcian. de Gymn.) Their glory was indeed 
deemed immortal ; (Cicer, fttfc. Quaft. i. 46. ii. 
17. Or at. pro Place. <*. 13. Horat. Od. i. i. v. 6. 
Pindar. Olymp. Od. \ . Stroph. A, v. 1 6 . 1 7. ) Statues 
\vere creeled to them at Olympia, in the wood con- 
fecrated to Jupiter; (Paufan. Eliac. 10.) 

Thefe foleran games not only drew together all 
Greece, (Lucian de Gymn* p. 274. Dlodor. Sic. 4. 
*. 55.) but alfo foreign nations, from the extremi- 
ties of Egypt,, from Lybia, Sicily, and other coun- 
tries; (Paufan. Eliac. 10. Pin (Jar. Olymp. Od. 6, 
Epod. T. v. 14.) Hence the name, ILmyucu:, 
given to thefe games. 


The Pythian games were celebrated near Delphi ; 
(Pindar. Pyth. Od. 6.) and are fuppofed to have 
been inftituted, either by Amphiflyon, the fon ot 
Deucalion, or by the council of Amphiclyones. 
Others refer them to Agamemnon; (Phavorinits. 
Etymol. AuR.) to Diomedes ; (Paufan. Corinth.) or 
to Apollo, when he had overcome Python ; (Ovid. 



Met. i.) They were at firfl celebrated once iri 
nine years* called sv^xni^ ; but afterwards, every 
fifth year; (Plutarch. Gr<c. Qu*ft.) 

The rewards were certain apples confecrated to 
Apollo; or garlands of laurel ; (Pindar. Pyth. Od ! . 
8. v. 1$.} At firfl, they Were rewarded with laurels 
of palm or of beech; (Ovid.) In the firil folem- 
nityi it is faid* the gods contended. Others fay* 
at firfl, there was only a mufkal contention, in 
which, he who beft fung the praifes of Apollo, ob- 
tained the prize ; which was at firfl either filver or 
goldj but afterwards a garland; (Strab. lib.ii. 
Paufan. PJioc.) If the prize was money, the 
games were called Ayuvss xgyvourai ; if a garland, 

There was another fong, called fafc&xlf vopos, t6 
which a dance was performed. It confifled of five 
parts, in which the fight of Apollo and Python was 
reprefented : A*ax8<n?, the preparation to the fight 
E/*7TEa, the firfl effay towards it KaTa^iAao-/*?)?, 
the action itfelf, and the exhortation of the gods to 
be courageous I&poi x, AaxruAot, the infolence of 
Apollo over Python vanquifhed Svgiyyts, the hifs 
of the ferpent, as he died. Others make it confift 
of fix parts ; n^a, the preparation Ia/*<??, the 
reproaches of Apollo to dare Python to the contefl; 
hence the verfes called Iambic AaxruAo?, fung to 
the honour of Bacchus KT*KO?, fung to the ho- 
nour qf Jupiter MTJT^WCV, fung to the honour of 
Mother Earth Sv^y^o?, the hifs of the ferpent. 
By others, it is defcribed Iln^a, the preparation 
K.aTctxiA(r/AOf, the challenge Iajwix0f, the fight, 
the trumpets founding war STrwJgio;, from the 



foot called the fpondee, or from <nrw$ew, to offer a 
libation K.aTap0ou<n?, Apollo dancing after his 
victory; (Jd. Seal. Poet. lib. i. cap. 23. Pollux, 
Hi}. 4. cap. 10.) 

In the third year of the forty-eighth Olympiad, 
flutes were introduced by the Amphictyones, pre- 
fidents of thefe games : but they were foon laid afide. 
None but boys were to contend in running. Horfe- 
races and chariot-races were afterwards introduced. 


The Nemean games were fo called from Nemea, 
a village and grove, between the cities Cleons and 
Phlius, where they were celebrated every third year. 
The exercifes were chariot-races, and the n^r^Xov. 
The prefidents were chofen from Corinth, Argos, 
andCleonse; and drefled in black; becaufe they 
were a funeral fokmnity in memory ofOpheltes, 
or Archemorus,* from a^x*, a beginning, arid ^0?, 
death, becaufe his death was a prelude to all the mis- 
fortunes that befel the Theban champions ; (Strab. 
lib. 8. Paujlm. Corinth. Eliac. Pindar. SchoL 
Nzm. Stati. I'hcb. lib. 5. lib. 4.) hence they were 
called ywi/ fTnra^o?; (Sihol. Piud. Proleg.) Others 
fay, they were inftituted by Hercules, after his victo- 
ry uver the Nemean lion, (Pindar. SchoL) in honour 
of Jupiter. The victors were crownedwith parfleyj 
an herb ufed at funej'als ; and fuppofed to have 
fprung from /the blood of Archemorus; (Pin- 
tarcb. TimoL) At thefe games alfo were con- 
tcils, gymnical and equeftrian ; (Pind. Od. 5.) 
They were celebrated every three years, oa the 
twelfth day of Boedromion ; (SchoL Pindar, quartd 
Hypoth. Nem. Apollodor. iii. 6. ^.Mlian. Far. 
Hift. iv. 5. Plin. 19. iS.) 




The Iflhmian games were fo called from the 
place where they were celebrated, the Corinthian 
Iflhmus, in honour of Pakemon or Melicertes, fon 
of Athamus, king of Thebes, and Ino, who, through 
fear 6f her hufband, cafl herfelf, with her fon, into 
the fea, where they were received by Neptune 
among his divinities. The body of Palaemon was 
afterwards taken up by a "dolphin, and carried to the 
Corinthian fliore, where it was found by Sifyphus, 
king of Corinth, who honourably interred it, and 
inflituted thefe funeral games to his memory ; (Pau- 
fan. Corinth.) Others fay, that they were inflituted 
by Thefeus in honour of Neptune ; others, that 
there were two folemnities, one to Melicertes, 
another to Neptune ; (Plutarch. Thef.) The Eleans 
alone attended thefe games; (Paufan. Eliac. a.) 
They were obferved every third year, or every fifth 
year, -(Alex. ab. Alex. Gen. Dier. lib. 5. cap. 8.) with 
great fplendour and magnificence ; (Paufan. Corinth, 
< Plnd. Qd. Nem. 6.) The viclors were crowned 
with garlands of pine leaves ; afterwards parfley was 
given them, dry and withered; (Pint. Symp. 5. 
Qua]l. 3. Strabo, 8.) Thefe games were held in 
great veneration, (Paufan. Corinth, c* ii. p. 114.^ 
on account of the religion by which they were con- 
fecrated, and on account of their antiquity; (Sckmid. 
Pro/eg, in IJlk. p. 4.) and were continued even after 
the definition of Corinth ; (Paufan. Corinth. J 


It is faid that Ouf*vo?, king of the Atlantic iflands, 
was fuppofed to be the father of all the gods, and gave 


OP TIME. 275 

liis name to the heavens; (Biodor. SicuL lib. 3.^ 
He is fuppofed to have invented aflrology; others 
however fay, that Atlas, and, from him, Hercules, 
firft had the merit of that knowledge; (Diodor. 
Sicul.lib. 3.) and others afcribe it to Hyperion; 
(Diod. Sicul. lib. $.) others to Endymion ; (Liician. 
in comm* de AJlrol.Apoll. Schol. lib. 4.) and others 
to Actis or Adlseus, who flourilhed in the time of 
Cecrops ; (Diod. Sicit/. lib. $.) The firft (ludy of 
aftronomy has been generally afcribed to the Grecian 
colonies which inhabited Afia. It is fuppofed to 
have been learned from the Babylonians or Egyp- 
tians y (Suidas.- Diogen, Laert. inJ~it.Philof. Plin. 
lib. 2. cap. j6.) 

In the heroic ages the years were numbered by 
the return of feed-time and harveft. The day was 
not then divided into equal portions ; (Euftatk. 
IL A. 84. //. (p. in.) They learned the ufe of the 
fun dial, and the pole, and the twelve parts of the 
day, from the Babylonians ; (Herodot. lib. i. cap. 
109,^ In the time of Homer, lunar months were 
in ufe; (Horn. Odyff ^ v. 161.) But they had no 
fettled form of years and months until Thales the 
Milefian obferved that the lunar revolution never 
exceeded thirty days, and appointed twelve months 
of thirty days each, by which the year was made to 
confift of 360 days. To reduce thefe months to an 
agreement with the revolution of the fun, he inter- 
calated thirty days at the end. of every two years ; 
(Cenforiu. lib. de DL Nat. cap. 18. Herodot. lib. i. 
cap. 32. and lib. z. cap. 4.) Afterwards, Solon 
obferved that the courfe of the moon was finiihed 
in twenty-nine days and a half; and appointed that 
the months flhould alternately confift of 29 and of 

T a 30 days. 


30 days. Thus a year of twelve months was re* 
duced to 354 days, which fell fhort of the folar year, 
eleven days, and one fourth part of a day. To re- 
concile this difference, rsrgaivifis, a cycle of four 
years was invented. After the two firft of which, 
they feem to have added an intercalated month of 
twenty-two days ; and after the expiration of the 
two following years, another month was intercalated, 
confirming of twenty-three days. It was afterwards 
confidered that the forty-five days added by Solon 
to his period of four years, and containing a full 
lunar month and a half, would occafion the cycle 
to end in the midft of a lunar month ; to remedy 
which inconvenience, ox-ram?^, a term of eight 
year's was inflituted inftead of the former cycle of 
four years, to which three intire lunar months were 
added at feveral times. After the cycle of eight 
years no alteration was made, till the time of Meton, 
who having obferved that the motions of the fun 
and moon fell fhort of each other by fome hours, 
invented a cycle of nineteen years; termed swtaxcuot- 
xTH?3 in which term, the fun having finifhed nine- 
teen periods, and the moon 235, both returned to 
the fame pofition in which they had been nineteen 
years before. 

It was afterwards obferved, tnat in the revolution 
of every cycle, the moon outwent the fun about 
feven hours. A new cycle was therefore contrived 
by Calippus, which contained four of Meton's, or 
76 years. At the end of which Hipparchus de- 
vifed another cycle, which contained four of thofe 
of Calippus. Others fay, one of Meton's cycles 
contained eight imafcai&x*iTi^3if, or 1^2 years. 
This was afterwards divided into "two equal parts, 


OF TIME. 277 

and from each part one day was taken away ; (Dod- 
ivdlde Ann. Vet. Gr<sc.) 

There was no agreement between the Grecian 
and Roman new moons, (Plutarch. Ronml.) and 
the beginnings of the months could not be afcer- 
tained ; (Plutarch. Ariftid.) The Roman January, 
their firft month, was in winter. The Arabians 
and others began their year in the fpring. The 
Macedonians reckoned Dius the firft month, from 
the autumnal equinox. The ancient Athenian 
year began after the winter folftice ; the more mo- 
dern Athenians computed their yeats from the firft 
new moon after the fummer folftice. The Romans, 
at firft, had only ten months ; the laft of which was 
hence termed December. They were afterwards, by 
NumaPompilius, increafed to twelve. The Egyp- 
tians had at firft only one month, which was after- 
wards divided into four. Some of the barbarous 
nations divided their year into three months; fo 
did the Arcadians ; who afterwards divided it 
into four months. The Acarnanians reckoned fix 
months to their year. Some months contained 
thirty days, others a different number. Some na- 
tions computed their months by lunar, others by 
folar motions ; (Galenas.) 

The Athenians, after their kalendar was reformed 
by Meton, began their year upon the firft new 
moon after the fummer folftice ; (Plat. lib. 6. de 
Leg.) Their year was divided into twelve months, 
which contained, alternately, thirty and twenty- 
nine days. The months of thirty days preceded 
thofe of twenty-nine. The former were termed 
jrAuK, full, and &xa<pdii/0i, as ending upon the tenth 
day ; the latter were called *<Aoi, hollow, and 


i, as ending upon the ninth day; (GaJenus, lib. 
3. cap. 4-) Every month was divided into r^ 
^W/* ? a > tnree decades of days. The firft decade 
was pwos ctt^yspwA or ir^/Afu* : the fecond, 
lj.Y,<r%vTo<; ; the third, |!Ai>o? pQij/oi/To?, Trauo^fi/a, or 
TO? ; (Pollux.) The firft day of the firft decade 
was called VEO/AUVI, as happening upon the new 
moon : the fecond, Jfur^a ij-apva : the third, T^ITU 
fa/Aei/a, &c. The firft day of the fecond decade, 
which was the eleventh of the month, was called 

TT^WTH ^C,T21/TO, OF 7T0WTJJ 7H JlXa ; the 
^t<rVTO?, Or. J*UTf^ 7T4 J"f K& ', &C. tO 

twentieth. The firft day of the third decade was 
called Tr^wrr, STT' HfliJ't : the fecond, J^fUT^a 7r' wt&ti, 
&c. Sometimes the numbers were inverted; the 
firft of the laft decade was pQit/ovro? J*TJJ : the 
'fecond, <p9ivotTo; HV&TII : the third, 

&c. The laft day of the month was called 
from Demetrius Poliorcetcs ; (Plut.Demetr.) Be- 
fore Demetrius, it was called, by order of Solon, 
SMI >ii vsa, the old and newj becaufe the new moon 
appearecTon feme part of that day ; ( PM. Solon. 
Ariftopk. Schol. Nub. Snidas.) It was alfo called 
r^5a?, the thirtieth; and not only fo in the months 
of thirty, but in the months of twenty-nine days. 
According to fome, the twenty-iecond day was 
omitted s others fay, the twenty-ninth day 5 (Prot/us. 
Mofchopul. in Hefiod. Di, v. z.} Thus the lunar, 
year, was called a year of threq hundred and fixty 
days; though, after Solon's time, it really confided 
only of three hundred and fifty-four days. Hence 
the Athenians creeled 360 ftatues of Demetrius the 
Phalarean ; ^/>////. Nat. Hfi. 1ft. 34. cap, 6 .) 



The Athenian months were ; i. EK&TopGouuv, 
\vhich was W^K or &xp0wf, thirty days. It be- 
gan on the firft new moon after the lummer folftice, 
which anfwered to the latter part of the Roman 
June, and the firft part of July. It derived its 
name from the hecatombs ufually facrificed in this 
month. Its ancient name was K^ow? or Kgoviw, 
from Kf <wa, the feftival of Saturn, which was kept 
in this month. 2. MsTaynrviuv 9 a month of twenty- 
nine days; fo called from Metagitnia, one of 
Apollo's ieftivals. 3. Bou^o^iw**, thirty days, fo 
called from the feftival Boedromia. 4. Mai/aaxTu- 
QIUV, twenty-nine days, from the feftival IVfoemacteria. 
5. nvKvsfyuv, thirty days, in which the Pyanepfia 
were celebrated. 6. AvQernpuv, twenty-nine days ; 
from the feftival Anthefteria. 7. now few, thirty 
days, in which the feftival Pofidonia was obferved. 
8. ra[An*iw 9 twenty-nine days, facred to Juno 
y/*ix*of, the goddefs of marriage. 9. EAapjoPuwi/, 
thirty days, from the feftival Elaphebolia. 10, 
Mavu^iw^, twenty-nine days, in which the Munychia 
were kept. n. a^-y/jAiwi/, thirty days, from the 
feftival Thargelia. 12. 2x^e^o^iw>, twenty-nine 
days from the feftival Scirrophoria 5 (Harpocration. 
Gyrald. de Menftb. Pollux, i. 7. 63.- Schol Arijloph. 
Nub. 1129. Plutarch in Solon. Diogen. Laert. i. 
57. Plutarch. Demetr.) 


The Grecian armies chiefly were formed of free 
denizons. At the age of eighteen, the Athenians 
were appointed to guard the city, with its forts ; 


* This month was called by the Corinthians n<*x- e /xo; j 
Cor on.) 



hence they were called vsgnrohoi; (Ulpian. in Oiyntk- 
3.) at twenty they were fent to foreign wars, and 
the Spartans, at thirty. At threefcore, they were 
allowed to retire. At Athens, no one, above forty 
years of age, imlefsin a time of danger, was obliged 
to ferve in war; (Ulpian. in Olyntk. 3.) The 
keepers of the revenue, (Demofth. in Nexr.) and 
thofe who danced at the feftival of Bacchus, were 
exempted ; (Dzmofth. in Midian.) Slaves were alfo 
excluded from ferving. All, who ferved, were re- 
giftered; hence the levy was called xTa 

Ao-yo?, r^aroAoyta ; and to make a levy, 

or xaTay^apni/ TrouivQeci. The early Grecians were 
appointed by lots ; (Homer Iliad w.) The foldiers 
always maintained themfelves ; none, but thofe 
exempted by law, were allowed to abfent themfelves 
from fervice, upon pain of lofing the rights of citi- 
zens, and of exclufion from the public temples ; 
(JEfchin. Ctefiphont. Demojlh. Tmocrat.) If they 
made their efcape, they were branded with marks 
in their hands called s^y^roc, (Veget. dc re milit* 
lib. z.cap.$.) iv iq ^^<ri j to diflinguiih them from 
Haves who were marked on their foreheads ; (jElian.) 
The Carians were the firil who ferved for pay ; 
{Strabo.Hefychivs.) hence the terms xa^xot, and 
x^tfAo^ot) are ufed proverbially for cowards ; (Ht<\ 

At Athens, in the time of Pericles, foldiers were 
allowed fubiiftence-money ; (Ulpian. in Or at. (h 
Synt.) At mil, they had two oboli a day, which 
in a month amounted to tea drachms ; (Demojlh. 
Phil, i .) A common fcaman was allowed a drachrn 
a day, with the allowance of a drachm for a fervant; 
(Thucyd. /#* 3.) To thofe who manned the vefiel, 



called UagKXos, three oboli were allowed ; and four 
to the foot foldiers. Hence rfrf woAar J3if ,) is ufed 
for a foldier's life ; (Euftatk. Odyff. a.) and r^ 
TWO?UU/, for ferving in the war. The pay of 
foldiers of cavalry was a drachm a day, called xa- 
rxfuiris ; (Snidas.) All were obliged to con- 
tribute according to the value of their cflates. 
In times of extremity, the rich paid extraordi- 
nary contributions. Confederate wars were main- 
tained at the common charge of the allies -, (Plutarch 


The Grecian armies were compofed of different 
forts of foldiers. Their main body confided of 
foot men; the reft were carried on chariots, horfes, 
or elephants. The foot foldiers were at firft of 
three forts; i. OTj-Atrai, who bore heavy armour, 
and engaged with broad fhields and long fpears 5 
(Suidas.) 2. YiAoj, light-armed men, who fought 
with arrows and darts, or ftones and flings ; they 
were inferior to the heavy-armed foldiers ; (SopJiocL 
Ajac. v. 141.) When they had mot their arrows, 
they retreated behind the (hield of the heavy-armed 
foldiers; (Horn. Iliad. 0. v. 266.) 3. IlEATr*, 
were armed with fhields and fpears, but of lefs fize 
than thofe of the evXirxi. The horfemen were not 
at firft numerous, being thofe only who could main- 
tain themfelves; (Herodot. lib. 5.) who afterwards 
provided fubftitutes to ferve for them ; (Xcnoph. 
EAAIV. lib. 6.} The art of horfemanfhip is affirmed 
to have been taught by the Amazons; (Lyjlas 
Or at.) or the Centaurs; (Palaph. lib. \.) or by 
Bellcrophon; (Plin. lib. 7. cap. 56.) or by Nep- 
tune 3 


tune ; (Horn. in. Hymn. Sophocl. (Edip.) Neptune 
is hence called Imnoj, (Paufan. Achaic.) I-mm^s, 
(Pindar. Pyth.) l-mr^y -gruf, (Lycophr. Caff.) and 
iTTTroxa^oj. At firft they were governed with a firing, 
or by the voice; (SHius, Ital. lib. i. Ibid. lib. 2. 
Strabo, lib. 17. Lucan, lib. 4.) afterwards with 
bridles, having bits of iron, like the teeth of a wolf, 
and hence called Ai>x<?t, and Lupi ; (Horat. lib. i. 
Od. 8.) which, feme fay, were invented by Neptune 
(Statins.) others by the Lapithse ; (Virgil^ Georg. 
3. 115.) or by Pelethronius i (Plin. lib. 7. cap. 
56.) who was alfo the inventor of harnefs, called 
rf W/*T, and tQwrrix, made of leather, cloth, or the 
ikin of wild beads 5 (Virgil, Mn. 8. Statins. Virg* 
Mn. 7.) 

They ufually leaped upon their horfcs ; (%' 
Mn.\i^} or the horfes were taught to bow their 
bodies to receive the rider; (Pollux^ lib. i. cap. 9. 
Straboy lib. 3. Si/his, //. lib. 10.) Some, in 
mounting their horfes, got on the backs of their 
ilaves; (Epit. Xenoph.) others, by the help of 
Ihort ladders; which affiftance was called ai/ao- 
T.CK. The highways were adorned with flones for 
this purpofe; (Plutarch. Grace. Xenoph. Hipparch.) 
Some affirm, that the firft heroes were mounted 
upon horfes ; (Lucret. lib. 5.) others, that they 
rode to battle on chariots ; (Palaphat. Homer.) 
Their chariots were richly embofled with gold and 
other metals ; (Q. Curling lib. 10. Horn. Iliad x. 
Homer Iliad v.) and adorned with curious hang- 
ings; (Homer Iliad x.) They were drawn for the 
moft part by two horfes ; (Homer Iliad t. Virgil* 
Mn. j. 280.) fometimes a third was added, which 



ran firft, and was governed by reins, and hence it 

Was called o-fi^a<o^, (m^apo^of, Tra^trfi^o;, TrctoYiofios, 
(Homer. J and the rein was calledVa^o^a. Some- 
times they drove four horfes ; (Horn. IL 0. Horn. 
Odyff. v.} Every chariot carried two men ; hence 
it was called J^oc ; (Euftathius in Horn.) The 
charioteer was called uno^o?, which was efteemed 
an office of honour; (Horn. Iliad '6. Horn. Iliad ^ 
He was however inferior in dignity to the warrior, 
who was called )r*B*vib who fat by him, and 
directed him to drive ; (Eitftath. in IL 0.) When 
he encountered in clofe fight, he alighted from the 
chariot ; (liefiod. Scut. Hrg. Mn. 10. Horn. II. g. 

There were other chariots, called J^n-ave^M, 
becaufe armed with fcythes, with which the ranks 
were cut down. The teachers of the art of horic- 
fnanihip were called wio%xgotTa,i -, (Hefychius.) If 
any horfeman had been improperly admitted into 
the roll, lie was disfranchiied, and became an^os ; 
(Lyjias Qrat. de Ord. defert.) They were therefore 
previoufly examined by the Ivv<t^og 9 general of 
the horfe, who was fometimes affitted by the Phi- 
larchi, and fenate of five hundred ; ( Artftoph. SchoL 
in Ran. Xenoph. Hlpparck. Hefychius. v. T^uo-fT- 
^riov.) Ungovernable horfes were rejected; they 
were examined by the found of a bell , hence xJ- 
VI^EIV, fignifies to prove, and axw^i/roi', unproved; 
(Hefychius.) Horfes, worn out with fervice, were 
marked on the jaw, and termed T^C?, (Conf.Zeneb. 
Cent.$. Prov. 41.) with the figure of a wheel; and 
fometimes called rfuo-unnov. 

The horfemen were called by various titles, as 
, who annoyed their enemies with miflive 



Weapons, alib 

oi, 9uff0jp0*i. They who had two 
horfes, on which they rode by turns, were called 
AU^ITTTTOI, and fometimes Imroiyuyoiy becaufe they 
led one of their horfes ; (Horn. Iliad 6. 684.) The 
A^a^ai wore armour, not fo heavy as that of the 
foot-foldicr, that they might ferve either on horfe- 
back or on foot ; and had always fervants attending 
to take their horfes ; (Pollux, lib. i. cap. i o.) They 
were alfo termed xara^axTot and py xar^oxToi, 
heavy and light armed. The horfes of the former 
were guarded with plates of folid brafs, which were 
called 7T>OjU,Tto7n^ta, Tra^&ma, iroigniot, Trgotrzgvi^ioiy TTX- 
gKTrXwgidix, 7r&goifji.vif>i$i<x, Tra^axy^i^ta; (Pollux, lib. I. 
ttp. 10,) fometimes they were made of fkins, with 
plates of metal curioufly wrought in plumes or 
other forms; (Virgil jEn. n. v. 770.) They 
were alfo varioufly adorned, as, with bells, (Euripid.) 
clothing of tapeflry, and other work, rich collars, 
and trappings, called paAa^a -, which is alfo fome- 
times called an ornament of the jaws or forehead | 
(AuL Cell. 5. 5. Xenoph. Cyrop^d. 8. Liv. 9.46, 
Pollux, 10. 12.) 

Camels and elephants were ufed in later times, 
which carried into battle towers, in which ten, fif- 
teen, or thirty foldiers were contained ; (Philoflr. 
Fit. Apollon. lib. i. cap. 6.) The beads themfelves 
trampled the enemy under foot, or tofled them into 
the air, or terrified them by their noife; (Q. Gurtius. 
lib. 8.) They fometimes engaged each other with 
gi-eat fury, tearing their oppofers in pieces with 
their teeth ; (Polyb. lib. 5.) 



According to mythology, Mars was the firfl who 
wore armour. He employed Vulcan, a fmith in 
the ifle of Lcmnos, fo eminent as to be deified, and 
honoured with the protection of his own trade ; 
although the people of Lemnos were afterwards 
branded with infamy for fo deflruclive an invention; 
hence they are called Siyrfej ; (Homer Iliad a.) and 
their country Zivrvg ; (Apoll. Arg. 2.) Hence alfo, 

Xlpvtx xuxz, Xripma %'? A^unoy Ae7mt/, a bloody 
look ; (Eujlath. Iliad a.) The introduction of the 
ufe of weapons is alfo attributed to Bacchus; (IJidor. 
Qrig. lib. 9. cap. 3.) The arms of the early heroes 
were compofed of brafs ; (Homer. Paufau. Laconic. 
Plutarch. <Thef, Hcfiod. Oper. et Dieb.) Even 
when the ufe of iron was afterwards introduced, 
they dill retained the fame terms ; hence 
denotes an iron fmith ; (Ariftot. Poetic.) and 
xfufl-aro, applies to the making of iron helmets; (Plu- 
tarch. Camill.) Their boots, and fome other parts 
of their arms, were compofed of tin; (Homer //.<r. 
Horn. II. A. //. u.) Gold and lilver were alfo ufed ; 
but the wearers of fuch armour were deemed effemi- 
nate ; (Horn. Iliad .) Their arms were frequently 
adorned with various reprefentations, or filled with 
terrible images to flrike terror into the enemy; 
(Horn. //. *.) 

The ancient Greeks were always armed ; but 
afterwards thiscuftom ceafed, (Thucyd.lib. i.) and 
a penalty was impofed upon it ; (Lucian. Anachars.) 
1'hey were better furnifned with defensive than 

often five 


offenfive weapons ; (Euripid. Sckol. Plutarch. PC* 
lop.) Their head was guarded with a helmet called 
7r0*xpaAaKfc, x>ai/o$, xo^u?, &c. compofed of brafs or 
other metals, or the fkin of beafts, called from the 
names of the animals, as ixri&rj, rau^m, aXuirwin, 
XfWTsn yfn, XUWD ; the latter was compofedofa 
dog's fkin; (Homer Iliad x.) Thefe fkins were 
always worn with their hair, and teeth, to render 
them more terrible ; (Virgil^ Mn. 7. v< 666. Horn. 
Iliad K. v. 261.) The fore part of the helmet was 
open ; and to its fide was fixed a firing, which tied 
it to the neck, which was called 0%$ ; (Horn. Iliad 
y. v. 371.) That part which covered the eye- 
brows was called o^ut? ; that ereded over the 
brow,yeo-ov, the pent-houfe. Its crefl was firll ufed 
by theCarians, (Herodot. Clio. Strabojib. i^..) and 
called (p^Ao?, aacJxo^cfj (Hefychius. Alc^us. Horn. 
II. y. 337. 362.) It was a cuftom of the Carians 
to depofit, in the graves of their dead, a little Ihield 
and an helmet. $x\o<; 3 is fuppofed to mean the cone, 
and Apo?, the plume ; (Suidas.) the firft was com- 
pofed of various ornamental materials, the latter 
adorned with different forts of paint j and hence cal- 
led lyavOuj, wxi>C^ij; (PolluXylib. i. cap. 10.) and 
fometimes with gold ; (Horn. Iliad r. 610. ? r rrgt'I, 
jn. 9. 49.) The crefl was for the mofl part of fea- 
thers, or the hair of horfes tails or manes ; ('Horn. II. 
r. v. 382.) The private foldiers had fmall crefls; 
the officers had plumes of a larger fize; (Suidas.' 
Virgil JK. j. <v. 785.) Hence it was called 
T^upaAf.'a ; when furrounded with plumes, 
when adorned with four plumes, Tf of aX 
kn. lib. z.Hom. II. y. Plutarch. Pyrrh.) The 
or crefl, was fometirues termed x^ac; 



(Suidas.) although fome had neither creft nor cone; 
and this helmet was called xxrxtrv?; (Horn. II. x.) 
The helmet, called r*<pmy, was from an ornament 
refembling the ridge of a mountain, and had feveral 
*ZW eminences ; (Hefy chins.- Horn. IL xv. 96.) 
The Boeotians chiefly excelled in helmets ; (Pollux, 
lib. i. cap. 10.) That of the Macedonians was 
called xfcufriuj which was compofed of hides, and 
ferved as a covering from the cold ; (Suidas.) The 
heroes were proud of wearing the ikins of wild 
beads ; (Theocrit. Aioo-x. Homer. Virgil &neid. 5. 
v. 36.) They fometimes wore armour of brafs, 
lined with wool, and worn next to the Ikin, within 
the coat of mail. This was called MIT^U ; (Homer 
Iliad o.) The armour called Zw^ca or Zwrn^, reached 
from the knees to the belly, where it was joined to 
the brigandine; (Euftath. in Horn. II. ) Zn 
is mod commonly ufed for the belt, furrounding 
the reft of the armour ; (Homer Iliad <F.) But 
Zwvjj is a more general name than Zwp? , and fig- 
nifies the pwfii. 

The 0f f , confided of two parts ; one was a 
defence to the back, the other to the belly $ the 
middle of which was called yuaxa, and the extreme 
parts TTTf^uys? ; (Pollux. Paufan. Atiic.) The 
fides were coupled together with buttons; (Paufan. 
Attic. Si!. Ital. lib. 7.) HpO^aKiov, was a half 
w^ag, breaflplate, faid to have been invented by 
Jafon, (Pollux.) and in much efteem ; (Poly*n. 
Sir at. lib. 4.) Some were made of hemp, twifted 
into fmall cords, and fet clofe, which were frequently 
ufed in hunting, becaule the teeth of wild beads 
could not pierce them ; (Panfan. Attic. Homer 
li'tad (3, Cornel. Nep. in Iphicrat. Plutarch. De- 


mefr.) They were of two forts ; one of which con- 
lifted of two continued pieces of metal, and was 
inflexible; called r<W or raroc; ( Euftathius) 
The other was compofed of a bead's hide ; fet 
with plates of metal in various forms ; fometimes 
in hooks or rings, fometimes refembling feathers, 
or the fcales of ferpents or fifties, to which fluds 
of gold were fometimes added ; hence the words 
0Uax? aAixnJWai, XtTriduroct, <poA;^cora<, &C ; (SiltUS 
ltd. lib. 5. Virgil ALneid 1 1 .) There were fome- 
times two or three plates over each other; (Statins. 
Theb. 7. Stat. Theb. 1 2.) Hence they were called 
&?rAoi and T^jTrAo; ; ( Virgil JEn. 3. 467.) They 
wore alfo Kviptfis, greaves of brafs, copper, or other 
metal, to defend the legs; (Hejiod. Scuto.) they 
were fometimes of tin ; (Horn. Iliad 'r. 612.) Tlie 
fides about the ancles were clofed with buttons of 
(ilver or gold ; (Horn. II. y. 330.) 

They alfo ufed Xtigus, guards for their hands j 
and A<r7n?, a buckler; (Paufan. Corinthiac. |3.) 
which was fometimes compofed of wicker-work ; 
(Virg. &n. 7. 632.) Hence it is called ma ; 
(Hefychius.J It was alfo made of the wood of fig, 
willow, beech, or poplar; (Plin. Naf. Hifl. lib. 6. 
cap. 40.) but mod commonly of hides ; hence 
aunr&s j3otj ; thefe were doubled into folds, and 
fortified with pieces of metal; (Homer IL i. v. 222. 
-Horn. Iliad, u. 270.) 

The principal parts of the buckler were, Am, 
iTu?, 7Tf^^flta, KuxAoj, its circumference, o/x^aXo?, 
and /A<rj*faAiov, a bofs in the middle of the buckler, 
upon which was fixed another prominence, called 
was a thong of leather, and 


fometimes a rod of metal, reaching acrofs the buck- 
ler, by which they hung it on their fhoulders; 
( Eii ft at h. in IL |3. Homer. II. .) The rod was 
called xapwv > (Hefychiiis.) Sometimes it was held 
by little rings, called Tro^Traxs?; but it had afterwards 
a handle, called o^avoi/ or c^aw; (Horn. Schol.) 
chiefly compofed of fmall iron bars, crofting each 
other, and refembling the letter ^ ; (Euftath. in IL 
p.) When the wars were ended, and the bucklers 
fufpended in the temples of the gods, they took off 
the handles, that they might become unfit for im- 
mediate ufe ; (Ariftoph.) Little bells were hung 
fometimes upon bucklers to flrike terror into the 
enemy; (Mfchyl.) The bucklers were chiefly 
adorned with various figures of beads and birds, 
of the celeftial bodies, and ot the works of nature 
(Herodot. lib. i. Plin. 35. 3. //. 2. 478.) The 
bucklers of the Argives feem to have been larger than; 
the reft ; (Virgil, sEn. 3.) and to have covered the 
Whole body ; (Virgil, Mn. 2. <Tyrt<eus.) It wasa 
Cuftom to carry dead foldiers out of the field upon 
their bucklers ; (Plutarch. Apoph.) Hence they 
were called ac-TnJa? a^^ib^ora?, and 7rc<JVfX<f ; 
(Euftath. Iliad .) Their form was ufually round * 
hence they were called a<77n&? luxuxXoi, TT&VTQTS ie<u 9 
&c. ; (Virg. Mn. 2. 227. ?yr. Carm. 3. 23.) 

There were fhields of different iizes. Te^oy or 
yitf* was fquare; (Strabo,lib. 15.) u^oc, was 
oblong, and bent inward ; (Pollux Jib. i. cap. 10.) 
Aatc-^ioi/, was alfo oblong, compofed of hides with 
the hair, and was very light ; (Eujlath. in Iliad f .) 
ilcx-m, was a fmall and light buckler, in the form 
of a half moon; (Ifidor. HifpaL Orig. lib. 18.) or 
$f an ivy leaf; (Xcitopkon.) or was a kind of * 

u quadrangular 


quadrangular buckler, wanting the true, or exterior 
bofs ; (Suidas.) The defenfive weapons were called 
generally ftAfJurjj^ia, o-x7r#pi*a, and TOA'/I/AS&T#-. 
The only offenfive weapons ufed in early times were 
(tones or clubs ; (Horatii. Op. Lucret. lib. 5.) 
Thefe clubs were called paAayy?? and 
hence fquadrons of foldiers were called 
(Euftath. Iliad. 2.) 

In later times, the weapons moil: in ufe were 
lyxps and Jo^u,' fpear, the body of which was com- 
pofed of wood, or a(h ; (Homer Iliad ir. 143. 
Homer Iliad $.. 57.) The head, at^n, was of metal. 
The fame was alfo <ru-nj, which was fo called, 
either from rai^o?, a crois ; or from o-ai^o?, a lizard ; 
\vhich it is faid to have refembled, being hollow at 
one end, where it was fixed into the bottom of the 
fpear ; and fharp at the other ; (Euftathius. Pollux, 
lib* I. cap. 5. Horn. Iliad*. 151* Aft/lot, ds Art. 
Poet.) In time of peace, the fpears were reared 
againft pillars, in a long wooden cafe, called Ja^o- 
$w, (Homer Odyjj\ a. Virg. JfLneid. \^.v. 92.) 
There were two forts of fpears; (Strabo, lib. 10.) 
The former was ufed in clofe fight, and called <Tou 
CTM ; (Homer Iliad (3. 543.) the latter was called, 
as were all miffive weapons, vax and |3sA>i, and 
ufed in duels, when the fpears were thrown afide; 
(Homer Iliad*. Iliad y. fkeocrit. Idyll. >j3. 187.) 
The Macedonians had a peculiar fpear, called 0-^10-- 
o-a, of fourteen or fixteen cubits in length. Hipo?, 
a {word, was hung in a belt round the moulders; 
(Homer Iliad p. Hefiod. Scut. Here.) The belt 
reached down to the thighs; ( Homer Odyjf. A. Virg. 
10. 1 6.) Foot foldiers wore the fword on the 



left, horfemen on the right fide ; (Jofeph. Excid* 
Hieros. lib. 3.) The fcabbard was called xoAso?; 
clofe to which was hung a dagger or poniard, called 

TO TTK^Of, pYigOVy TTtX.gXp'nglM, Or TTXga^MlOV ^Kpi^JOJ/, TTtZgOC.* 

ip&w, (Euftath. Iliad y.) or fy^if *<&$>', and j*- 
Xaif a ; (Homer.) It was fcldom ufed in fight, but 
fuppiied the want of a knife; (Homer II. y.) In- 
ilead of this, a dagger was ufed, called axipaw ; 
(Pollux.) They had fometimes another fword, 
called XCTTK, or utvj, (Pollux.) or gutiA&t, (Xeno- 
pJwn.) or xi/fir**? ; (Suidas. Euflath. //. A. -fcT^/y- 
chins.) It was a fmall weapon, like a faulchion^ 
(Plutarch. Apoph. j;/ J Lycurg.) They adorned the 
hilt of the fword with various figures and repre- 
fentations. Afyvn was a kind of pole-ax ; (Horn. 
Iliad v. 6 1 1.) and TTSAEXU?, was nearly the famej 
(Horn. II. o. 710.) xo]/ufi, was a club of wood or 
iron; (Plutarch. Thef.) 

Tooi>, a bow ; which, fome fay, was invented by 
Apollo, who was hence called xnoAo?, fxaT^Arr^., 
XTO?, Tocpoo?, &c. and who firft communicated 
it to the Cretans, (Diodor. Sicul. Ifidorus.) who 
firft ufed it ; (Pollux ', //^. i.cap. 10.) Others at- 
tribute the invention of it to Scythes, fon of Jupi- 
ter ; (Plinius.) and progenitor of the Scythians ; 
(Lycophr. Cafs. 56. -- Tkeocrlt. Schol. Idyll. 13, 
^.56. Lycophr. Caff. 914.) It was made in the 
form of a half moon ; (Ammian. Marcell. lib. 20. 
Athene, lib. 10.) The bows were frequently 
adorned with gold or filver; but mod common- 
ly with wood; though anciently made of horn; 
{Horn. I/. 3. io$.LycopJi. Caff. 564.) The firings 
of the bow were fometimes made of horfes hair, 
v 2 and 


and hence called wiew, (Hefychius. Acciits.) fome* 
times of hides cut into fmall thongs > hence r& 
(3oia; (EuftatJi. in Horn. II. $.) The part to which 
the firing was fixed, called xo^wm, was commonly 
made of gold. 

The arrows ufually confifled of light wood and 
an iron head, which was commonly hooked, (Ovid. 
de Amor.) fornetimes with three or four hooks ; 
(Statins, tfheb. lib. 9.) The heads of arrows were 
fornetimes dipped in poifon ; (Virg. jEn. 9. 771.) 
although it was deemed a difgraceful practice $ 
(Horn. Odyjf. &.. 260*) Arrows were ufually winged 
with feathers, to increafe their force \ (Homer Iliad 
$. 1 1 6. Opptan. AAifiwr. |3. Oppian. Kwvy. ?. 
Sophocl. Trachhi.) They were carried to the battle^ 
in a quiver, which was ufually clofed on all fides % 
(Eiiflath. in 11. #,) The quiver and the bow were 
carried on their backs ; (Horn. 1L , Heflod. fcut. 
Her cut. 130. Virg. Mn. n. 652.) In drawing 
bows, they placed them directly before them, and 
returned their hand upon their right bread > (Eiiftath* 
II.*. Horn. II.*. v. 123.) 

There were feveral forts of darts or javelins, as 
^oo-pof, (Euftath.Odyff. (?.) txro-oc, and others ; fome of 
which were caft by the help of a flrap, girt round 
their middle, and called ayxvA^. The javelin thus 
caft was termed ^o-ayxuAoi/ ; (Senec. Hippo!.) They 
fornetimes annoyed their enemies with great ftones ; 
{Horn. Iliad x. 264. Horn. Iliad e. v. 302. Horn* 
II. u. 270. Iliad <p. 403. Virgil^ JEn. 12. 896.) 
which were fornetimes rolled down rocks upon the 
heads of their enemies ; or were caft out of engines j, 
the moft common of which was, Spei^m, a fling ; 



which they handled with great {kill, efpecially the 
natives of the Belearian iflands, who would not 
allow their young children any food, till they 
could fling it down from a beam, upon which it 
was placed ; (VegetiuSy de re Milit. lib. i. 'cap. 16. 
Lucius Flor. lib. 3. cap. 8. Diodor. Sicul.lib. 5. 
Strabo, lib. 3.) They were furnilhed in war with 
three flings, which they either hung about their 
necks ; (Euflatk. Comment, in Dion.) or were car- 
ried, one on their necks, one in their hands, and a 
third about their loins; (Lycophr. ScboL v. 635.- 
Ovid. Met. lib. 2. <y. 727.) Some attribute their 
invention to the Acarnanians ; (Polhix y lib. i.cap. i.o.) 
others to the JEtolians ; (Strabo.) The Achaians 
were very fkilful in its ufe ; (Liv. lib. 38.) hence 
A^aixoi/ BzXog ; (Suidas.) This weapon was mofb 
commonly ufed by the common and light-armed 
foldiers, and not by the officers ; (Xenoph. Cyrop. 
lib. 7. Q. Cnrtius, lib. 4.) Its form was extended 
in length, and broad in the middle; (Dionys. 7Tf^>jy; 
<u. 5.) compofed of the fleece of a fheep -, (Horn. 
II. v. v. 599.) They caft from it arrows, ftones, 
and plummets of lead, called p<ftv&&f^ or/AoXu^iva* 
*<paif<*i ; fome of which weighed an hundred 
drachms. Some flings were managed by one, others 
by two or three cords, In cafting the fling, they 
whirled it twice or thrice about their head ; (Virg* 
Mn. 9. 587.) Its force was fo great, that no armour 
was a fufficient defence again ft it. 

They alfo ufed Tru^boAot AtQoi, fire-balls; one fort 
of which is called <rxuTa?ua or o-xuraTu&f, which were 
made of wood ; and fome of them were a foot long, 
others a cubit : their heads were a.rrned with fpikes 

^3 of 


of iron, beneath which were placed torches, hemp, 
or other combufiible matter, which being fet ' r\ 
fire, were thrown with great force towards the, 
enemy ; (Suidqs.) 

The Lacedaemonians were ordered by Lycurgus 
to clothe their foldiers with fcarlet ; either becaufo 
that colour was mod durable, or on account of its 
brightnefs, (Xenoph. de Rep. Laced. Plutarch, La- 
onic.) or becaufe it concealed ilains of blood j 
(Plutarch, Laconic. Milan, lib. 6. cap. 6. Valer* 
Max. lib. 1. cap. 6.) the fight of which might 
give their enemies frefh courage ; (Ham. Iliad x, 
459.) They always engaged with crowns and gar- 
lands upon their heads j (Xenoph. Plutarch. Ly- 
urg.) They ufually carried their own provifions, 
which coniiiled, chiefly, of fait meat, cheefe, olives, 
onions, &c. For which purpofe, they carried 
veiTels made of wicker; (AriJloph.Sch0l. Acharnens.) 
with a long narrow neck, called yvXiw ; hence men 
with long necks were called yuAiau^mf ; (Ariftopfa 




Kings originally held the chief command, who s 
if they were fuppofed incompetent, were fuperfeded 
by fome one better qualified ; or relieved by one 
of eminent valour to act under them, as their 
iXJ*ajoVa general ; (Paufan. Attic.) Afterwards, 
when the people affumed the government, all the 
tribes nominated' a commander from their own 
body ; (Plutarch, Cimone.) No perfon was eligible to 
this command, unlefs he had children and land 
v/ithin the territory of Athens 3 (Dinarch* in De- 

' moJIL), 


mvfth.) which were pledges of his good conduct: 
ibmetimes the children fufFered for the treafon of 
their father; (Cicero Epift. 16. ad Bmt. Virg. 
Mneid. lib. 1. 139.) The generals were nominated 
in an aifembly of the people ; (Plutarch. Phodon.) 
fometimes with uncontrolable authority; and hence 
filled avroxgaropts ; (Suidos. Plutarch. Arijlid.) 
Thefe ten commanders were called ST^T^, and 
had equal command ; in matters of difpute, another 
perfon was appointed, called UoX^^o^ whofe 
vote, added to the parties difputing, decided the 
matter; (Herodot.) To him the command of the 
left wing of the army belonged ; (Herodot. Erato.) 
By thefe, who were at firft annually elected, all 
military affairs, at home and abroad, were con<- 
duded ; (Demqfth. Philip. Demojth, Graf, de Epi~ 
tYt. Plutarch* PhGcion.^Ulpian* in Midian.) 

There were alfo ten Tga^o, each tribe elect- 
ing one, who were next in command to the 2TTjf- 
yoi. Their authority extended over the foot foldiers, 
and eonfjfted in the care of marfhalling the army, 
and of the proviiions ; and they might cafhier any 
common foldier, convidbed of mifdemeanour ; (Ly*- 
fias Orat. pro Mantith. Arifloph. Schol. Avib.) 
There were two ITTTT^C^OI, who had the chief com- 
mand of the cavalry under the Dr^artiyoj, (Sigotuus 
de Rep. Athen. Demofth. Midian.) There were ten 
one nominated by each tribe, under the 
who were authorifed to difcharge horfe- 
men, and fill up vacancies ; (Lyfias Orat. pro 

The inferior officers derived their titles from th$ 
number of men under their command ; 
u 4 as 



One perfon held the fupreme command; (I/ocrat. 
fid NicocL Herodot. lib. 5: cap. 75.) yet in times of 
extremity, it was intruded to two perfons ; (fhucyd. 
lib. $.) The title of the general was Bayo? ; (Hefy- 
,-hius.) and was ufually held by one of the kings, 
who, in matters of neceflity, had IIoo<5xo?, a viceroy 
or protedtor ; (Xenoph. de Rep. Laced. Plutarch* 
Lycurg. Herodotus. Tkucydides. Pint arc/ins. 
Cornelius Nepos. Paitfanias.) in all civil and mili- 
tary affairs. The authority of the king was ab(o- 
lute in the army ; (Herodot. lib. 6.) and was fome- 
times attended by the Ephori, to give him their 
advices (Xenoph. EAA^. lib. 2.) or by other fage 
and prudent counfellors; (Xenoph. EAAJJV. lib. 5. 
Plutarch. Agefil.) The general was guarded by 
three hundred horfemen, called I7r7re?, who fought 
about his perfon ; (Vhncyd. lib. 5.) All thofe, 
who had obtained prizes in the facred games, fought 
before him ; which was confidered a moil honour- 
able poft ; (Plutarch. Lycurg.) The chief of the 
fubordinate officers was called UoX^x^o^. The 
reft were named from the troops under their com- 
mand, as, Ao^aywyoi, Ilfi/Tflxapif ?, EvupoTzai, &c, 


The whole army, confiding both of horfe and 
foot, was called STga-na. Tne front, ^TUTT'OV, or 
uyo?j (Pollux, j. 10.) the right hand man, 


K the wings, xtfora; (Thucyd. 5. 71.) the 
foldiers, and their leader, Tra^ararai Thofe in the 
middle ranks, nr^aryA the rear,<rxaTOf,or cTriorOopu- 
Aa; (Qrbicius.) ITruTra?, was a party of five foldiers, 
whofe leader was called n^Tra^^o?. Asxa*, of ten 
foldiers,its leader, AtxaJa^o^&c. Ao^s was a par- 
ty of eight, or twelve, or fixteen, or twenty-five 
foldiers. It is fometimes called rip/o? or Jfxana, and 
its leader A&p^ayo?. Ai/xoi^a or I-fyuAo^ta, was a half 

/w-o? was a conjunction of ieveral Ao^o ; it is fometimes 
called Suratrif, which confifled of four half, or two 
whole Aop/oi, of thirty-two men. HwnKovToc^oc. or 
TfT^a^ta, was ufually a double o-urao-*?, confifting of 
four Ao^ot, or iixty-four men ; its leader was called 
IlTnxovT^of or TfT^a^r?. ExaTOPTa^o?, fome- 
time5, Called ra^c, Confided of tWO Trsimjxoi/Ta^ia, 
containing one hundred and twenty-eight men; 
its leader was fometimes called Tagia^o?. To 
every xaroyT^ were affigned five attendants, 
called Exraxroi : who were, (i.) 2TToxuy, the 
crier, who cried aloud the w r ords of command; 
(Homer Iliad i. v. 784.) (2.) f*iFopoff* tii en- 
iign, who gave by figns the commands of the officers 
to the foldiers. (3.) 2aA7nyxTrK, trumpeter, who 
fignified the officers commands, when figns could 
not be obferved, or to animate and encourage the 
foldiers. (4.) T^U^TW, was a fervant, who waited 
on the foldiers to fupply them with necefTaries. 
Thefe four were placed next to the foremoll rank. 
(5.) Oyfayof, the lieutenant, who brought up the 
rear, and took care that the foldiers did not defert: 

2uVTayjM,aj Tra^ara i? , ^'Aayta, ^f ^ayia, Was COmpOUnd- 

cdof two Ta^f,-, and confifted of two hundred and 



fifty-fix men. Their commander was called 
pascu^yjA. nVTo,xc<rux,(2%ix, or fc^xyiXy contained 
two irui\Tay|(ATa, five hundred and twelve men. 
The name of the commander was, IlfVTaxio-itfo^s- or 
Sway os. XtAta^ia, <rur^^/*a, Was the IIsfTa>cc<n0<3- 
Pia doubled, one thoufand and twenty-four men. 
The commander was called XiAia^o?, X;Aicro?, or 
2;;r/u/AaTa2i];. Mfafpi, fometimes called T^ACS, 
and fTngfi/ayta, two thoufand and forty - eight. 
The commander was called M^a^u?, TAao^j, or 

, fometimes called Mfo?f 
> and rfarnyia, was compounded 
of two TEAJJ, was four thoufand and ninety-fix, or 
four thoufand and thirty-fix. The commander 
was called Q&Xayy&gxiig and 2TTuyof. Aupahuy- 
yu% x^?, tTriTtzypx,, and, fome fay, /MCjoo?, confided 
of eight thoufand one hundred and thirty- two. 
The commander was called K^^?if . Tsr^apaAay- 
ya^ia, confided of fixteen thoufand three hundred 
and eighty-four. The commander was called T? 
T^apaAayya^u?. C><^Aay^, fometimes means twenty- 
eight men, fometimes eight thoufand; but a com- 
plete $aAa<yg, is faid to be the fame with -nr^aXa.y^ 
yagwot. Various other numbers were alfo fignified 
by it. The commander was called ^xXa,yyct^^ f 
Mnxo* (paXctyyos, was the length or firft rank of the 
; and IS the fame with 

^uyoj, &c. The ranks behind were called, accord- 
ing to their order, (W^o?, T^TO?, uyos-, &c. Bafie?, 
or vctr^og faAayyoj, fometimes called T0i^o?,was the 
depth of the ranks, from front to rear. Zvyot <px- 
Aayyof, were the ranks taken according to the 
length of the phalanx. 2-n^oi or Aop^o^ were the 


filts meafured according to the depth. Ai^o-rop* 
^aAayyo?, the diftributiori of the phalanx into two 
equal portions, which were called trXovoou, xtgctra, 
&c. wings : the left was xs^a? suwvu^oj/, and ou^a ; 
the light, x^aj (5*ioi/, KipaAn, $%iov axgWT'/igiov, dtfcicc, 
&ZXP ' ^ c * A^a^o?, CjUpaAo?, crwop^Tj paAayyo?, the 
middle part between the wings. Ae7TTu<r/Ao? pAay- 
ye?, the lefiening the depth of the phalanx, by 
cutting off fome of its files. O^Oia, m^opwif, or 
Tt^oL^m^ 0Aay, in which the depth exceeded 
the length. IlAayia <paAay, was broad in front 
and narrow in flank ; (Milan. Taflic.) Aon paAayg 
when one wing was advanced near the enemy 
to begin the battle, the other keeping at a con- 
venient diftance. Appiropos ^#Aay, when the 
foldiers were placed back to back. Amro/Ao? ^a- 
Aa-yg, was formed length-ways, and engaged at both 
flanks. Aptp^opog h$atXotfyy\* t when the leaders 
were placed in both fronts, and the Ou^ayo;, who 
followed the rear, tranfplanted into the middle. 
.Amro/Ao? JipaAayyia, was contrary to the former, 
having the Ovgxyoi, and their rear on two fides, 
and the reft of the commanders, who were placed 
at other times in the front, in the midft, facing each 
other; in which form, the front opening in two 
parts, fo clofed again, that the wings fucceeded in 
its place, and the laft ranks were tranfplanted into 
the former place of the wings. Opoioropos $i$a,xo<,y* 
yia, was, when both the phalanxes had their officers 
on the fame fide, one marching behind the other 
in the fame form. Er^oro/xo? J^aAayyta, when the 
commanders of one phalanx were placed on the right 
flank, and the other, on the left. UnrXiy^vi paA<*y, 
when its form was changed, as the way required 



through which it marched. ET^K^TTY^ 
reprefented a half moon, the wings turned back> 
wards, and the main body advanced toward the 
enemy, or, on the contrary. The fame was called 
xu^ryj and xoiAri, convex and hollow, Ec-Tra^sur 
0*Aay, when the parts of the battalia flood at an 
unequal diftance from the enemy. Tirt^aKoiyyHrie, 
when both wings were extended beyond the front 
of the oppofing army ; when only one, it was called 

u:rxW<ri?. P*ju*<fc)? <paAay, called alfo <r<pwoeiow 9 
a battalia with four equal fides, but not rectangular, 
reprefenting the figure of a diamond; (Milan, 
facile.) E//,oAoi>, was a rhombus divided in the 
middle, having three fides, and reprefenting the 
figure of a wedge, or the letter A. KoiA/xoAot/, was 
the f/*oAe tranfverfed, reprefenting the letter V. 
JlAjvOiGi/, nAjpOja, an army drawn up in the figure of 
a brick or tile, with four unequal fides ; its length 
was extended towards the enemy, and exceeded the 
depth. Uvgyos, was the brick inverted, being an 
oblong fquare, like a tower, with the fmall end 
towards the enemy; (Horn. Iliad, p. 43.) nx*i<nw, 
had an oblong figure, approaching nearer to a cir- 
cle, than quadrangle. Tignfuv, was an army extend- 
ed in length, with a few men in a rank ; when the 
roads could not be pafled in broader ranks : 
the name is taken from a worm that infinuates 
itfelf into little holes of wood. Hence the term 
fteXayJj (i$tiJfK. IIuxj/a;<r? (paAayyo?, was rang- 
ing the foldiers clofe together, being confined 
to two cubits : they were generally allowed four 
cubits. Sui/ac-TTjc'/Aof, was clofer than the former, 
one cubit only being allowed to each. It is fo. 
called from bucklers, which were all joined clofe 


to each other. IATI, reprefented the figure of an 
egg, into which the Theflalians ufually ranged their 
horfe ; (Milan. Vaftic.) It ufually fignifies a troop 
of lixty-four men ; fometimes of any number. 
ETnAa^ia, contained two Aai, one hundred and 
twenty-eight. Tapi/*^*, confifted of two hun- 
dred and fifty-fix. They commonly ufed a fort of 
horfemen called Toe-o^nvot or iTTTraywvjrat, who an- 
noyed the enemy with miffive weapons. ITTTTK^IX, 
contained five hundred and twelve men. EPTT- 
, contained one thoufand and twenty-four, 
contained two thoufand and forty-eight. 
, contained four thoufand and ninety-fix. 
The divifions of the Lacedaemonian army- 
had peculiar names. The whole army was divided 
into Mo^ai, regiments ; fome make the num- 
ber of each to confift of five hundred, others of 
feven hundred, and others of nine hundred ; (P/n- 
tarch.Pelop.) though afterwards they did not con- 
fift of more than four hundred in each -, who 
were all foot foldiers. The commander was called 
tlotepoifxpsi (Xenoph. de Rep. Laced.) and the fub- 
ordinate officer, 2u/x<po^u? j (Xenoph. Ex\w. lib. 6.) 
Ao^oj, was the fourth part of a Mop ; though it is 
faid there were five Ao%oi in every Mop; (Hefy chins) 
and four Ao^ywyo. UWTWOS-VS, was either the fourth 
part or half of a Ao%og, and contained fifty men. The 
commander was filled rifi/Twoi-T^, nsitTMotTXTyo, or 
There were eight of thefe in every Mogx. 
, was either the fourth part, or the half of 
; and contained twenty-five men. They 
were fo called, becaufe they were bound by an oath to 
t>e loyal to their country ; (Hcf\chius.) The com- 
mander was called E/*0T*f ^u? , or W/*OT*XO?. There 



werefixteen of them in everyU9y,- y (XenopJion.) rigs* 
Ta<?, was the placing any company of foldiers before 
the front of the army, to begin the fight with miffive 
weapons. Ewiragic, was the placing the foldiers in the 
rear. Hj6fagif,when to one or both flanks of the bat- 
tle, part of the rear was added j the front of thofe that 
were added, being in the fame line with the front of 
the battle. YiroTafyf, when the wings were doubled, 
by beftowing the light-armed men under them in 
the form of a three fold door. Evragif , irgnrZt$ 
or wfQWTZis> placing together of different forts of 
foldiers. na^goAn, filling up the vacant fpaces in 
the files, by foldiers of the fame kind. ETrayuy^ a 
continued feries of battalions in marches, drawn up 
behind each other in the fame form, that the front 
of the latter was extended to the rear of the former. 
Tlaaaywyji, when the phalanx proceeded in a wing, 
not by file, but by rank, the leaders marching on 
one fide ; when towards the left, it was called 
cuwi/o/AOf wa^y)/j ; when toward the right, $tfy& 
"Bragayuyvi. E7raywyi and H<zga,yuyn were diflinguifhed 
into four kinds : when they marched on, preparing 
for the enemy only on one fide, they were called 
STrayuyA or iraoxyuyn [AovoTrXovgos j when Oil two fides, 
&7rAovOf; when on three, T^TTAOU^O?; when every 
fide was ready, Tfr^TrAou^of. The motions of the 
foldiers, when commanded by their officers were 
called xAKTK xPuo-is fTrt^u, to the right ; becaufe 
they managed their fpears with their right hands. 
E7rai/axAj<n?,the retrograde motion. KAJC-K STT* uririfx, 
to the left; their bucklers were held in their left 
Lands. MfTagoAn, was a double turn to the left hand, 
by which they turned their backs to what they 
before fronted. Of this motion there were two 

forts y 


forts ; (i.) MTOAJ a?r' i/, by which they turned 
from front to rear, which is termed x^x ; and their 
backs were turned towards their enemies ; hence it 
is called pt-rc&oXn uno TM TroA^atwi/. It was effected 
by turning to the right. (2.) MrraoAj UK* ^ac, or 
7rt irotopiuv, from rear to front, by which they turned 
their faces to their enemies, by moving twice to the 
left. Enis-go^n, when the whole battalion, joined 
man to man, made one turn, either to the left or 
the right. Ai/*ropfl, oppofed to 7nr? &<PJ, the return 
of fuch a battalion to its former ftation. n^unr*?- 
/EAcr, a double ^irfopu, by which their backs were 
turned to the place of their faces. 
a treble smrgopu, or three wheelings. 
Jgj/at, or TT' ooOov aTroxararncrai, to turn about to the 
places in which they were at firfl. EgsAty//^ E^AKT- 
jtAo?, or EgfAio-K, counter-march, by which every 
foldier, one marching after another, changed the 
front for the rear, or one flank for another. There 
are two forts of counter-marches, xar* AO^KJ, and 
xara yy, one by files, the other by ranks. They 
were alfo further divided into three forts i ( i .) E'A;y- 
juo? MaxfJwv XT AO^J, a motion which removed 
the army into the ground before the front, and the 
faces of the foldiers turned backwards j (2.) E|fA{y- 
jtxof Aaxwv xaraAo^gf, this motion took up the ground 
behind the phalanx, and the foldiers faces turned 
the contrary ways it was made from front to rear; 
(3.) EgAyn*e? n^o-ixo?, or K^- 
was fometimes termed xf fi ^> 
becaufe managed like the Grecian chori, which, 
ordered into files and ra#ks, like foldiers in battle 
array, and moving forward toward the brink of the 
ftage, when they could pafs no further, retired, one 



through the ranks of the other. 
vycty counter-march by rank, was contrary to 
counter-march by file ; in the former, the motion 
was in length of the battalia flankwife, the wing 
either marching into the midft, or quite through 
theoppofite wing. It was performed feveral ways. 
Ai7rAa<na<rai, was to double or increafe the battalia, 
which was effected in two ways 5 fometimes the 
number of their men was augmented, remaining 
dill upon the fame fpace of ground ; fometimes 
the foldiers, continuing the fame in number, were 
ib drawn up by thinning their ranks and files, that 
they took up a larger fpace than before. Thus- 
were occafioned four forts of AifrAae-iaoYAo*, which 
were made by counter-marches. ( i .) AnrA.a<nfly*o5 
vJflwv Kara fyyot, or xara^xo?, when frefh men were 
inferted into the ranks, the length of the battalia 
being flill the fame, but flanding clofer than before. 

(2.) AiTrXcKriourpog ai^wy xara Aop, or xccra jSaOof, 
was when the files were doubled, their ground being 
of no greater extent than before, by ranging them 
in clofe order. (3.) Ai7rAa<nao7xc? TOTTJJ xar& uya, OF 
xaTflf pwo?, when the length of the battalia was in-- 
creafed, without the acceffion of new forces, by* 
placing the foldiers at a greater diflance. (4.) 
At?rAa(racr^o? TOTTS xara Ao^s?, or xctrot j39o?, when 
the depth of the ground became greater, not by 
adding new files, but by feparating the old to a 
greater diflance. The foldiers were all rendered 
expert in the military exercife, by T^XTIXOJ, public 
profeflbrs, before they were admitted into the field 
of battle; (Schol. Artftoph. Av. 352. Acliarn. 1073. 
Euflath. in II. A. 254. 357. Mliati. 




Before the Greeks declared war, they published 
tin account of the injuries they had received, and 
demanded reparation by ambafTadors ; (Statius, 
^heb. 2. v. 368. Homer Iliad y. v. 205. Iliad A. 
r. 124.) Invafions, without previous notice, were 
confidered rather as robberies than legitimate wars $ 
(Polybius> lib. 4.) Ambafladors were ufually perfons 
of great worth, and high ftation> and their cha- 
tacler was held facred ; (Herodot. Polymn. cap. 
334.) They were under the protection of Mer- 
tury ; becaufe it is fuppofed that they derived 
their high character from the honour paid to the 
}3u*?, heralds, becaufe defcended from Ceryx, 
fon of Mercury ; (Enjlath. in Iliad x.) When Ulyf- 
fes was call upori unknown coafls, he lent a herald to 
protect the men from danger or injury ; (Eitftat/i. 
//. a.) They were called the meifengers, not of 
men, but of Jupiter ; ( Horn. II. *. Statins Theb. 
lib. 2.v. 371.) The heralds of Athens were all of 
one family, defcended from Ceryx, fon of Mer- 
cury and Pandrofus, daughter of Cecropsj king of 
Athens. The Lacedsemonian heralds were defcend- 
ed from Talthybius, herald of Agamemnon, who 
was honoured with a temple and divine woifhip at 
Sparta; (Herodot. Polymn. cap. 134. Pnvfunias. 
Laconic.) They carried in their hands a ftaff of 
olive or laurel* called xrfujwov, around which v.vre 
folded two ferpents, with ere&ed crefts, as an em- 
blem of pe^ce; (Ptin. lib. 29. cap. 3.) The Athe- 
nian heralds frequently made uie of the E^s^^t-r, a 
token of peace and plenty, being an olive branch co- 
vered with wool, and adorned with the fruits of the 

X earth. 


earth. Ku^oxe?, heralds, were fuppofed to differ from 
vgstr&is, ambafladors , inafmuch as the latter were 
employed in treaties of peace, the former to declare 
war ; (Suidas.) but this diflinction was not perpe- 
tual ; (Eitfiath. in Horn.) There were two forts of 
ambafladors ; one had a limited, the other an un- 
limited authority, and hence called ve<reis auro- 
X<*TO?. It was the cuftom of the Spartans to ap- 
point men to thefe. offices, between whom there was 
not a good underftanding , as it was fuppofed that 
they would not truft each other in any confpiracy 
sgainft the good of the commonwealth $ for the fame- 
reafon they always excited arivalfhip between their 
kings; (Ariftot. Polit.lib. 2.) Their leagues werc- 
of three kinds, (i) O-TCV^JJ, rufSuwt, J^UMJ, peace, by 
which both parties and their allies ceafed from 
hoftilities: (2) 'Eir*|ua;c*a, by which they were 
bound to affift each other, in cafe of invafion : 
(3) 2u/*pa;ia, by which they were bound to aflift 
each other, not only when they invaded others, but 
when they were themfelves invaded j (Suidas.) 

Their treaties were engraved upon tables, and 
fixed up in public places ; (Thucyd. de Bell. Pelo- 
pon.) Sometimes the contracting parties exchanged 
certain <rvpGo\u 3 which might be produced as evi- 
dence of the agreement. The covenant itfelf was 
alfo fo called ; (Harpocrat. Su^SoAov.) It was ufual 
for dates in alliance with each other, interchange- 
ably to fend ambafladors, who mould repeat, in 
public, the covenants, and thus confirm their for- 
mer treaty. 

When they declared war, they fent a herald,' who 
bade the perion, who had given the injury, to pre- 
pare for an invafion 5 and fometimes a fpear was 
*- call, 

C A M P S, &c. 307 

caft, in token of defiance. The Athenians fre- 
quently let loofe a lamb into the territories of their 
enemies j intimating that they fhould be laid wafte, 
and become a pafture for Pneep ; (Suidas.) Hence 
a^i/a 7r0aAAip, was ufed for entering into a Hate 
of war. 

They confulted the gods before they engaged in 
war; nor were the foothfayers and diviners forgot- 
ten ; oracles were enriched with prefents ; and they 
had recourfe to all prophetical divinities ; (Plerodot. 
lib. i.) When they had refolved to begin the war, 
facrifices were offered, and large vows were made* 
which were to be paid upon the fuccefs of their 
enterprize. Any inaufpicious omen was fufficient 
to retard their march. The Athenians never march- 
ed before the feventh, evro? gSopw ; (Hefychius. - 
Ariftoph. Schol. Equit.J Hence the proverb WTO? 
6cty*>K, was applied to thofe who undertook any 
bufmefs at an improper time 5 (Zenobius Cent. 3; 
Pro. 79.) The Lacedaemonians were prohibited 
from- marching before the full moon; (Luciam 
AJirol.Herodot. lib. 6.) 


Their camps were originally built iri a fpherical 
figure ; (Xenopk. de Rep. Lac.) and they were ac- 
cuftomed frequently to remove them ; (Plutarch 
Apophi XenopL de Rept Lac.) The moil Valiant 
of the fokliers were placed at the extremities, the 
reft in the middle; (Homer Iliad I. 22 2<) If they 
defigned to remain long in their camps, they 
erected altars to the gods^ and divine worth ip was 
performed ; in the lame place public arTemblies 
were called together, when the general had any 
thing to communicate to his foldiersj here alfo 

x 2 courts 


courts of juflice were held, in which all contro- 
verfies ariiong the foldiers were decided, and crimi- 
nals fentencccHo bepunifhed; (Homer Iliad x. 806.) 
They ufually fortified their camps with a trench and 
wall, on. whofe fides they erected turrets, from 
which they annoyed their enemies with miflive 
weapons i (Homer Iliad rj. v. 436.) Their difci- 
pline was not always rigid and fevere ; (Phi arch. 
Cleom.) They were allowed more liberty in the 
camp than in the city; (Herodot. lib. 7. cap. 208 
and 209.) They were allowed to ufe coftly arms, 
fine clothes, and to curl and perfume their hair ; 
( Ariftoph. Nub. atl. i. fc. i Ariftoph. Equit. aft. 3. 
fc. 2.) Many changes were afterwards made in 
their difcipline, and they were prohibited from 
decking their hair j (Ariftoph. Schol. Equit.) 


Their guards were (puAaxai ypegivixi and 
upon duty by day, and others by night. At feveral 
liours in the night, officers called *-^TOAO;, walked 
round the camp, and vifited the watch. They 
carried a fmall bell, called xco<5W, at whofe found the 
foldiers were to anfwer; (Snidas. tfhucyd. lib. 4.) 
The Lacedaemonian guards were not allowed to have 
their buckler, that, being unarmed, they might be 
more cautious ; (Tzetes. Chiliad. 9. Hift. 276.) 
The reft ilept in their armour, that they might be 
prepared upon any alarm ; (Xcnophon.) It -was 
a cuftom of the Spartans to keep a double watch, 
one within the camp, to watch their allies, left they 
fnould fuddenly defert; the other upon fome emi- 
nence, to watch their enemies ; (Xenophw.) 




Before battle, the foldiers always refrefhed them- 
felves with victuals; (Homer Iliad j. v. 155.) The 
commanders then drew up their whole army, truft- 
ing the event to a (ingle force; (Iliad $. 297.' 
Plutarch, de Horn.) The general made a fpeech 
to his foldiers, which fometimes had an animating 
effect ; (Paufan. MeJJln.Diodor. Sicul. lib. 15. 
Jujlin* lib. 3.) Before they engaged, they endea- 
voured, by prayers, facrifices, and vows, to engage 
the affiftance of heaven ; and fung a hymn to 
Mars, called KKHXV ^Earnf ios; and the hymn fung to 
Apollo after a fuccefsful battle, was called vaizy 
.fTTuuxioffj (<Thucyd. Schol. lib, i,) The Spartans 
facrificed to the mufes, which was defjgned to foftea 
their anger, (Plutarch, ao^o-iai?) or to ani- 
mate them to^noble exploits ; (Plutarch. Lycurg.) 
The foothfayers infpeded all the facrifices, and, 
till the omens were favourable, they chofe to fur- 
render their lives to the enemy, rather than to de-r 
fend ihemfelves ; (Plutarch, Ariftid.) 


The fignals were called (ru^oAaand<n;aia; 
Far. Hift. c. 34.) <ru^oA* were of two kinds, 
or ogKTGty pronounced by the mouth, or vilible to the 
eye. The firfl are termed crui/Ofi/xaT^, the Jalter Trasaa- 
<ruv0/*^Ta. Zu^9l! 1 (xa, the ivord^ was communicated 
by the general to the fubordinate officers, cuid by 
them to the whole army; by which friends might be 
cliftinguiihed from enemies. Jt ufgally contained 
fomegood omen, or the name of fomedc. ieral ; 

(%enoph. Cyrop. lib. 7. Appian. Be//, .2. 



Vakr. Max. lib. i. cap. 5. Thucyd. 4. 112. 
$w/. i. n.) This cuftcm fometimes proved of 
fatal confequencej (Thitcyd. lib. 7. Poly an. lib* 
i) na^aa-w/fifl/xa, was a vifible mark of diftindion, 
as nodding their heads, waving their hands, or 
any other particular motion - 3 (Onofand. Strateg. cap. 
26.) 2>5^<a, were enfigns or flags, the elevation 
of which was a fignal for battle, and the depreffion 
of it, to ceafe; (Suidas. Thucyd. SchoL lib. i.) 
Some of thefe were adorned with images of ani- 
mals, or other things : (Plutarch. Lyfand. . Cur- 
tius, lib, 3. P hit arch. Pelop. Cornel. Nep. Epami- 
nond.) The 2?/xfK/v was frequently a purple coat 
uppn the top of a fpear; (Plutarch. Cleom. Poly an. 
i. 48.) though other colours were fometimes ufed | 
(Poly bins ^ lib. 2.) The ancient lignals were lighted 
torches thrown from both armies, by men called 
wgQofoi or 7ruop00{, who were priefts of Mars, and 
of facred character ; having caft them, they retired 
in fafety 5 (Euripid. Scfiol. Ph#n. Lycophr. Schol. 
v. z$o.and 1 298.) Hence in furious battles, cT q 
irvgQogQs o-wOn, not even a torch-bearer efcaped, was a 
common expreflion; (Lycophr.Caff. 1295. Statins* 
fheb. 4, v. $. Claudian. de Rapt. Prof.lib. i ,) When 
this cuftom ceafed,Ko^Aoo;, (hells of fifties were ufed, 
which they founded in the manner of trumpets, be- 
fore thofe inflruments were invented or in ufejfTztf* 
zes in Lycophr. 250. C fheognis.-Ovid. Met. lib. i . 
<rheocrit.Idyll.K$. 75, Lycophr. CaJJl 249. Eitjlath. 
in Iliad %. Horn. II. o. 219. Schol. in. IL o. 219. 
and II. 0. 3 8 8 . Firgil. Mn. 6 . v. 175-) 

Trumpets were afterwards ufed, of which there 
were fix forts ; (Eiiflath. in. II. <r. ) ( i .) The firfl was 
invented by Minerva, the patronefs of arts; hence (he 
was called ?A7rty^j (Lycojjhr.Caff. 915. Hefy chins. 


~Phavorin.) It is alfo faid that it Was invented by 
Tyrrhenus, one of the Tons of Hercules; (Pan- 
fan. Corinth.) (2.) The fecond was the Egyptian 
trumpet, called XK*J, the invention of Ofiris ; its 
fhape was round ; and it was ufed at facrifices 
to call the affembiy together; (Enftath. II. <r.) 
(3.) The third was called xa^vug, and invented in 
Gallia Celtica. It gave a ihrill found, but was 
not large. It was cafl in a mould, and its mouth 
was adorned with the figure of fome animal. They 
had a pipe of lead, through which they blew into 
the trumpet when they founded, (4.) The fourth 
was called BeVvo?, from Bs?, the figure of an ox 
Upon its orifice ; it had a deep bafs found, and was 
ufed in Paphlagonia. (5.) The fifth was invented 
in Media, had a deep note, and was founded by 
help of a pipe, compofed of reeds. (6.) The 
fixth was called 2a^a-iy Tu^rji/^, becaufe invented 
by the Tyrrhenians, (Sopkocl. Schol. Ajac* 17. 
Suidas. Diodor. Sic. lib. 5.) or by Tyrrhenus, fon 
of Hercules; (Hygin. Rz. 274.) Its orifice was 
cleft, and fent forth a loud and (brill found ; (So- 
phocl. Ajac, 1 6.) There were other forts of 
pets, but of lefs note ; (Suidas. Sophocl^ 

There were other inflruments ufed in found- 
ing alarms ; as, the ruf <y, pipe, in Arcadia; the 
TT*:>CTJS, fometimes called ^ya^9, in Sicily ; ai'Xt, 
flutes, ufed in Crete ; (Polyb. lib. 4.) others ufed 
lutes, or viols, (Atd. Gell. lib. i. cap. 1 1, Martian. 
Cap. lib. n.) or harps j (Athene, lib, 12. and 14. 
Enftath. II. ^.Plutarch, lib. de Mufic.) He who 
founded the alarm was called, by the Cretans, 
Ibio?.; by others, I^UXT^, (Hefychius.) from a 
trumpet, called ly. The Lacedemonians r 

^ 4 


their engagements with a concert of flutes ; 
phon. Maxim. Tyrr. Dijj\ 1 2 and 21. Quintil. lib. i, 
cap. 1 6. *hucyd. lib.. 5. Valerius Max. lib. 2. cap . 
6. Plutarch. Lycurg.) The reft of the Grecians ad- 
vanced with eagernefs, and gave a general fhout, cal- 
led aAaAay^o?, from the foldiers repeating aAaA; (Po-. 
lyxn'.i, 2. Pollux i\. 10.) the word aA^A^rof was ufed ; 
(IL .436.) Sometimes they cried, EAfAsu; (Suidas.) 
The firft author of .this fhout was Pan, who acted 
under Bacchus, in his Indian expedition ; where 
being encompaffed in a valley by an enemy, fuperior 
in number, he advifed Bacchus to order his men in. 
the night to give a general fhout, which fo furprized 
the enemy that they fled with precipitation, (Poly ten* 
Strat.tib. i.) 

The cuftom of fliouting was ufcd by almoft 
all nations; (Horn. II. ^.452. 11. y. i. //. *. 
279 267.) Hence pvAo7n? ? OTI, and j3o*j, are 
fynonymous with P&XVI. A loud voice was a high 
recommendation of the character of commanders, 
for the terror with which it ImpreiTed their enemies ; 
(Eijftath. Iliad (3. //. y.Il. A. Plutarch. Coriol.) 
Jn the early times, generals fought at the head of 
their armies ; hence they are called * p^a^ot, and 
vgofjiQi > (Horn. IL y.v. 1 6. //. TT. 218.) Where 
the alarm was founded by fpft mufic, the retreat 
and other orders were fignified by louder inftru- 
ments; (Poly.bhi$, lib. 2.) \\ 7 hen their enemies 
iled, the Spartans were not allowed to purfue them; 
(Tkucyd. lib. 5. Poly an. lib. i.) on account of 
their flrict obfervance of difcipliue ; (PayJb&Mef- 
feniac. Plutarch. Lycurg.-~aii.d Apopth. TST^I ^y.) 
The G^cians frequently decided their caufe upon 
the iffue of a fingle combat, or of two or more 
npions on each (ide j (^lutarch. 



The early Grecians were unacquainted with th$ 
rt of befieging towns, and therefore were eaiily 
compelled by a powerful invader to remove their 
habitations, (Thucyd. lib. i.) They were generally 
un/kilful In conducting them, after it became 3 
practice; (Herodot. lib. 9. cap. 69.) it was indeed 
deemed difhonq arable to die in fuch undertakings $ 
(Plutarch. SylL Homer. II. %. v. 360. Plutarch, 
Pyrrh.) When they would poffefs themfelves of 
a caftle or town, they furrounded it with their whole 
^rmy, and attacked it in every quarter; which was 
called ffxywovtw. When they meant to lay clofe 
iiege, they commenced the ^TroTf^Kr^o? or Tr^^irsi^ttr- 
/*o?, the work of circumvallation; which fometimes 
confided of a double wall, made of turf, called 
,9rA;vOot and wAi0*a. The interior fortification was 
defigned to prevent fudden fallies from the town, 
and to prevent it from receiving fuccour. The ex- 
terior fortification was to fecure them from foreign 
enemies, who might come to the relief of the be- ' 
iieged. When Plat^a was inverted by the Pelopori- 
jiefians, they raifed a double wall; the Ipace between 
each wall, which was lixteen feet, was taken up 
with lodges for fentinels, built at regular diftances ; 
between every tenth of which was a large tower, 
extended from wall to wall. 

Engines were firft called ^ayyai/a, and afterwards 
pi^avaa. They were not known in Greece, at 
leaft, before fhe Trojan war; (Statins fhefa) Some 
affirm that ladders were ufed in the Theban war. 
Different fort$ of ladders were aftenvards'invented^ 


fome were mjx, folded ; (Appian.) others were 
JiaAuTOH, to be taken in pieces; (Pint. Arat.) 
They were compofed of wood, ropes, leather, &c. 
Other engines were of a later date. The ram, in- 
deed, was ancient ; (Pliny. Athena, lib. 4.) Other 
inftruments were ufed in demolifhing walls which 
were called rguir&voc, which were long irons, with 
fharp ends. Some attribute their invention to the 
time of the Peloponnefian war, in which they were 
ufied ; (Thucyd.) Others fay, they were contrived 
by Pericles, with the affiftance of Artemon, an ar-n 
tificer of Clazomenas ; (Diodor. Sicul. lib. 12. 
Plutarch. Per Id.) Others fay, they were ufed at; 
the fiege of Paros ; (Cornel Nep. in Milt.') 

X*Aw*n, a tortoife, or fhroud, was fo called from the 
fhelter they afforded the foldiers; of which there were 
feveral forts ; as, XfA-wvu r^rjwTwy, called fometimes 
i-ui/ao-Trio-^o?, when the foldiers were drawn up clofe, 
and the rear ranks bowing themfelves, placed their 
targets above their heads. The firft rank floocl 
creel:, the reft {looped lower by degrees, till the laft 
rank kneeled upon the ground ; thofe in the front, 
and on the fides holding their targets before their 
bodies, the reft covering the heads of thofe that 
were placed before them. This practice was ufed 
in open battles, but moft commonly in furprizing 
cities, before the befieged were prepared for defence. 
X^w^ x wr f l? was foursquare ; it guarded the 
foldiers in tilling ditches, and cafting up mounts, 
XsAw&'/i qgvg, was triangular, with its front (helving 
downwards, for the protection of thofe who under- 
lined walls. 

rff, were wicker hurdles, which the foldiers 
i-ld over their heads, 


was a mount, which was raifed fo high, 
as to equal the top of befieged walls. The fides 
were walled in with ftones, or fecured with rafters ; 
the fore part remained open. It confifted of earth, 
timber, boughs, ftones, CTJmcyd.) &c. r into the 
middle were call wickers and twigs of trees, to 
faflen and cement the other parts - 3 (Lucan. lib. 3.) 

were moveable towers of wood, ufually 
placed upon the mount. They were driven upon 
xvheels, which were placed within the bottom planks, 
to fecure them from the enemy. Their fize was 
proportioned to the towers of the city they be- 
fieged. The front and fides were covered with tiles* 
Their tops were covered with raw hides, to preferve 
them from miffive weapons. They were formed 
into feveral ftories ; which were able to carry en- 
gines, as well as foldiers; (Sil. It. lib. 14.) Some 
afcribe the contrivance of them to artificers of Sicily 
at the time of Dionyfius the tyrant ; others, to 
Polyidius, a TheflTalian ; (Athena. Median. 
yius,lib. 10. cap. 19.) others, to Diades and 
reas; (Heron, cap. 13. Diodor. Siail.) 

K^io?, the ram, was an engine with an iron head, 
called x<p*An or ^SoAn, refembling the head of a 
ram, with which they battered the walls of the 
enemy. One kind, had a long beam with an iron 
head : another, was hung with ropes to another 
beam, by which they thruft it with great force : 
the third kind was covered with a %fXwvi, fhroud, 
to guard the foldiers. The bea,m was fometimes 
pne hundred and twenty feet in length, and covered 
with iron plates. The weight hung upon the 


hinder part. They were conveyed from place to 
place upon wheels. 

EA?7roAK, was a machine of vaft bulk, like the 
ram covered with the (hroud, but of greater force. 
Jt was driven both with ropes and wheels, and con- 
tained other fmaller engines, from which miflive 
weapons were cafl. It was invented by Demetrius, 
fon of Antigonus, who was called TTOA^XUTIK ; 
(Fitruv. lib. 10. Plutarch. Demetr. Diodor. Sicul, 
lib. 2Q Lutan. lib. 3.) 

KaT*7rATa, were ufed, fometimes for arrows, 
and fometimes for engines, from which arrows were 
caft, and called OU&AEI ? and j3f Aeri>. Some afcribc 
their invention to the Syrians ; (Plini.) others to 
the Sicilians 5 (Diodor. Siatl, lib. 14. Plutarch, 

There were various forts of engines to caft flones; 
as, rfw&vat, flings; pciyyxyei, and pxyyotviXK o^yxvtx, 

On the approach of the enemy, the befieged 
gave notice to their confederates to haften to their 
affiftance -, if in the day, by raifing a great fmoke j 
if in the night, by fires or lighted torches toiTed 
iri the air, called ^uxret and QgvxTugiw ; (^theogn* 
Schol. Hcm. Sfhol. II, o.) Thefe were called 
4>uxToi TroAf/AtQj, to diftinguiOi them fromthofe they 
called ^ux.rot <piAtoi, which were lighted on the 
approach of friends, and held unmoved. 

The walls, were guarded with fold iers, who, with 
flones, and other n^ffive weapons, aflauhcd the 
invaders ; and the xarairfATai, and other engines. 
cf the fame kincj, were placed within the town, 

F U N E R A L S, &c. |i ? 

and played upon them* Many other methods 
were ufed > fometimes they heated brafs bucklers 
red hot, and filling them with fand and lime, pour- 
ed them down upon the foldiers; which, getting be- 
tween their armour and flefh, burned them. Their 
mines were rendered ineffectual by counter-mines : 
their mounts were undermined : their towers and en- 
gines were burned with fire-balls: they defended 
themfelves with fkins, wool-packs, and- whatever 
would ward off mi (live weapons. They broke off the 
heads of battering rams with great ftones from the 
walls j or by cutting the ropes which direcled them, 
with long fcythes. When they got poiTefTion of 
cities, they fometimes put all who were in arms to the 
fword, demolifhed the buildings, and made the reft 
ilaves; fometimes they only demanded fome contri- 
bution. Sometimes the Athenians fent colonies to 
inhabit depopulated places, which they divided by 
lots among fome of the commonalty, when met in a 
public affembly; f^r//?tf/>/;. Schol. Nub.) When 
they demolifhed a city, they denounced curfes 
upon thofe who might rebuild it ; (Euftatk. II. &) 


The bodies of their dead enemies were anciently 
treated with much indecency and barbarity, dis- 
figured, ilabbed, and expofed to ignominy and 
fcorn. In the Trojan war, this favage cuftom was 
not intirely abolifhed $ (Horn. Schol. 11. %. 398 and 
367. StalhtSy tfhcb. 9. 380. ~ Pirg. Jn. 10. and 
ii. v. 9. Herod. Call.) It had been ufual for the 
conquerors to prevent their enemies from interring 



their dead, until they had paid large fums for their 
ranfom ; (Horn. II. u. Lycophr. Caff. v. 269.* 
Mn. 9* i>. 213.) If the body was not ranfomed, 
it remained unburied; (Horn. II. a. 4.) though 
this practice was not always flrictly obferved? 
(Horn. II. . 414. Iliad n. v. 408. JElian* Var. 
Htft. lib. 12. cap. 27. Plutarch. Thef.) and in 
fucceeding ages wholly difcontinued. The Athe- 
nians were anxious to inter honourably the bodies 
of their foldiers who fell valiantly; and the neglect 
or omiffion of it was deemed highly criminal; 
(Xenoph. Grac. Hift. lib. i .) Nicias even renounced 
all title to the victory which he had obtained, when 
it appeared that, by an overfight, two of his men 
were left dead upon the field ; fending a herald to the 
enemy for leave to remove them ; (Plutarch. Nid. 
Diodor. Sicul. lib. 15.) When they carried their 
arms into diftant countries, they reduced the bodies 
of the dead to aihes, that they might be conveyed 
to their relations, and depofited in the tombs of their 
anceflors; (Horn. Schol. Iliad a,, v. 52. Iliad y* 
i). 332.) The Lacedaemonians buried their dead 
in the country where they died ; their kings were 
embalmed with honey and conveyed home ; (Plu- 
tarch. Agefil.) The foldiers always attended at 
the funeral folemnities, with their arms reverfed : 
where it was ufual to wear long hair, the mourn- 
ers fhaved ; and where others fhaved, mourners 
wore long hair; (Wrg. Mn. n. 92. Stat'ius* 

The name, origin, and exploits were ufually 
infcribed on the tombs of women who died in 
childbed; and of foldiers, who loft their lives in bat- 
tle, (Plutarth. Lycwg.) and who were buried with 


F U N E R A L S, *c. 319 

green boughs, and honoured with a funeral eulo- 
gium : thofe who were judged to be good warriors, 
were interred in their red coats ; (Milan. Far. Hi/, 
lib. 6. cap. 6.) Their arms were alfo fixed upon 
their tombs ; as well as the badge of whatever 
other profeflion they had borne. Elpenor, appear- 
ing to Ulyfles in the (hades below, intreats him to 
fix the oar he ufed to row with upon his tombj 
and to caft his arms into the funeral pile ; (Horn. 
Odyff. A. v, 74. Virgil, ALneid. 6. v. 232.) The 
Spartan matrons examined the bodies of their dead 
fons ; and thofe who had received more wounds 
behind than before, were conveyed privately away, 
or left in the common heap ; but thofe who 
had a greater number of wounds in their breafls 


were carried ' away with triumph, to be buried 
among their anceflors ; (JILlian. Far. Hift. lib. 1 2. 
cap. 21.) They were carried home upon their 
bucklers ; (Plutarch. Apoph. Aufon. .Ep. 24.) 

The. Athenians placed the bodies of their dead 
in tents, three days before the funeral, that the 
relations might come and pay them the lafl honours. 
Upon the fourth day, a coffin of cyprefs was fent 
from every tribe, to convey the bones of their own 
relations ; after which, a covered hearfe followed, 
in memory of thofe whofe bodies could not be 
found. Thefe, accompanied with the whole body 
of the people, were carried to the public burial 
place, and interred. One oration was delivered in 
praife of all ; their monuments were adorned with 
pillars, infcriptions, and other honourable memo- 
rials. The oration was pronounced by the fathers 
of thofe who had behaved mod valiantly ; (Polemo 
in Argumsnto TWJ> tmraptw Ayv. Cicer. de Orator. 



* fhucyd. lib. 3.) The names of the foldiers dc- 
ceafed jvere marked with the letter 0, meaniug 
tawmj, dead ; thofe of the living with r, meaning 
TH^EI/OJ, preferred; (Rujfin. in Hkronym^ IJidor. 
Hi/pal, lib. i. cap. 23.) 


The prifoners taken in war, who could not ranfom 
themfelves, were made flaves, and fold or employed 
by their conquerors. They were called A^aAwrot 
and Ac^uaAwTCi; (Xenoph. in Ages. Pollux, 7. 33.) 
Their fpoils were either called <uAa, taken from 
the dead; or Aapu^a, taken from the living. 
Whatever was moveable belonged to the con- 
querors, (Plato de Legib. lib. i.) As foon as a vic- 
tory was obtained, the armour was feized by the 
conquerors or great commanders ; (Horn. II. x. 458.) 
the common foldiers were permitted to gather the 
fpoils of the dead ; (Horn. Iliad v. 66.) Th6 
Lacedemonians only were forbidden to meddle; 
with the fpoils of the conquered -, (Milan, lib. 6. 
tap. 6. Plutarch. Apoph.) There are however in- 
ftances of their dedicating part of their booty to the 
gods. To prevent foldiers from feizing the fpoils, the 
Spartans had always three hundred men appointed 
to obferve their aclions; (Eitftath. //. . v. 66.) 
The general had the firft choice of the booty ; and 
dirided the remainder among thofe who had mod 
valiantly fignalized themfelves ; the reft had equal 
portions; ( Tzef. in Lycophr. Caff. v. 299. Iliad an 
v. 163.) When any booty of great value was taken^ 
the foldiers prefented their general or commander 
with it; ( Herodot. Calliop. Lycophr.CaJf.v. 298.) 
Before the diftribution of the fpoils, they felected 
the belt as an offering to the gods : thefe were called 


ix, becaufe the war in which they were 
collected, had been the deftru&ion of many; 
(Euftath. Qdyff. $. Suidas.) hence the word <**<>- 
6waw()i, to choofe the beft of any thing , (Eurip. 
Here. Furios. 476.) or <%TTO TH Otj/of, becaufe after 
naval engagementss they were expofed on the fhore: 
or, from their being taken a?r' ax^n TS 6tw?, from the 
top of the heap t the fpoils were ufually collected 
into one heap, the firft fruits of which were offered 
to the gods ; (Sophocl. Schol. Trachin.) In confe- 
crating their fpoils to the gods, they either collected 
them into a heap, and confumed them with fire ; 
or they hung them up in temples ; (Herodot. lib. 9.) 
They frequently dedicated the armour of their 
enemy, and fufpended it in temples ; but the Spar- 
tans were forbidden this cuftom, which was very 
ancient, (Eufialh. Iliad u. v. 81.) and almoft 
univerfally received ; (Horn, Iliad n. Virg. JEn. 7. 
1 83 .) They fometimes dedicated their own armour 
to the gods, when they retired from a military life ; 
(Hor. lib. i.Ep.i.v. 4. Ovid. Trift. lib. 4.) being 
firft rendered unfit for prefent ufe. Military plun- 
der was fometimes termed svct^a; (II. Z. 68. 
Eujlath. in IL <x. 34.) 


It was ufual to offer facrifices and to return pub- 
lic thanks to the gods for the fuccefs of their arms. 
The Lacedaemonians offered a cock to the god of 
\var; but when they obtained a victory without 
bloodfhed, they facrificed an ox; (Pint. Inftit. 
Lacon.) It was alfo the cuftom of conquerors to 
make a proccffic-n through the middle of .their city, 

Y crowned 


crowned with garlands, repeating hymns and fongs, 
and brandifhing their fpears, attended by their cap- 
tives, and expofmg their fpoils to public view, which 
was called Burrow ; (Phavorin.) 

T^oTraia, trophies, (Ariftoph. Schol. Pint. 453 .) were 
dedicated to fome of the gods^ especially Jupiter, 
named T^OT^IO? and T^on-aia^o?; (PauJ'an. Lacon.. 
'Plutarch. Pare/I. Phurnutm.) and Juno, who was 
called T^oTraia; (Phavorinus. Lycophr. Caff. v. 
1328. Barnes, ad Euripid. UeracL 937.) The 
manner of adorning trophies, was by hanging up the 
arms taken from the enemy ; (Euripid. Heracl. v. 
786. Juven. Sat. 10. 133.) To thefe were added 
the names of the god to whom they were dedicated, 
of the conquerors, and the conquered army, with 
a full account of the fpoils, and whatever was 
memorable in the war. This infcription was called 
nriyfupn or 7rjy^a^pj, and was frequently engraved; 
(Lucian.) fometimes written with ink, or with 
blood ; (Plutarch. Par ell. Stob#ns, Tit. de For fun.) 
The fpoils were hung upon the trunk of a tree, 
which was frequently olive, as an emblem of peace; 
'fometimes the oak, as confecrated to Jupiter; (Si- 
donins, Paneg. Statins Theb.) Inflead of trees, 
pillars of flone or brafs were afterwards erected ; to- 
raife which was called travat -rgoTraiov. It was 
deemed facrilegious to deflroy trophies, becaufe 
they were always confecrated to fome deity ; though 
thofe who firft introduced this cuftom afterwards 
incurred from pofterity fevere cenfure ; (Plutarch. 
Rom. >uaft. Wef cling ad Diod. Sicitl. 13. 24.) 
The Macedonians never erecled trophies, becaufe 
one, erecled in the reign of Cranaus, was demolifhed 
by wolves; (Paufanias.) They however raifed 



monuments to preferve the memory of their victo- 
ries, and to teftify their gratitude to the gods. 
Sometimes ftatues were erected on the borders of 
the vanquished country; (Herodot. lib. 9. Eu- 
ripid. Pkoen.) fometimes temples ; (Paufan. La- 
conic.) fometimes towers, which were adorned with 
the fpoils of their enemies ; and fometimes altars j 
(Arrian. Exp. Alex. lib. 5.) 


The commanders were generally allowed to im- 
pofe punimments according to the exigency of the 
offence. AuroaoXoi, deferters, fuffered death. 
Arfarsuroi, thofe who refufed to ferve in the wars, 
or who quitted their ranks, were obliged, by a law 
of Charondas, to (it three days in the public forum 
in women's apparel ; (Diodor.Sicul. 12.) Ar^a-nuTd, 
\vho refufed to ferve in war j XuTrorKxrai, who de- 
ferted the ranks; and &IAOJ, cowards, were not 
permitted to wear garlands, nor to enter the i^z, 
fyaoT&Aif, public temples $ and were fined according 
to their demerit, and kept in cuflody till pay- 
ment was made ; (&fchin. in Ctefiph.Demoftk. 
in Timocr.) PivJ/ac-Tn^, they who loft their bucklers, 
were efleemed cowards; hence there was a law to 
fine him who falfely charged another with this 
crime ; (Lyjias Orat. ,. in ^heomn.) By the Spar- 
tans, this offence was confidered as highly "dif- 
graceful. Deferters were alfo deprived of all ho- 
nours, and no one was allowed to intermarry with 
them; and whoever met them might beat and infult 
them with impunity. They were obliged to wear 
a tattered drefs, and their beards to be half fhaved 

Y 2 arid 


and half unfhavcd ; (Plutarch. Agefil. Herod. 7.) 
So odious was the crime, that the mother frequently 
atoned for it, by ftabbing her fon who was guilty 
of it. The poet Archilochus was banifhed from 
Sparta for triumphing in an epigram at the lofs of 
his buckler; (Strabo, Geogr. lib. 12. Plutarch. 
Jnftit. Lacon.) To pawn their arms was confidered 
as a great crime 3 (Ariftoph. Schol. Pint, aft. 2. ft. 4.) 


When the private foldiers behaved valiantly, they 
were raifed into office ; and fubordinate officers 
were honoured with higher commands; (Xenoph. 
Hipparch. Memor. iii. 4. Strateg. c. 33.) Thofe 
who fignalized themielves in a remarkable manner 
were prefentedby the general with large gifts; (Horn. 
//. 0. z%(). 'Virgil, &n. 9. 26j.) Sometimes they 
gave them crowns; (Demqfth. adv. Androt.) Others 
were honoured with leave to raife pillars, or erec~t 
ftatues to the gods, withfuitableinfcriptions; (P/u- 
tarch. Cimone. jEfchin. in Ctefiph.) Their arms were 
fometimes placed in the citadel. Some were prefent- 
ed with a w*vo7rXta, or complete fuit of armours 
(Plutarch. Alcibiad. Horn. 11. y. 330. . ^En. 8. 
620.) Others were praifed in poetry and funeral 
orations ; (Plutarch. Lyfand. Thucyd. ii. 34. 
)emo/l/i.~ Lucian^ de Luffu.) 

Thofe who loft their limbs in battle, were called 
^aTo, and maintained at the public charge, if 
they were not in poflcffion of more than three Attic 
pounds yearly: for which realbn they were examined 
by the fenate of five hundred. Their allowance 
was an obolus a day; fome fay, two oboli; others, 



nine drachma?, or fifty-four oboli a month ; (Plu- 
tarch. Solon. Lyjias iregi a$wot,-rv. Hefy chins. Har- 
pocration. Suidas.) 

The children of thofe who fell valiantly were 
educated at the public charge, till they came to 
maturity, and then prefented with a fuit of armour, 
and introduced to the public by one of the minifters, 
who in a fpeech exhorted them to imitate the ex- 
ample of their fathers. They alfo were honoured 
with vgosfya, the firft feats at fliews, and public 
meetings; (HLfchin. in Ctefiph.) The parents of 
thofe who fell valiantly were alfo maintained at 
the public charge ; (Plat. Menex. Diogen. Laert. 
So/one.) The rewards of thofe who had fought 
valiantly, were termed, A^r, (/Elian. Var. Hifl. 
5/19.) fraOAa, vcmji, CTrwxia. Soldiers of valoui 
were called Cecropides, and their arms were de- 
pofited in the citadel ; (Demofth. Or. Funeb.) 


They had feveral forts of meflengers, as the 

, who were lightly armed with darts, and 
bows and arrows; (Suidas. Cornel. Nep.. Miltiad.) 
The rouraXDj was a roll of parchment wrapped 
about a black flick, called from <TXUTO?, ikin; it was 
about four cubits in length; (Pindar. Schol. 
0/ymp. Od. 6.) When the magiflrates commif- 
iioned any general or admiral, they took two round 
pieces of wood, of equal fize ; one they kept, the 
Other they delivered to the CQrrunander, with whom, 
when they wiflied to communicate, they cut a long 
narrow fcroll of parchment, and rolling it about 
Qwn ftaff, they wrote their orders upon it j. 
Y 3 then 


then taking it off they difpatched it to the com- 
mander ; who, applying it to his own ftafF, the 
folds exactly fitting, as at the time of writing, and 
the charafters appeared legible ; (Plutarch. LyJ'andr. 
Arijloph. SchoL in Avib.AuL Gellius, &c.) 



They who firfl ventured upon the fea, com- 
mitted themfelves to fhallow waters, near the fliore, 
before they dared to launch into the wide ocean -, 
(Glaudian. Prxf. in Rap, Proferp.) Many perfons 
have been named as the firft inventors of fhips, as, 
Neptune, Prometheus, Janus, Atlas, Minerva, &c. 
Some afcribe the invention to the Ph^nicians, 
./Egmenfians, and other inhabitants of the fea coafts ; 
(Plin. lib. 5. cap. 12. Strabo, lib. 16. Pompon. 
MeL lib. i. cap. 12.) The firfl fhips were built 
with little art, flrength, or ornament ; but confifted 
only of planks, fo compacted as to keep out the 
water j (Max. Tyrr. Diff.) fometimes they were 
hulks of trees made hollow, and called 
DAa, as confifting of one piece of timber j 
Georg. i. v. 136.) or <rxapj, (Poly <en. lib. 5.) from 
trxaTTTfc-Oa;, as it were to hollow or dig in a tree. 
In early times they fometimes confifled of the Egyp- 
tian reed papyrus, or of leather or hides fewed 
together, and called TrAota h$t^ivoL or Js^a-nj/a ; 
which were fometimes furrounded with wickers ; 
(Lycophr. Caff. SchoL 75. Virgil, Mn. 6. 414.) 
When (hips were increafed in flze, and floated in 
the open fea, the vulgar were flruck with terror 
and amazement ; (Apollon. Schol. Arifloph. Thef- 
mophr.) This invention was fo acceptable to the 



early ages, that thofe who improved it in any 
manner, were numbered among the deified heroes. 
-, All fhips were originally of the fame form : but 
afterwards confifted chiefly of three forts; fliips of 
war, of burden, and of pafTage. 

Thofe fliips which were uied to traniport men, 
were called by the general names of irogitx, and CTH- 
&?; when filled with armed men, oTrXtraycoyot, 
and r*TiTi&? -, thofe in which hories were traiil- 
ported, were called 7nnjyci, jTTTraywyot. 

Their merchantmen were called oAxa&?, (Thncyd. 
6.) Qogryyoi, and wAoia, to diflinguifh them from 
mips of war, which were properly called we, 
They were ufually of a round form, and had large 
todies, to contain provifions and other neceiTaries : 
hence they are called rgoyyvXui, as, on the contrary, 
Slips of war were fometimes called ^x^t ; (Ulpian 
in Demqfth. Or at. adv. Lept. Schol* Thucyd. /. 
f.) becaufe they were extended to a greater length. 
The men of war were chiefly rowed with oars - 9 
hence they were ufually called CTTMUTTOI and xwTnj^n. 
Ships of burden were generally governed with 
fails ; and tranfport veffeJs often towed with cords. 
Ships of war are faid to have been firft navigate4 
by Paralus or Semiramis, or ^Egceon; (Plin, 
Nat. Hift. lib. 8. cap. ult.) They were alfo dif- 
tinguiihed from other mips by various engines, ^ncj 
buildings, either to defend their own foldiers, or to 
-.annoy their enemies. They were alfo diflinguiihed 
from each other by banks of oars, the feats of which 
afcended above each other gradually. The number 
of thefe banks of oars was three, four, or five; hence 
?u$ TnjK, TTIK, and TTfj/Ttj^tf, trireme, quadri- 
Teme, and quinquereme galleys j (Diod. Sicitl. 19. 


62. Athene, v. 8.) In the early times, the long 
fhips had only one bank of oars, hence they are 
called /Aov>jK, and xfXurff, from the name of 
a fmgle horfe. The fhip Argo, invented by Jafon, 
was rowed with fifty oars, and was the firft of the 
long fhips. Some afcribe the invention of long 
fhips to Danaus ; (Apollodor. lib. 2.) The Ery- 
threans firft ufed a double bank of oars, (Plhi. ) 
which was further enlarged with a third bank by 
Aminocles of Corinth ; (Herodot. Thucyd. Dio- 
dor. SicuL) Others give this invention to the Si- 
donians; (Clem. Alex. Stromat. i.) Ariftotle, a 
Carthaginian, added a fourth Neficthon of Salamis, 
(Plln.) or Dionyfius, the Sicilian, (Diodor. Sicul.) 
a fifth ; Xenagorus, the Syracufian, a fixth ; Nefi- 
giton increafed them to ten ; Alexander the great 
to twelve; Ptolemy Soter to fifteen; Philip, fa- 
ther of Perfeus, to fixteen ; (Polyb. in Fragm.- 
Livius.) Demetrius, the fon of Antigonus, to 
thirty; and Ptolemy Philopater, to forty; (Plu- 
tarch. Demetr. Athene, lib. 5.) The ihip of this 
latter fize, contained four thoufand rowers, four 
hundred mariners employed in other fervices, and 
almoft three thoufand foldiers. They were ufually 
called Cycladcs, or ^tna, iilands or mountains ; 
(Athena.) There were other fhips with half 
banks of oars ; fuch as n^uAi* or j^uoAo?, confirming 
of a bank and a half; alfo r^>i^/xox*a, betwixt a 
bireme and trireme, having two banks and a 
half/ There were other vefTels ufed as un-^mjcat, 
tenders, and victualing mips, to fupply the main 
fleet with provifions ; and fometirnes built for expe- 
dition, to carry intelligence, or obferve the enemy's 
motion. Thele were built partly like men of war, 



or (hips of burden, and in Tome inftances differed 
from both. 


Ships chiefly confifted of three parts, the body, 
the prow, and the (tern. In the belly or middle 
part, there was r^om?,. keel, which was compofed of 
wood, and called rn^u, from its flrength and firm- 
nefs. It was placed at the bottom of the Ihip, to 
cut through the waves, (Horn. SchoL Ody/. p. 42 1 
#7/^438. //. . 482.) and was narrow and Iharp. 
The Max^a;, were only provided with keels, the 
reft had ufually flat bottoms; (Iftdor. lib. 19. 
cap. I.) Round the keels were placed pieces 
of wood to fave it from damage, when the (hip 
was firft launched, or when it bulged againft 
rocks; which were called ^Afiio-fAaTa. Next to 
the T07n?, was paAx*?; (Pollux.) within which 
was contained the airrAiov, pump, through which 
water was conveyed out of the fhip ; (Ariftopli. 
SchoL Ecpiit.) After this was ^UT^ Tgovis, fe- 
cond keel, being placed beneath the pump, and 

Called A<TIOJ/, ^aXxtjpiti, xAstroTrc^ov; (Pollux.) Above 
the pump, was a hollow place, called XOA] TUJ jojor, 
(Herodotus.) or XUTO?, and yarf *, (Pollux.) becaufe 
it was capacious, like the form of a vcflel or belly. 
This was furrounded with ribs, which were pieces 
of wood, rifing from the keel upwards, and called 
veggie, (Hefychius.) or syxoiAia, the belly of the (hip 
being contained within them. Upon thefe were 
placed certain planks, called m-^ovaa? or cvrsgovifxi 
(Ariftoph. Equit, 1182.) ThewAsu^**, fides of the (hip, 
which encompaffed all the former part on bothhands, 
Compofed pf large rafters^ extended from prow to 



ilern, and were called v7ro/**Ta, (Plat, de Rep. lib. 
10.) ^uf^sf, (Heliodor. JEthiop.) and ^o^u^ara, 
(Arifloph. Eqmt.) becaufe by them the whole (hip , 
was furrounded. In both thefe fides, the rowers 
were Rationed, called ro^oi, Jw;ua, and G^A/A^T;*, 
placed above one another : the lowed was called 
taAa^of, (Ariftoph. Acharn. Schol. 161.) and the 
rowers fJaAa^oi ; the middle uya, and the men 
^vyioi : the uppermoft G^J/OJ, and the men, fyaiurai.; 
(Pollux i. 9. Athene, v. n.) In thefe were fpaces, 
through which the rowers placed their oars. Some- 
times there was one continued fpace left for the oars > 
called T^aptig. The diftinct fpaces for the oars were 

called Ti/AaTfl5, rgvTryptzTX, o<p(5aA//,oi, and fyxwTra; 
(Athene, lib. 5.) Ey>o7ni/, feems to have fignified the 
fpaces between banks of oars on each fide, where the 
paffengers were placed. On the top of thefe was a 
palfage to walk on, called irfot$os and T0f0fajr^f, 
becaufe it joined to the S^avo*, or uppermoft bank of 
oars. The lower parts under water were called, 
upaAa, and thofe above water, ^ac^oc. The middle 
of the fliip was called, ^so-oxotAa ; the deck, xa- 
rar^]w,a ^ and the hold, TrvQpv ; (Hefych. Suidas.) 
There are various terms applied to oars and rowers, 
as, rn? xwiff f?rioaAo-0a;, to take the oar, (Lucian. 
Dial. Mort.p. 308. Pollux, i. 9,) KUTT^ <e<p0aAw, 
the eyes of the oars; (Arifloph. Schol. Acharn. 97.) 
T^OTTOJ, a cord, with which they tied the oar; 
782.) To?rTj^, (Arjflopk* Acharn. 548.) T 
to tie the oar with the cord ; (ibid. 552.) 
to ply the oar ; (Mlian. Var. Hift. ii. 9.) <rxao-a, 
(Pindar. Pyth. Qd. x. Epod. T. v. 3.) Jixwinaj 
to pull two oars; '(Schol. *hucyd. 4. 67.) o/Ao 
to help a rower $ f<SVM. Ariftnph. Av. 852.) 



, to row in vain ; TKOO-O^ the broad part of the 
oar; (Pollux, i. 9.) 

to, the prow or fore-deck, fometimes called 
/, and /*oA* ; (Eurip. Ipkig. in Aid. 1320. 
Ariftoph. Equh. 551.) In fome (hips mention is 
made of two prows and two ilern .. The prow was 
generally beautified with gold, and painted with 
various colours ; in early times, red was the prevail- 
ing Colour : hence /xiATCTra^rjot and ^owxoTraciioi, 

red-faced , (Homer.) Hence alfo from the -blue 
colour, xuaj/oTr^w^oi, (Homer.) and xuavE^oAoi j ( Ari- 
jfapk.) The colour was often fecured by wax melted 
in the fire, that the elements could have no efFed 
upon it. This art is hence called x^oy^apia, from 
the wax : fyxaurixu, from the fire ', (Fitruvius, lib. 
7. cap. 9. Ovid. Fajl. lib. 4.) In thefe colours, 
the forms of gods, animals, plants, &c. were ufually 
defcribed. The fides of the prow were called 
?TTa, wings, and w&gtiui, cheeks ; the top of which, 
as of the ftern, was called 7rizft$it$i<rHx, 9 becaufe void 
of rowers , (TJmcyd. Schol. ad ii. 90. Suidas.) 

n^up>j, was the hinder ftern, fometimes called ^, 
the tail j in a circular form -, built higher than the 
prow, and was the place in which the pilot (leered. 
The bow of it was called rn-iwuv, and the planks 
which compofed it T TT^ITOVHCC,. There was another 
place fomewhat below the top, called aoWiov, and 
the interior part of which, wtizpiov (Athene, v.) 

The ornaments upon the extremities were called, 
ingeneral, ax^ovfa; (Suidas.) or njaw xo^wnJW, (Homer. 
II. <*. 1 8.) which applied to the prow; thefe are alfo 
called ax^ofcAia., becaufe placed at the extremity of 
the fcAoj, which was a long plank at the head of 
the prow, and therefore fometimes called 


?.;i (Pollux. At ken*. $.) Their form fometimes 
refembled helmets, fometimes living creatures, but 
moft frequently winded into a circular compais. 
E-rruTifa, were two pieces of wood projecting from 
the two fides of the prow ; (Athene, v. fhucyd. 

7 . 62.) 

To the ax^ofoAi* imthe prow, anfwered the af Aar# 
in the ftern, which were fometimes of a circular 
fhape, or fafhioned into wings, to which a fmall 
fhield, called utrvihiov or ao-Tn&o-xu, was frequently 
affixed. Sometimes a piece of wood was creeled, 
on which ribbands of various colours were hung, 
and was as a flag to diftrnguifli the (hip, (Pollux. 
Enjlath.) and of a weathercock, to fignify the 
quarters of the wind ; (II. o. 717.) 

XijvNTKof, was fo called from Xuv, a goofe, whofe 
figure it refembled, and which was thought to be 
a fortunate omen to mariners. It was fixed at the 
bottom of the prow, where it was joined to the fore 
part of the keel ; and to which anchors were fatten- 
ed, when caft into the fea. Others fix it upon the 
extremity of the ftern ; (Etymol. Aitflor. Athene, 
v.p. 204. Hhucyd, 7,62.) 

nafgffn/tAov, was the flag, by which (hips were 
clifunguiihed. It was placed in the prow, juft 
below the roAc?, being fometimes carved, and often 
painted ; repretenting the form of a mountain, tree, 
flower, &c. ; as diftinguifhed from the tutela, or 
fafe- guard of the (hip, which always reprefented 
fome of the gods, to whofe care the fhip was dedi- 
cated : hence it was held facred, and was a refuge 
and fanctuary to thofe who fled to it. Prayers and 
tcrifices were offered, and oaths confirmed before 



it. Sometimes the roAo? was taken for the H-o^ac-u/Aw ; 
(Laftantius,lib. i. cap. i. Servius in JEn. 5.) By 
fbme it is alfo placed in the . prow ; by others, in 
the Hern ; (Ovid, Ep. (Enon. Ovid, de Triftib.) 
They ufually committed their mips to the pro- 
tection of thofe deities, whom they thought mod 
concerned for their fafety ; (Euripid. Iphig. Ovid, 
Ep. (Enon.) On the prow of the Ihip, about the 
was placed a round piece of wood, called 
, and fometimes opdatyo?, the eye of the (hip, 
becaufe it was fixed in its fore-deck 5 (Pollux. 
Eitftath. Apollon. Schol. Argon, lib. i. 1089.) On 
this was infcribed the name of the (hip, which was 
ufually taken from the flag ; hence the names, 
Pegafi, Scylla?, Bulls, Rams, &c. given to fliips. 
The (hip was pitched, to fecure the wood from the 
water ; hence called p&uimi, black ; (Homer.) 
The Phseacians firfl ufed pitch ; (Suidas. v. Nau- 
<nxaa.) Sometimes wax was ufed inftead of pitch ; 
(Ovid, Ep. CEnon. v. 42.) which was fometimes 
mixed with rofin. The (hip being thus finifhed, 
and decked with garlands and flowers, the mariners 
alfo adorned with crowns, it was launched into the 
fea with loud acclamations ; (Athene, lib. 5.) and 
being purified by a pried with a lighted torch, an 
egg, and brimftone ; ( Apnleius AJin. lib. 1 1.) it was 
confecrated to the god, whofe image it bore* 


The chief inftruments ufed in navigation: the 
rudder, TrufoXio*, (Milan. Var. Hift. 9. 40. Grav. 
ad Hejiod. E^>y. 45.) placed in the hindmoft deck, 
by which, xu^^uTuff, the pilot, whofe ftation was at 
the ftern, (At hen*, v. n.-UElian, Far. Hift. 9. 40. 



Cic. de Senett. 6. Liician. Dial. Mart.) dire&ed 
the courfe of the (hip. The parts of the rudder 
were called, O*, (Ifidor.) $0, (Pollux \. 9.) 
HrEgvyiov, (Hefychius.) AU^EI/, (Heliodur. ALthiop. v. 
p. 248.) Kc^t*. In their greateft (hips there were 
two rudders; (JEllan. 9. 40.) fometimes three, and 
in fome four rudders. Hence VYM a^piTi^u/Avoi, fliips 
with two fterns. The fmaller fhips had only one 

Ayxy^a, an anchor, (Strabo, 7. p. 209. Pan fait. 
Attic. 4. p. 12. Plin. 7. 56.) alfo called sum; (Horn. 
11. a. 436.) hence the terms, ai/ao-Trai/, (Lucian. Dial. 
Mart. p. 281. Pollux^ \. 9.) ujttayNVf*)r,ftAA*4 
ftyxv^av t^av ; (Eujlath. Horn. II. |3. 154. Ariftopk. 
Av. 1429. Meurs. ad. Lycoph. 618.) The inven- 
tion of the anchor has been afcribed to the Tuf- 
cans, (Plin. lib. 8. cap. ult.) or to Midas, the fon of 
Gordius; (Paufanias.) The mod ancient were of 
ftone, (Apollon. Argon. Arrian. in Peripl. Pont. 
Eux.) and fometimes of wood, to which much lead 
was fixed -, in fome places they ufed bafkets full of 
ftones ; (Suidas v. Zsuyjua) and facks filled with fand. 
Thefe were fufpended by cords, and their weight 
regulated the courfe of the (hip. Afterwards an- 
chors were made of iron, and furnifhed with teeth, 
which fattening to the bottom of the fea, kept the 
veffel immoveable; hence o^ovrf?, teeth, are ufed for 
anchors. At firft there was only one tooth; hence 
anchors were called trsgoropoi ; (Pollux.) a fecond 
tooth was added by Eupalamus ; (Plin. lib. 7. cap* 
ult.) or by Anacharfis, the Scythian ; (Strabo, Ufa 
10. ex Ephor.) The anchors with two teeth were 
called a^<pioAoi or ppirty*o<. Every {hip had feveral 
anchors, the largeft of which was called t^, facred, 



and was never ufed but in extreme danger. E^, 
0E^fAof , KT/*a, ballad, with which (hips were poifed ; 
hence called ao-p^Aicr^ TrAot^. It was ufually of 
fand, or any other heavy material j (Lycophr. Caff*. 
v. 6 1 8.) It is fometimes called xspaAo?, and 
Aov; (Hefy chius.) BoA*?, called fometimes 
7TTiti, (Herodot. Eitterp.) was the lead which 
founded the depth of the fea. It was commonly of 
lead or brafs, or other metal, and fufpended by a 
chain into the deep. KOI/TCJ, called alfo7rA?5XT^a, (Pol- 
lux.) long poles, ufed to found the depth of ihallow 
waters, to thruft the fhip from rocks and fhelves. 
A7ro:%0#i, fTriCaG^at, or xAijotaxff, little bridges or 
flairs joining the land to {hips, or one fliip to an- 
other. Avrhtov, wrXov, a pump, or engine to draw 
water 5 to which, as well as to the anchors, certain 
ropes were ufed, as, ^mo^aTa, the cables with which 
anchors were caft into the fea ; called alfo 
(Ariftoph. SchoL) or xa/xJiAo* ; (Phavorinus.) 
oAxoi, or o-TTft^at, ropes by which fhips were towed. 
Stones were erected in the harbours for this pur- 
pofe, which were bored through like rings, and 
thence called JaxruAioi. To thefe the cords cafl 
from the ftern were fixed; (Ovid. Met. lib. i$.v. 
695. Horn. Odyff. /. 136.) KwTrai, ^TJOJ, oars, 
faid to have been firft invented by Copas. ITAarr^ 
was the blade or broad part of the oar, which 
was ufually covered with brafs. Oars of the longeil 
banks were called uy** ; of the uppermost, 9^m- 
Tixa;, and fyoiiHTifa ', which, as they were the longeft 
and fartheft from the water, had lead fixed to the 
handles, that the bottom fliould- not outweigh the 
top; (Athena, lib. 5.) Oars of the loweft bank were 
- the (horteft, and called fahuix^ or 


2xaAjtxo, were round pieces of wood, on which 
the rowers hung their oars, when they refled ; 
hence vau? TrxaAjuo, a trireme. Tgoiroi, T^OTTW 
TEf, were leathern thongs, (Horn. Schol. Qdyjj'. 
J.) upon which the oars were hung upon the <rxaA- 
fxoj, as well as thofe with which the rudder was 
bound. Leather and fkins of animals were ufed to 
cover the o-xaA/xo*, and the holes through which the 
oars were put ; (Suidas v. At^O^a.) Skins were 
placed under the rowers, called uTr^so-ia, fometimes 
uTrayxwiaa, or uTroTru'yja TWJ/ f^rrajv, from guarding the 
elbows of the rowers. Ir'* pw<r<rwv$j KPftsvxy oOovai, 
$>afj, Aaipn, fails, ( Eujl. Od.u. 146. Od. N. n. 
Hefych.) were faid to have been invented by 
Daedalus, or by Icarus ; (Plin. lib. 7. cap. 56.) 
There was at firft only one fail in a (hip; but after- 
wards others, as, A^Tf/xwv, the top-fail, which hung 
on the top of the mad. Axa-na, the great fails ; 
(Hefy chilis.) AoAwi/, the fmall fail in the fore-deck ; 
(Suidas v. AoAwv. Ifidorus.) ETH^O/AO?, the mizen- 
fail, was^ larger than the former, and hung in the 
hind-deck; (Hefyclims. IJidorus.) Sails were 
ufually made of linen; fometimes of leather; (Dio. 
lib. 39.) fometimes of their own garments ; (Servius 
Mn. 8.) K^aia, x^ara, the fail-yards, pieces of 
wood fixed upon the maft, to which the fails were 
tied ; (Horn. Schol. IL <r. Schol. ApolL Argon. 
i. 566.) It is named from a horn; hence its 
extremities are called ax^ox^aia ; its arms are called 
ayxuAa*; (Sil. ltd. lib. 14.) It had other parts, 
clofe to the maft, called #/*oAa and o-u^oAa, by 
which it was moved. Iro?, the maft; of which 
there were feveral in every (hip. It is faid to have, 
been contrived by Daedalus ; (Plin. lib. 7. cap. 56.) 



At ftrft there was only one maft, which was fixed 
in the middle of the (hip; the hole in which it was 
placed, was named pta-offw ', (Horn. Schol. Odyjf. |3.) 
to fet the maft, was, o0a<r0ai. When they landed, 
the maft was taken down, (Homer.) and placed on a 
cafe, called jroJbxn, (Suidas.) or on a piece of wood, 
againft which it was reared -, (Euftath.) The parts of 
the maft were, irregm> the foot. A^aj or Au/c$, (Athe- 
na.) or rg&xnbos, to which the fail was fixed. Ka^u- 

the pulley, by which the ropes were turned round. 

xtov, built like a turret, upon which foldiers 
flood, to caft darts : above which was a piece of 
wood, called mgiov, the extremity of which was called 
DAaxTu, on which hung a ribband, called firia-ewv, 
from its perpetual motion with the wind. The ropes 
belonging to thefe parts were called STTITQVOI, with 
which the fail-yards were bound to the main-matt 3 
(Sitidas.) Some call them the cables, by which 
the fail-yards were governed, according to the will 
of the pilot i (Phavorinus.') others call the cord 
with which the fail-yards were tied to the maft, 
xaAcoi* ; and that by which they were contracted or 
dilated, U7r^; (Suidas.) Tlofa, were feet, or qords 
at the corners of the fails ; ( Ariftoph. Schol. Equit. 
act. i.fc. i. Apollon, Schol.) by which they were 
managed at pleafure. n^oTro^.f, were fmall cords 
below the TrcJW, which were looted and contracted 
by them. M<ra^ii, were thofe by which the maft 
was erected or let down ; (Apollon. Schol.) Tlforovoi, 
were cords, which pafling through a pulley at the 
top of the maft, were tied on one fide to the prow, 
on the other to the ftern, to keep the maft fteady .5 
(Horn.. II. a. 434.) Other terms relating to the, 
ropes, (which were at firft cornpofed of leathern, 

2 thongs. 


thongs, and afterwards of hemp, broom, flax, and 
the bark of trees) were, T^OI, (SchoL Apoll. PJiod. 
Argon, i. 566.) wrrtgat, (Horn. Od. e. 260.) 
(Ariftdph.Eqidt. 438.) O^ioi, xpo>ot, tZTroyu 
irgvpneiot, (Hefy chins.) -m ttr/xara, (Horn. Od. K. 96. 
127.) ^wjtAftijuojTa, (Schol. Arifloph. Eq. 279. 
<*?. V. 9.) fu^ara, (Polyb. i. /?. 27.) 


, was a beak of wood, fortified with brafs, 
hence called p^aAxw/xa vswi/, (Diodor. SicuL lib. 20.) 
and the (hips ^aAx^gc/Aoi. It wasfaftened to the prow, 
to annoy the fhipsofthe enemy. The whole prow 
was fometimes covered, with brafs, to guard it from 
rocks and aiTaults. Thefe beaks were firij ufed by 
Pifeuss (Plin.lib. 7. cap. 56. ^EfchyLU\t^.) They 
were at firil long and high, but afterwards (hort, and 
fo low as to pierce the enemy's (hips under water; 
(Diodor. SicuL lib. 13.) Above the beak was ano- 
ther inftrument, called vgotpSoXic. ETr&miJt?, were 
pieces of wood placed on each fide of the prow ; 
~(bucyd. Schol. lib. 7.) as guards from the enemy's 
beaks ; they refernbled ears. 
juara, hatches, fometimes called 
hence the terms wig ire$gu,yu.tmi 9 xara^axTot, covered 
(hips, or men of war j (hips of burden were called 
PXT, uncovered, or without hatches. This 
covering was of wood, upon which foldiers might 
dired their mi (five weapons with greater force. In 
the early times the foldiers fought upon the fore- 
moft and hindermoil decks; (Thttcyd, lib. i. 
Homer IL o.^Hom. Odvffl /x.) The other parts of 



fhe ftiip are faid to have been firft covered by the 
Thracians ; (Plin. lib. 7. cap. 57.) The coverings 
Were called %ix.r&(pooty{j,<x,T<x,, ?r 

and were ufually competed of hides, hung on both 
fides of the fhip. AsXpiv, was a mafTy piece of lead, 
or iron, in the form of a dolphin, and hung with. 
cords and pulleys to the fail-yards or mad ; which, 
when thrown into the enemy's fhips, fo (battered 
them, as frequently to fink them ; (Suidas. Ari- 
fioph. Sthol.) An helmet was ufually engraven 
upon the top of the mails of men of war; (Gyrald. 
de Navig. cap.'ii.) 


There were originally no difference of ranks 
among feamen; (Inucyd.) but the fame occafion- 
ally ferved in all the offices of rowers, mariners, and 
ibldiers ; (Homer.) Thefe were called awregsTou ; (Sui- 
das. Wiucyd. i. 10. Pollux, lib. i. cap. 9.) They 
were afterwards divided into different orders ; ^gr, 
01 VTrot^ovrtf, (Polyb. Hift. lib. 1O. ) 
(Polyb. Wft. lib. i.Xenopk. H'ift> 
lib. i.) When there were feveral banks of oars, 
the uppermofl rowers were called QgswiToti, and their 
bank, 9flav? : (Pollux. Ariftoph. Schol. Acharn. 

l6 I. Suidas.) the loweft OaXajWJOJ, SaAa^jraj, and 

heirbank^aAa^o?: the middle rowers, 
, and jotKro^uyioi, and all their banks, uyx. 
Every one had a proper oar ; and thofe who fa| in the 
uppermoft banks, as having a more laborious office, 
received higher wages. The rowers in merchent- 
men were called rTfoyyuXoaura*, (Pollux, lib. 7.) 

1 a thole 


thofe in the triremes, Tf uf ET. Thofe who fat neareft 
the prow, were called Tr^oo-xwTroi, or Tr^oxawct, and thofe 
next theftenv?nxw7rot; (Pollux^ 1.9.) Their work was 
efteemed moft laborious, to which malefactors were 
frequently condemned. Their reft was taken, lying 
down upon their feats; (Senec. Agam. 437. Virg. 
Mn. 5. 836.) The other manners ufually reded in 
the fame manner ; the fuperior perfons in the vefTel 
were allowed to reft on their clothes ; (TJieophr. 
vtgi i/aAuip. Horn. Odyff. v. v. 74.) Thofe who 
would not fubmit to this cuftom, were deemed 
effeminate; (Plutarch. Alcibiad.) Naurai, mariners, 
were exempt from labouring at the oar, but perform- 
ed other offices in the (hip j where each had his appro- 
priate tafkj ( Cic. de Seneft. 6.) Hence thofe who di- 
redred the ^va, fails, were called atgptneou ; thofe 
who climbed up the ropes, <r;/0u/o*Tai. TheMfo-ovau- 
T, were chiefly attendant upon the other feamen ; 
(Cat. Rhod. lib. 25. cap. 40.) The crew were gene- 
rally profligate and hardened fellows ; (Juv. Sat. 8.) 
The foldiers, who ferved at fea, were called *?n <***, 
from a-rro T* f//,awiv, from afcending the vcfTel. 
They were armed like thofe ferving on (hore, and 
chiefly heavy -armed; (Plutarch, ^htrnift.) They 
alfo ufed ^T vauj!Aj6^a, (Herodotus.) fpears of an 
unufual length, fometimes more than twenty cubits ; 
(Horn. Iliad \ ^'.387. Horn. II. i. 677.) They 
ufed aifo fytvKvto> (Pollux.) or fyvfytvowvy or fyt7r- 
ivfogos xtgKHx,, (JDiodor. Sicitl. lib. 22.) an engine 
of iron, crooked, like a iickle, (Vegetius^ lib. 4. 
cap. idi.) and fixed to the top of a long pole, with 
which they cut the cords of the fail-yards, and thus 
difabled the light fhips of the enemy. They ufed 
nearly a fimilar inftrument to cut the cords that 
6 tied 


tied the rudder to the Ihip. Ke^aiai, (Athe- 
weus. Diodor. Sic. lib. 12.) were engines to call 
flones into the enemy's (hips. An engine alfo was 
in ufc which hung upon the main-maft, and refem- 
bled a battering ram ; confiding of a long beam 
and an head of iron, and forced with violence againfl 
the fides of (hips. XE cnJ^a, was a grappling iron, 
which was caft from an engine into the enemy's 
(hips, it was firft ufed by Pericles, the Athenian; 
(Plin. lib. 7. cap. 61.) A^aytf, hooks of iron 
hanging on the top of a pole, which being fattened 
to the maft with chains, and caft with force into 
the enemy's (hip, caught it up into the air. To 
avert the mifchief of this weapon, their mips were 
covered with hides, which blunted the flroke of it ; 
(Pollux. Thucyd. lib. 8.) This inftrument is faid 
to have been invented by Anacharfis, the Scythian ; 
(Ptin. lib. 7. cap. 57.) The Athenians began to 
apply to naval affairs about the time of the invafion 
of Xerxes ; the revenue of the filver mines at Lau- 
reotis were employed to this purpofe, which had 
formerly been diftributed among the people. With 
this money, one hundred triremes were fitted out, 
with which they obtained a vi&ory. The number 
of their mips was increafed afterwards to four hun- 
dred ; (Plutarch. Lycurg.) and to twice as many 
as all the reft of Greece ; (Ifocr. Paneg.) The fea- 
men were afterwards paid, by dividing the rich 
citizens into O-U^/AO^**, companies, who contributed 
largely from their fubftance. Thofe allies, who 
were remote from the fea, fent their proportion in 
money; (Xenoph. Hift. Grac. lib. 6.) The cities 
they conquered were obliged either to contribute 
money, or to fupply them with (hips of war; (T//H- 

z 3 cyd. 


cyd.lib.*]. Xenoph. Hift. lib. i.Diodor. Situf. 
lib. 13.) 


The officers who held command in the (hips were, 
roAa^of, the commander of the troops ; ^aua^of, 
or rfarnyo?, the admiral, which was an office 
fometimes in the perfon of one, fometimes in 
two or three. They continued in command for a 
limited time; (Cornel. Nep. in Epamm.) It was 
forbidden any one, by the Spartans, to hold this 
office more than once ; (Plutarch. Ly/and. Xenoph. 
Hift. lib. 2.) E?nroAuj, (Xenoph. Hift. lib. 2. and 

* ' ' \ JL * 

5. Pollux* lib. i. cap. 9.) iometimes called STTI- 
$-0AapoOf, was vice-admiral. T^ ;^a^oj, was cap- 
tain of a trireme, who commanded the foldiers in 
the velfel; (Schol. Arijloph. Equit. 908.) The 
commanders of men of war were called, wTijxovroOf, 
&c. according to the veffels they commanded. 
A(!^ixvwM)Ta, were intrufled with the direction of 
all marine affairs, which had not relation to war ; 
(Diod. Sicul. 20. 5 1 .) Ku&f i/jjTjff, the pilot, who had 
the care of the fhip, and government of the feamen, 
was a perfon well fkilled in xy^Minxti ts^i/n, the art 
navigation; (Ovid. Met am. lib. 3. in Fab. Bacr. 
Athen. v. p. zoq.Cic. deSenecl. \\.Arruin. deEx- 
ped. Akx. vi. 2,) The celeflial bodies were obferved by 
failors, as foretelling the feafons, and directing their 
courfe. It was alfo ufual to notice various omens 
offered .by fea-fowls, fifties, by .the noife of the flrearn, 
the milling of trees on (bore, the daQiing of the bil- 
lows. At firft, they fleered, in the day, by the courfe 
of the fun, and at night betaking themfelves to fome 
fafe harbour, or refling on the (Lore ; (Virg. Mn. 
$. v. 508,) The principal flars ufed in foretelling, 



were, at firft, Arcturus, the dog-ftar, Arse, Orion, 
Hyades, H#di, &c. The Phoenicians, to whom 
fome afcribe the invention of the art of navigation, 
difcovered the motions of fome other ftars ; (Plin. 
lib. 7. Propert. lib. 2. v. 990.) They were firfl 
directed by Cynofura, or the leffer bear-flar ; 
(Euflath. II. a. Arrian. Exped. lib. 6.) which was, 
fome fay, obferved by Thales, who was originally 
a Phoenician ; (Hygin. lib. 2. Euflath. II. r.) 
The mariners of Greece fleered by the greater bear, 
called Helice ; (Aratus.) for the firft obfervation 
of which they were obliged to Nau pirns or to Ti- 
phys, the pilot of the (hip Argo; (Argon, i .) TI^su? 
or n^atJK, was next under the pilot, and had his 
place upon the prow. He had the care of the tackle 
of the ihip, (Xenoph. Adminift. Dom. lib. 5.) and of 
the rowers, whofe places were afljgned by him; (Athe- 
11*. lib. 15.) He ufually affifted the mafter in 
things relating to the feafons, and figns,'&c ; (Sui- 
das. Plutarch. Agid. Pollux. Xenoph. Adm. 
Dom. lib. 5.) KgAsur*]?, the boatfwain, was to 
iignify the word of command to the rowers, (Arrian. 
Exp. Alex. lib. 6.) and to diftribute to the crew 
their provilions ; (Stiidas.) T^^auA^jf, was a mu- 
fician, who, by the harmony of his voice and 
flute, elevated the fpirits of the rowers, when they 
were weary; (Cenforin. cap. i2.Statfus 9 Theb. 
5.^.343.) or to clireft them by their mufic to 
regular ^motion ; (Max. ?yr. Difi. 23 . Flaccus 
Argonaut. -Statins, <Theb. 6. v. 361.) This mufic 
was called ytyA*^, (Arifloph. Sc/iol. Ran. aft. 2 . 

JC. $.Pol/U\\J Or TO T^O^V p&K. AiOTTpi, ^U- 

^Xxsf,^pokcare that the Ihip received no damage 
by bulging upon rocks, or running aground, or m 
any other manner ; (Ulpum. lib. 53. cap. 7. and*. 

z 4 


Pollux ', lib. 7. */>. 31. Eitftath. Iliad &.} hence they 
fo often founded the depth in the night, and directed 
the (hip with long poles; (Sophocl. A%<X,IM <ruAAoya.) 
Tc/J X a fX ot either had charge of the fides of the 
fhh., or of the banks of rowers; (Turneb. Advers. 
lib. 28. cap. 43.) T^iaf, diftributed to every man 
his fhare of vidluals ; to which office alfo the xf- 
A?ur? belonged ; (Horn. Iliad r.) Eo-^a^su?, f/W- 
lux.) took care of the fire, and is thought to fignify 
the cook ; or, by fome, the prieit who offered facri- 
fices. Aoyis-yg or ygctppoLTEvq, was the fecretary, who 
kept the accounts of income, and expenditure of 
the (hip; (Eujlath. Horn. Odyff. 9. 163. Sckol. Ari- 
Jloph.Nub. 623.) 


When the fleet was to fail, a fignal was given by 
the admiral, and the mariners hauled the mips into 
the water, which when not in fervice, were drawn 
upon dry land, (VaL Place. Argon, i. Virgil.) 
which was called fj^Axai/. This was fometimes 
effected by levers and fpars of wood, over which 
veffels were rolled into the water, which were called 
paAa-yyia ; (HefychhiS. Pollux.) and 
(Horn. Odyfr. <r.) Afterwards they ufed 
an engine, called helix, contrived by Archimedes, 
for this purpofe; (Athens. Plutarch. Mar cell.) 

This they called TUV Trgvpvoiv xwew or vuaj xarsavsu/ ;j 

aXa. Before they embarked,, the (hips were adorn- 
ed with flowers and garlands, as tokens of joy ; 
(Artftoph. Schol. Acharn. atJ. i.fc. 5.) and omens 
of future fuccefs ; (Virgil.) They alfo invoked 
the protection of the gods by prayer and facrifices; 
(Firg. Mn. 3. v. 1 1 8.) Prayers were alfo offered 
up for them by the fpectators; (Diodor. SicuL 



lib. 13.) After this they let fly a dove, which, if 
it returned, was efteemed a good omen ; (SchoL m 
Apoll. Rhod.) The fignal being given by a fhout, 
by found of trumpet, or any other way, they put to 
lea. In the night, the fignal was given by torches 
lighted in the galley of the admiral ; (Senec. Aga- 
memn. v. 427.) In the front went the lighter 
veffels ; then followed the men of war led on by 
the admiral, whofe veflel was ufually diftinguiihed 
by the richnefs of its ornaments; (Senec. Agamemn.) 
after which, the veiTels of burden followed. If the 
winds were high, they failed one by one; if calm, 
three or more abreaft. When they arrived at any 
port, they ran their fhips backwards upon their hind 
decks, that they might tack about ; which they 
Called ivi 7rgv[A,vav or TT^V^VXV xg%<r$&i ; ( Ariftoph. 
SchoL Vejp.) They then tacked about, which they 
called tirirfeqwv, turning the heads of their fhips to 
the fea; (Grotius Aral.) The rowers now relied 
upon their oars, which the Greeks called ncvxtn 
rw vw ; and thefe were hung upon pins ; (Statins, 
fheb. 344.) They were hung upon the fides of 
their ihips, in no danger of being broken by the 
floods; (Ovid. Met. n. 25.) When fafely landed, 
they performed the vows they had made to the 
gods ; and offered a facrifice, called arroZarvgiov, to 
Jupiter, for enabling them uTroGouveiv K.TTO TW* mwv, 
to leave their (hips. They paid devotions alfo to 
other gods of the fea; (Homer Odytf. y. v. 4.) 
Thofe who had fafely landed after tempeiluous 
weather, added the garment in which they had 
eicaped, and a tablet, containing an account of their 
deliverance ; (Hor. lib. i. Od. 5.) If after a ihip- 
wreck, they reached the land, they fhaved their 



hair, and confecratcd it to the gods; (LuclL 
Anthol. lib. 6. cap. 21. Epigr. i. Petron. Arbit. 
cap. 63.) 


Harbours were commodious either by art or na- 
ture, in a place fecure from the winds and 
they were either at the mouth of a river, or a cr 
of the lea, under fome high promontory; or fecured 
by piles of earth and Hones, caft up in the form of a 
femicircle, with long arms extended into the iea. 
Thefe were called ^'/iXa*, (Diod. SicuL lib. 12. 
Thucyd. Schol.) from their refemblance to crabs 
claws, or ax^ai ra Pu/xwof, (Poly#n. Strateg.lib. 5.) 
or aural -, (Horn. Odyjf. v.) Chains were fixed to 
the two ends, for the greater fecurity of the mips ; 
or great pales, daubed with pitch. Hence harbours 
are fometimes called xXfio-ei?; CThucyd. lib. 2.) On 
both fides of the mole were llrong towers, (Vegct* 
lib. 5. cap. ^_^} which were defended in the night by 
garrifons of foldiers; (Poly anus. Thucydides. Q. 
Curtius.) Near to which was a watch-tower, with 
lights to dired mariners, called Pharos, fo named 
from an ifland at the mouth of the Nile, where the 
firft of thefe towers was built. The fecond part of 
the harbour ws.s termed ro/u<%, being the entrance 
between the arms of the femicircle. Mu^o? was the 
inmoft part of the harbour, neareft to the fliore, 
and moil fecure, where the fhips wereufually loofc. 
It was divided by wails of flone, under which the 
vellels \vere protected .^ Thefe places were called 
eopot ; (Enftath. Odyff. *. and Iliad .) and ^auAo^ot, 
and compofcd what was called j/aur0/*of. Here 



were alfo docks, in which fhips were built, or drag- 
'ged to land, called VWVOMQ^ (Diodor* Steal, lib. 14. 
Suidas.) sTririot, (Horn. Odyff. <r.) vfugiu, (Demoftk. 
Schol. Orat. de Cor. Suidas. Homer. Schol.) &c. 
The adjacent places were filled with houfes ofpromif- 
cuous refort ; (Pollux, lib. 9. cap. 5.) The harbours 
were in general adorned with temples or altars, 
where mariners offered facrifices to their tutelar 
deities; (Homer Odyjf. v. v. 103.) There were 
Other temporary flations for fhips, to fupply them 
with water or provifions, which were called 
(Hefychius.} yp0f/*o, (Strabo, lib. .8.) f 
(Appian. lib. 5.) o-aAot, (Polyb.lib. I.) 
(Thucyd. Schol. lib. 4.) they were frequently at fome 
diftance from the more ; (Plutarch. Pomp.) Towards 
the land, they were fortified with a ditch and para- 
pet, or wall built in the form of a femicircle, and 
extended from one point of the fea to the other; 
it was fometimes defended with towers and gates ; 
(Horn. II. TT. 436.) Toward the fea, great pales of 
wood were placed, and before them the vefleis of 
burden lay, to protect thofe within. A few mips 
were appointed to obferve the motions of the ene- 
my, which were called n-9piMayci&?, CThucyd. lib. 
i.) and the foldiers TTU^C-S^OJ, or Trvgcnsgdai, from TTU^- 
<ro?, a torch, with which they gave notice of the 
enemy's approach. The foldiers placed their tents 
around the mips, (Homer. ^hucyd. lib. 6.) chiefly, 
in winter, or in long fieges. 


Before they engaged in aclion, they threw over- 
board their provifions, and other matters not necef- 



fary for the fight. They then took down their fails, 
lowered their mafts, choofing rather to be governed 
by oars -, (Poly an. lib. 5.) They fometimes formed 
the order of battle like a half moon, and called 
s"oXo$ /AnviJuff, the horns being neareft the enemy, 
and containing the ableftfhips : fometimes its belly 
was neareft the enemy ; hence it was called xu^-m 
ir*f0T.aK. Sometimes they were ranged in the 
form of a circle, which .was called jcuxAoi/ TXTTS w ; or 
in the figure of the letter V ; (Vegetius.) with the 
horns extended in a dired line, and meeting at the 
end ; which was, called nxa/A7ni w^aragi?. Before 
battle, each party invoked the protection of the 
gods i and the admirals went from fhip to fhip 
animating the men. The fignal was then given, 
by hanging out a gilded mield from the vefiel of 
the admiral; (Plutarch.) or a red garment, or ban- 
ner, which was called KI^UV <rypncc, - 3 (Diodor. SicitL 
lib. 13. Polyxn. lib. i.) While this fign was fuf- 
pended, the battle continued ; and by its inclina- 
tion to the right or left, the reft of the mips were 
directed on which fide to attack or retreat j (Le& 
Taff.) The found of trumpets, beginning in the 
veffel of the admiral, (Plutarch. Lyfand.) continued 
round the whole navy; (Diodor. Sicul. lib. 13.) 
It was ufual for the foldiers, before the fight, to 
iing a hymn to Mars, (Sitidas.) and after the fight, 
to Apollo. The battle ufually began with the ad- 
miral's veflel; (Diodor. Sicul. lib. 3. Polyb. lib. 
1 6.) when they engaged each other with their 
beaks and prows, and fometimes their Herns, 
a.s well as ' annoyed their enemies with darts and 
flings ; and upon a near approach, with fwords and 

fpears ; 


fpears; (Litcan. lib. 3.) They fometimes linked 
their veflels together with chains and grappling- 
irons; (Si!. ltd. lib. 14.) or fo fixed their oars-as 
to prevent their enemies from retreating ; (Lucan. 
lib. 3.) The vi&orious party entered their veffels 
by laying bridges between them, and having killed 
or taken prifoners all they found in arms, feized 
their fhips. When a town was befieged by fea, 
they fpread their (hips from one fide of the harbour 
to the other, which were fo united with chains and 
bridges, as to prevent any paffage from the town to 
the fea. This is called frvypoi ; (Diodor. Sicul. lib. 
13.) They fometimes ufed a fort of bomb, armed 
\vith fpikes of iron, which fwam upon the waters to 
prevent any attempts of the befieged > (Diodor. 
Sicul. lib. 20.) Sometimes they blocked up the 
harbour, or made a paflage to the town by raifmg a 
vaft mole before it ; (Q. Curtius, lib. 4.) or by 
linking fhips filled with ftones and fand. The at- 
tacks were ufually carried on by men Handing upon 
bridges, between the (hips, and with darts and 
ftones forcing the befieged from their wails ; (<*). 
Curtius, lib. 4.) Here they creeled towers upon a 
level with the city walls, to throw their miffive 
weapons with greater advantage. The befieged 
pulled afunder the (hips linked together with iron 
hooks. They blocked up the paflage of the town ; 
(Thucyd. lib. 7.) They galled their enemies with 
darts, ftones, fire-balls, melted pitch or metals ; 
or deftroyed the veffels and works of the befiegers 
by fire-fhips ; (>. Curt, lib. 4. Diodor. Sicul. 

lib. 20.) 




When victory was obtained, the conquerors rode 
home, laden with the fpoils of their enemies, and 
dragging after them the captive (hips. The admiral, 
the foldiers and mariners, (Xenoph. Hifl. lib. 2. 
Poly an. lib, 4.) as well as- their (hips, were adorned 
with crowns and garlands ; (Diodor. Sicul. Jib. 1 3. 
Fitruv. lib. 2. cap. 8.) with wrecks, and broken 
pieces of the (hips deftroyed in the fight, ef- 
pecially the apAara, ax^or&Aia xoovpSa, ! and other 
ornamental parts ; (Howir.) Thefe \vere called 
xcoTjflta, and to deprive a (hip of them axgurr.gia,- 
gw-, (Xenoph. Hift. lib. 6.) Thus they returned 
home, filling the fea with hymns and acclamations 
of joy, and with the harmony of muiital inflru-' 
ments; (Plutarch. Lyfand.} They immediately 
proceeded to the temples of the gods, where they 
dedicated the choicefh fpoils, fometimes even fome 
of the veffels they had taken ; (Diod. Sicul. lib. 12. 
Herodot. lib. 8.) The remainder of the fpoils 
they beftowed in the porticos, and other public 
places of their city. To the victors, ftatue?, in- 
fcriptions, and trophies were erected, which were 
adorned with arms, and broken wrecks ; and which, 
were hence deemed tokens of victory ; (Thucyd. lib. 
j.PoIyb. Hift. lib. 16. cap. 3.) 


Their principal punifhment was whipping with 
cords ; which was fometimes inflicted upon crimi- 
nals, with their heads thruft out of the port holes, 
and their bodies within the (hip j (Herodot. Terp- 


fell.) Sometimes they were tied with cords to a 
fhip, and dragged into the waters till they were 
drowned. Others were thrown alive into the fea* 
Amvpaxpi, thofe who refufed to obey the fummons 
to ferve, were, with their pofterity, condemned to 
T/*I, infamy; (Suidas.) AITTOVOWTKI, deferters, 
were bound with cords and whipped, and fome- 
times had their hands cut off; (Demofthenes. 





It is faid that Pluto firft taught the Greeks the 
manner of performing their laft offices to the dead; 
(Dio dor* Skill lib. 5. cap. 15 ) Thefe duties were 
thought of the higheft importance, and the neglect 
of them a crime of the greateft magnitude. The 
memory of the dead was preferved with religious 
care, and their remains were honoured with reverence 
and adoration. Thofe who offended in this point 
were branded with infamy, and fubject to a fevere pe- 
nalty; (Demofth. Or at. in Leptin. Plutarch, Solon.) 

To perform their funeral rites was confidered fo 
facred, that they who neglected to difcharge this 
office, were thought accurfed. Hence thefe rites 
were called ^txata, vo^i^y vopi^opsvot, sQiptz, onx, &c. 
They believed that their fouls could not be admit- 
ted into the Elyfian fhades, till their bodies were 
depofited in the earth; (Homer Iliad $.) and if 
thefe rites were altogether omitted, that they would 
be excluded for an hundred years. Hence the re- 
quefts of dying men are fo frequent; (Homsn 
Odyff. A. v. 66. 72.) Hence, of all curfes that was 
the greateft, that a perfon might a-atpog unriimiv 
j0ovo?, die without the honours of burial : and of all 
deaths, that by mipwreck was deemed the moft ter- 
, rible; (Ovid.) Thus, if they were in danger of be- 
ing caft away, it was ufual to faften the moft valuable 
ftores to their body, with a direction to thofe who 



frnight find the body, if it fhould be caft upon 
fhore, to give them human burial, and offering 
their ftores as a compenfation for the trouble ; 
(Meurs. in Lycophr. Caff. v. 367.) In any cafe, it 
was conftdered not only an act of the greatefl in- 
humanity to neglect to perform thefe offices, (Mti- 
an. Var. Hi ft. 5. cap. 14.) but a crime, fufficient to 
provoke the vengeance of the infernal gods; (Sophoct* 
Schol. Antig.) He who thus offended was deemed 
profane and polluted, till he had fubmitted to the 
accuflomed purifications, and appeafed the incenfed 
gods. It was not required, in all cafes, that the fo- 
lemnities fhould be ftrictly performed ; for if a travel- 
ler was in unufual hafte* it was fufficient to caft three 
handfuls of foft earth upon the carcafe, (Horat. lib* 
i. Od. 28* v. 36. Quintil. Declam. 5. 6. Ceslius 
Rhcd. lib. 17. cap. 20.) one of which was to be 
thrown upon the head. If the body of any perfon 
had been interred in hade, and it was afterwards 
found by any of his friends, it was honoured with a 
fecond funeral j (Firg. jEn. 3. v. 62. and 67.) It 
was thought to be a great misfortune, if their bodies 
had not been prepared for burial by their relations, 
and interred in the fepulchres of their family ; (An- 
thol. Epig. -lib. 3. cap. 25. Ep. 75. Sophocl. Elettr* 
v. 1134.) The ames of thofe who died in a foreign 
country were ufually brought home, and interred in 
the fepulchre of their anceftors. This pious care of 
the bodies of the dead was extended alfo to flaves j 
(Demoflh. Orat> in Macart.) and was eileemed fo 
necelTary, that the candidates for the magiflracy at 
Athens were examined, as to the due celebration of 
the funerals, and proper care of the monuments of 
their relations; (Xenoph. de Dift. So f rat. lib. 2.) 

A A It 


It was alfo a grievous crime to be gay and cheerful 
before the ufual time of mourning expired ; (^Ef- 
chin.) The perfons of the priefts who officiated at 
funerals were highly refpedlcd, and their goods 
were regarded with religious veneration ; (Plutarch. 
Grxc. Qiitfft. 21.) 

There were fome crimes, however, which were fo 
heinous, as to prevent the perfons guilty of them 
from all rites of burial. Public or private enemies 
were deemed unworthy of partaking of this privi- 
lege ; (Homer IL u. Horn. II. p/. Iliad n.Ovid. 
in Ibin. v. 304. Paufan. Exotic.) Thofe who were 
confpirators or traitors to their country were ex- 
cluded from the rites of burial ; (Diodor. Sicul. lib. 
1 6. cap. 6. Paufan. MeJJen. Plutarch. Paufan. 
Plutarch. Phocion* Cornel. Nep. Phodon. Valer. 
Max. lib. 5. cap. 3.) Thofe who refufed to act in 
defence of their country in times of extremity; 
(Horn. II. Lv. 384. Iliad $. 391.) Tyrants, who 
were pronounced enemies to their country; (Plutarch, 
lib. deHom. Horn. Odyff.y. i^. Paufan. Corinth.) 
perfons guilty of fuicide ; (Art/lot. Ethic. Nicomac. 
lib. 5. cap. 2. Pkilqftr. Heroic. Herodot. Call. cap. 
70.) (although on fome occafions, it feems to have 
been confidered as the effect of a laudable courage, 
to put a period to their lives,) (Plato de Leg. lib. 9.) 
and perfons guilty of faerilege, were threatened with 
this punifhment ; (Diodcr. Sicul. lib. 16. cap. 6, 
Paufan. Lacon.) Perfons, killed by lightning, 
were buried apart by themfelves, being thought 
hateful to the gods ; (Euripid.) or in the place 
where they died; (Artemidor.lib. 2. cap. 8.) Some 
fay, they had no interment, but were fuffered to rot 
in the pkcc where they fell, which was hedged in 
9 to 


to prevent others from contrading pollution from 
it ; (Perjius. Sat. 2. ^.27.) as were all places which 
had been flruck with thunder ; (Plutarch. Pyrrh.) 
Thofe who wafted their patrimony were denied the 
right of being buried in the fepulchre of their fathers; 
(Diogen. Laert. Democrit.) The bodies of thofe 
who died in debt belonged to their creditors, and 
were refufed burial, till fatisfaction was made. Some 
criminals who fuffered capital punifhment were de- 
prived of burial j thofe who died upon the crofs or 
were impaled, were allowed frequently to be de- 
voured by birds or beads of prey ; (Horat. lib. i . 
Ep. 1 6. Juvenal. Sat. 16. 77.) If the carcafe was 
fpared by the beafts, it commonly remained upon 
the crofs till it was put rifled i (Sil. ItaL lib. 13. 
Herodot. Thai Cicer. Tufa. gjuxft. lib. i.) Jn fome 
places it was ufual to inter the bodies of infants who 
had no teeth, without confuming them to afhes ; 
(Plin. Nat. Hift.lib. 7. JuvenaL Sat. 15. 139.) 
If thofe who had urred public hatred had ob- 
tained the rites of burial, it was ufual to leap upon 
their tombs, and to caft ftones at them, in token of 
their abhorrence; (Euripid. Ekttr.) They fre- 
quently dragged facrilegious perfons from their 
graves, after they had been decently interred; (Pin- 
tarch* de Ser. Numin. VindiR.) Traitors, who had 
been buried, were again taken from their tombs ; 
(Lycurg. Oral, in Leocr.) and the bones of tyrants 
feldom refted in the grave; (Plutarch. Dime. 
Diogen. Laert. Pcriand. Euripid. Med. 1378.) 


When any one was feized with a dangerous dif- 
order, branches of rhamn and laurel were fixed over 

A A a his 


his door; (Laerf. in Vtt. Bion.) The branch of 
rhamn lecmsto have been defigned to keep off evil 
fpirits; that of laurel was to render the god of phyfic 
propitious, Thefe boughs were called UVTWKS. 
Ail fudden deaths of men were imputed to Apollo; 
(Horn. Iliad . 757.) The fudden death of women 
was attributed to Diana ; (Horn. II. . 205. //. r. 
59. Odyf. o. 406. Odyjf. X. 1 70.) Apollo was 
taken for the fun, and Diana for the moon, which 
were believed to have a great influence on human 
life; (Euftath. Horn. II. . 205. and II. r. 59.) 
Dead perfons were fuppofed to be under the jurif- 
diclion of the infernal deities ; no one could refign 
his life therefore till fome of his hairs were cut off, 
to conlecrate him to them ; (Euripid. Alt eft. 74. 
Macrob. Saturn, lib. 5. cap. 19. Virgil. Mn. 4. 
694. Horat. \. 28. 20. Mart. iii. 43.) When they 
perceived the pangs of death coming upon them, 
they prayed to Mercury; whofe office it was to con- 
vey the ghofts to the (hades below, (Vahr. Max. lib. 
2. cap. 6. Horn. Odvff. . i. Virg. jEn. 4. 242. 
Hor. L Qd. 10. v. 17. and Od. 24. v. 18.) Thefc 
prayers were termed ifyrngM iu^* ; (Etym. AuR.) 
Their friends perceiving them about to die, attended 
their death-bed, to catch their dying words, which 
they never repeated without reverence ; (Horn. II. u. 
743.) and kilfed them, at taking their laft farewell, 
endeavouring to receive the laft breath in their 
mouth ; believing their fouls to expire with them, 
and enter into their bodies ; (Euripid. Herac. 600. 
Euripid. Ale eft. 403. Horn. II. u. 743. JEn. 
4. 685.) At the time of their death, it was ufual 
to beat brazen kettles, by which they thought 
to drive away evilfpirits; (Theocrit. Schol. Idyll. 2. 

v. 36.) 


v. 36.) that they might not be hurried away by the 
furies to the place of torment ; (Virgil. Mn. 6. 540.) 
To die was, literally, bvwxuv, and &7ro$w<rxt w - 9 but 
to avoid the gloomy ideas which thefe words convey- 
ed, they ufed words of gentler import : a7roymo-(tat ; 
fometimes tzirtgwrQxi, (Heliodor. Ethiop. 8. p. 400. 
JElian. Far. Hift. ii. 25.) otp^trOa*, to depart, (Eu- 
fiath. II. x. Eurip. Alcefl. 3 16. Horn. Odyff. 3. 1 44. 
Laert. 111.83. Horat.Od. 1.24. v. 5. ALneid. 10. 
12. 309.) xexjurjxc and xa/xoj/T?; (Horn. II. y. 
l A.) su<Fis to Heep ; (MfckyL Eumen. 708.) 
(Callim. Epigr. x. 2.J %>uxwx\ ; (Plu- 
tarch. in Cicer.) vraQziv n -, (Horn. II. <p. 274. Odyff. 
A. 820. Herod, v. 7. i.J The place ot burial was 
called xoi/*wT]ia. and 


As foon as any one had expired, his eyes were 
clofedj which was termed JcaOa^et?, ffwotfporriiif 
? $)9aA^f or ra flxttpotga,, &c. j hence, 
was ufed for OWXHK ; (Euripid. Hecub.$6%. 430. 
//. A. 453, 425. 0^)^! o>. 295. Eurip. Ph#. 
1 400.) It was a great fatisfaclion to dying perfons to 
depart in a decent poflure; (Sueton. in Aitgufl. 99.) 
They ufually clofed the mouth of the dead perfon ; 
(Horn. Odyff. x.v. 425.) and then covered his face ; 
( Euripid. Hippolyt. 1458.) It was coniidered a mis- 
fortune to want the lad attentions of their friends; 
(Sophocl. Eleftr.) Private funerals were conducted at 
the charge of their relations ; the expence of pub- 
lic funerals was defrayed from the public treafury. 

Before the body was cold, they ilretched the mem- 
bers out to their proper length ; which was called 
xTiviv or o^9ouv; (Euripid. HippoL 786. 1458.) The 
body was then walhed; (Euripid. Alcejl. 156.) which 

A A 3 office 


office was commonly performed by the female rela- 
tions of the deceafed ; (Plat. Ph<edon.) At fome 
places there were veflels in the temple applied to 
this ufe ; (Afconius de Divinat.) The body was 
next anointed (Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 13. cap. i.) with 
oil, (Horn. 11. 9. 350.) or ointment; (Athene. 
bsiTrvuffoQ. lib. 15.) Slaves only were forbidden to 
perfume themfelves with ointment ; (Plutarch. 
Solon.) After the body was warned and anointed, 
it was wrapped in a garment ; (Apul. Florid, i. 
Virgil. JEn. 6. 218.) The body was then adorned 
\vith a rich and fplendid garment } (Laertius Socrat. 
Milan. Far. Hift. lib- I. cap. 16. Plutarch. Ly- 
Jandr. Euripid. Ale eft.) generally of a white colour^ 
(Horn. Iliad '. 352.) Hence it was reckoned an 
inaufpicious omen for a fick perfon to have white 
apparel; (Artemidor. Oneir. lib. 2. cap. 3.) This 
colour feems to have been ufed to denote the inno- 
cence of the dead ; (Plutarch, Qutft. Rom.) This 
garment was frequently prepared by themfelves, or 
their friends, before they died ; (Horn. Odyff. (3. 95. 
* Virgil. &n. 9. 486.) It was ufual in Sparta, for 
perfons of eminent valour only to be buried in a red 
coat, (ALlian. Var. Hift. lib. 5. cap. n.) and all 
ointment or coftly perfume was prohibited. The 
dead body was decked with a chaplet of flowers and 
green boughs ; (Eiiripid. Tread. \ 143.) efpecially 
if the perfon died in a foreign country, and his 
remains were brought home in urns, to be honoured 
with the ufual ceremonial folemnities ; (Plutarch. 
Demetr. Plutarch. Philop^m.) This ceremony 
was perhaps taken from the games in which the 
conquerors were rewarded with crowns of leaves, in- 
dicating that the dead had finifhed their courfe; (Sui- 



das.) or to exprefs the pleafurcs they were to enjoy 
after this life ; (Clem. Alexandr. Strom, lib. 2. cap.%.) 
They now laid out the dead body ; fometirnes they 
placed it upon the ground, fometirnes upon a bier, 
called AixT ov> pT(cv, or QtgtTfov, which they adorned 
with various forts of flowers ; which office was alfo 
performed by their near relations ; (Lyfias. Or At. 
de Cad. Erat. Dio. lib. 58.) They laid them 
out near the entrance of the houfe ; which being 
fometimes called Tr^vwTnov, dead men were fome- 
tirnes called Tr^oi/omK ; (Euripid. Alceflid.) This 
was done that the body might be open to public 
infpedion, that it might be feen if any wound or 
violence was the occallon of the death ; (Pollux, 
lib. 8* cap. 7.) In this part of the ceremony, the 
feet were always turned towards the gate, (Perfius. 
Sat. 3. v. 103. Horn* Iliad, r. 214.) to lignify that 
they were never to return. Here the body was 
conftantly watched, left any violence, fhould be offer- 
ed to it ; (Horn. II. T. 214.) or left flies and vermin 
Ihould pollute it; (Horn. II. r. 23.) Before inter- 
ment, a piece of money was put into the mouth of 
the corpfe, which was thought to be the fare of 
Charon for wafting the foul over the infernal river. 
This was called yfcx(3Wa, (Suidas.) or &*/*?, (He- 
fychius.) $<x.\tci*.n or JayaxTi?, from Jai/of, a price ; or 
becauie it was given TCJ? c^oif, to dead men, from 
tarn, dry fticks. It was only a (ingle coAo?, or two 
oAot ; (Ariftoph. Ranis.) This ceremony was 
omitted in thole places which they fancied were 
fituated in the neighbourhood of the infernal re- 
gions ; (Etymol. A-uEl. v. favxw. Strabo. Geogr. 
lib. 8.) The mouth of the corpfe was alfo filled 
with a cake of flour, honey, 8cc. and hence called 

A A 4 jt*fXjTT8T 9 


; (Suidas.) which was defigned to appeafc 
the fury of Cerberus; (Virgil. ALn. 6. v. 417*) 
The ceremony of laying out and clothing the dead, 
and fometimes the interment, was called ffuyxouJu ; 
(Mfchyl. Schol.) hence is ufcd o-uyxop^w ; (Sophocl. 
Ajac* v. 1067.) During this time, the hair of the 
dead perfon was hung upon the door, to fignify that 
his friends were in mourning ; and till the corpfe 
was removed, a veifel of water flood before the 
door, called a^ai/w, (Snidas. Pollux, lib. 8. cap. 
7.) ugdotvia, yar^Gt, ; (Hefychius.) and from the mat- 
ter of which it was frequently compofed, or*oi/j 
(Ariftoph. ExxAuo-. Euripid. Alccjl. 69.) It was de- 
figned for thofe who had attended the corpfe, that 
they might purify themfelvesby warning, which was 
called As<r0aj O.TCO **. They thought themfelves 
polluted by the touching of a dead body ; (Euripid. 
Hippol.) Nor was the houfe, where the corpfe lay, 
deemed free from pollution ; (Euripid. Helen. 1446, 
~Ph<fn. 1626. Schol. Arijloph. Lyjifl. 612.} 


The term ufecl for carrying the corpfe forth is two- 
pih and sxpo^a ; (theocrit. Idyll. 15. 132. Demoftlt, 
Mac. &lian. 8.4.^ It is faid bodies were ufually 
kept feventeendays and nights before they were inter- 
red j (Horn. Odyff. ^.63.^ Some fay, the time of burn- 
ing the body was on the eighth day after -death, the 
time of bury ing, on the ninth; (Servius > ^En.^.) The 
ancient burials feem to have been upon the third or 
fourth day after the death 3 (Argonaut, lib. 2 ,) fome- 
times on the day following \t'>(Callimach. Laertius, 
Fit. Pherec.) The ceremony was performed in the 
day : the night was deemed improper, on account of 
5 the 


the evil fpirits which were at that time fuppofed to 
venture abroad; (Euripid.Troad.^6.) Young men 
only were buried in the morning twilight, becaufe 
the death of a young perfon was thought a dreadful 
calamity, and too impious to reveal it in the face of 
day. It was ufual to carry torches at the burials, 
though performed in the day ; hence the term im 
rw oaftx, T j3*a, when men are faid to advance to the 
torch of their life -, (Plutarch, lib. an Sen, Capeff. Sit. 
Rtfp.) The Athenians only celebrated their funerals 
before fun-rife ; (Cicer. de Leg. lib. 2. Demoflh. 
Qrat.inMacart.) The bearers carried the corpfe upon 
their moulders; (Euripid.Akefi. 60 7,) The body was 
fometimes placed upon a bier; inftead of which, the 
Spartans frequently ufed their bucklers ; (Virg. Mn. 
10, $06.} The ancient Grecians feem to have car- 
ried the dead bodies to the grave without fupport ; 
(Euftath. in Iliad. ty.Euripid. Rhes. 886 J 

The friends and relations ufually attended the 
funerals, and fometimes others who were invited ; 
although, to prevent confufion and expence, at 
fome places, none but relations were allowed to 
attend. Women, who were not relations, under 
threefcore years of age were not allowed to attend ; 
(Lyfias.Orat.proEratoft.) but feemed to follow in a 
body by themfelves 3 (Cerent. Andr.) They fome- 
times put on mourning ; yet the funerals of illuftri- 
ous men were often celebrated with expreflions of 
joy and feftive folemnities ; (Pint arch, in TimoJ. 
Plutarch. Arat.) When the body was conveyed 
out of the houfe, they took their laft farewell, fa- 
luting it, and uttering a certain form of words $ 
(Eurip.Alceft. 608 .) The proceffion was ufually on 
horieback or on carnages - 3 but upon peculiar oc- 
cafions of rcfpeft, on foot ; (Diogen.Laeri Tbeophr.) 



The relations followed next the corpfe ; the reft 
walked fome diflance off: fometimes the men went 
before it with uncovered heads, the women follow- 
ing it. Patroclus was carried, furrounded by fol- 
diers j (Horn. Iliad \|/.j The ufual way was for the 
body to go firft, the mourners to follow ; (Terent. 
Andr.) by which cuftom they were reminded of 
their own mortality; (Donatus. in Ter. Andr. 
Alex. ab. Alex. lib. 3. cap. 8 .) At the funerals of 
magiftrates, as well as of foldiers, their enligns of 
honour were inverted. To perform this ceremony 
they called wrtpirsiv, TrafonrfpTrtw and 
(Euripid. Tread. 446.) 


The Greeks ufually expreffed their forrow by ab- 
ftaining from banquets and feflivals, by baniming 
from their houfes all mufical inftruments, and, as 
much as pofTible,abfenting themfelves from places of 
gaiety and mirth ; (Euripid. Alcejl. 343. Horn. Odvjf. 
A. 1 01.) They avoided fociety and converfation, and 
frequented dark and folitary places, which they 
thought bore fome refemblance to their misfortunes ; 
(Plutarch. ConfoL ad Ux.) hence it was deemed an 
omen of death for any one to dream that a fire was 
cxtinguiihed during the ficknefs of any in the fame 
family; (Artemidor.tib. ^. cap. y.) They laid afide 
their jewels, and whatever was coftly and ornamental 
in their apparel; (Lycophr. CaJ}\ v. 859.^ This 
cuftom alfo prevailed at the time of any great 
calamity ; (Euripid. Troad. 2 $6.) Their mourning 
garments were always black; (Ovid. Met. 6. Fab. 
%.Met. 8. Fab. 4. Plutarch, in^ rn s&vr. 
Eurip. HeL 1094. Alceft. 215. 427.^ and of 

a coarfe 


a coarfe and cheap tia& 2.fc. $.) 
They were accuflomed to tear, cut off,andfometimes 
to (have their hair ; (Euripid. Or eft. Horn. Odyjf. f, 
197. w. 45. Herod.ii. JElian. 7. 8. ) which was 
ufually thrown upon the dead body, as a mark of af- 
fedion ; (Homer. II. ty. 135. Stat. Theb. 6.} or to 
caft it into the funeral pile, to be confumed with the 
body ; (Horn. Iliad $.) It was fometimes laid upon 
the grave; (XjchyL'^fii^.) Upon the death of men 
of eminence and valour, it was not unufual for whole 
cities and countries to be fhaved. This ceremony 
was obierved, becaufe, as long hair was confidered 
as very becoming, they might appear carelefs and 
negligent of their beauty, and to render the ghoft 
of the dead perfon propitious, by throwing the hair, 
together with the body, into the fire. In times of 
public mourning they extended this cuftom even to 
their beads; (Euripid. Alceft. *u. 428. Plutarch. 
Pelopid. Plutarch. Ariftid.) the battlements were 
removed from the walls of the city, that even towns 
might feem to mourn ; (Plutarch. Pelopid.) The 
practice of (having the head was at fome times a fign 
of joy, as when mariners (haved upon their deliver- 
ance from (hipwreck ; (Juven. Sat. 12. 8 a. Arte- 
mid. lib. i. cap. 23. Plin. Epifl. Lycophr. Caff. 
973-} ^ is a lf feid* tnat tne pradlice of (having 
was obferved only by the women, and that the men 
let their hair grow ; (Plutarch. Rom. Quxft.) on 
the contrary, it feems the moft prevailing cuftom 
for women to wear long hair, as a token of forrow, 
and for the men to cut it off; (Ovid. Ariadn. Thef. 
Terent. Hautont. afl.~2. fc. 3 J This difference 
may be reconciled, by confidcring the manner in 
which they were fhaved, whether by themfelves or 



others, (Artemidor. lib. i. cap. 23. ) and the peculiar 
cuftom of different nations; (Herodot. lib. i. cap. 
82. Plutarch. Lyfand. Alex, ab Alex. Gen. Dier. 
lib. 5.) Perfons in affliction fometimes exprelfed 
their grief by rolling their bodies in the duft ; (Ovid. 
Met. lib. 8. v. 528. Homer Iliad . 637.) or by 
covering their head with afhes; (Homer Iliad v. 
v. 23.) When they went abroad, they muffled 
their heads; (Anthol. lib. 5. cap. 23. Euripid. 
Supplic. 110.) They fometimes leaned their head 
upon their hands, as a token of forrow ; (Euripid. 
Helen. 377.) and moved along with a flow and lan- 
guid pace. They beat their breads and thighs, 
and tore their flefh with their nails ; which was a 
practice more ufual among women, (Noun. Dionys. 
lib. 9. 1 8. Virgil, JEn. 4. 63 7.) and was afterwards 
forbidden ; (Plutarch. Solon. Cicero de Legib.) 
The Spartans bore the death of their relations with 
great moderation, but bewailed the lofs of great 
men with tearing their flefh with pins and needles ; 
(Servius in Virg. Mn* 3.) They folemnly curfed, 
and accufed their gods; (Statius Sylv. lib. 5. 
tfheb. 3.) infomuch that they fometimes pulled 
down their altars, and facked their temples ; ( Eu- 
ripid. J They fometimes muttered the interjection 
i, c, *; hence, it is faid, funeral lamentations were 
called lAsyot, elegies ; (Schol. in Ariftoph. Androm. 
JEfchyl. 77/^.323.^ When any public magiflrate 
or perfon of eminence died, the fchools of exercife, 
the baths, (hops, temples, and places of entertain- 
ment were (hut, and all public meetings fufpended ; 
(Diogen. Laert. Socrat.) 

Mourners and muficians were employed to add 
to the Iblemnity, who were called O^vccv ify^xs ; 



(Homer.) becaufe they tried to excite forrow, by 
beating their breads and counterfeiting grief. They 
were alfo called aotJc*, Tr^offWoj, &JG. from the fongs 
they fung at funerals. One fong feems to have 
been fung in the proceffion, another at the funeral 

pile, and a third at the grave ; which were called 

j / ~ 

cAo0t'0^,oj Xii/oi, and aX;voi y lometimes I&XEMOI, troin 

lalemus, fon of Clio, and the firft author of thefe 
fongs. They were alfo called rax^o;, hence ruXs- 
fAirat is a name for mourning women. They were 
chiefly mean and inelegant compofitions : (Suidas. 
Plant. Afin. Eurip. Supp. iSi.Troad. 600.) 

Mufical inftruments feem to have been ufed to 
excite forrow ; for which reafon the AV^*, a cheerful 
inftrument, was never ufed at thefe folemnities; 
(Euripid. Alceft.^Q.^) The auXo*, a kind of Phry- 
gian flute, was commonly ufed at thefe times; 
(Statins ^heb. lib. 6. v. 120.) as well as the Carian 
flute ; hence the muficians and mourners were called 
x*ivo, (Hefyckius.) and the funeral fong xa^xn 
/uao-a; (Pollux, lib. 3.) The Myfian, (JLfchyl. 
SchoL Perf.) and Lydian flutes were alfo ufed as 
inftruments of forrow ; (Plutarch. Lucian de Lttflu. 
Eurip. Tread. 126. SchoL Arifioph. Av. 


It feems to have been the pradice of the moft 
early ages (Cicer. de Leg. lib. 2. Schol. Horn. II. .) 
in Greece, to inter their dead ; that of burning them 
was afterwards introduced, and, as fome fay, by 
Hercules. It is certain that the cuftom of burning 
was in ufe in the Trojan war; (Lucian. Plat. 
Phxd. Euftath. II. .) The reafons affigned for it 



are, becaufe bodies were confidered polluted after 
the foul's departure ; (Ruripid.) or that the foul 
being ieparated from the grofs matter, might take 
its flight to the heavenly manfions - 9 (Euflath. in IL 
a. Quintil. Declam. 10. Lycophr. Caff, 44.) The 
piles, on which dead bodies were burned, were 
called 7TUai. The body was placed upon the top 
of the pile , if, of a perfon of eminence, many ani- 
mals, fometimes many flaves or captives, were con- 
fumed with him, together with a quantity of pre- 
cious ointments and perfumes ; (Horn. II. i}>. 1 66.) 
The body was fometimes covered with the fat of 
beads, that it might be fpeedily reduced to ames ; 
(Euftath. in II. ty. 166.) Where many bodies were 
to be burnt on the fame pile, they were fo placed, 
that thofe of moid conftitutions, proportioned to 
thofeof a contrary temperament, mould increafe the 
force of the flames; (Plutarch. Symp. lib. 3. Quaft. 
^.-Macrob. Sat. lib. 7. tap. 7.) infomuch that for 
ten men it was ufual to put in one woman. Soldiers 
ufually were burnt together with their arms ; (Horn. 
Odyff. A. 74.) The garments they had worn were 
alfo thrown upon the pile. The Athenians indeed 
became fo profufe in their liberality to the dead, 
that they were afterwards reilrained from burying 
with their bodies more than one red garment, or a 
few branches of olive; (Plutarch. Lycurg.) and 
thefe only were allowed to a perfon of eminence. 
Solon allowed three garments and one ox ; (Plu- 
tarch. Solon.) At Cheronaea, triofe who were lavifh 
at funerals, were punimed for effeminacy by the 
cenfors of women ; (Plutarch. Solon.) The pile 
was fet on fire by fome of the neareft relations, who 
prayed and offered vows to the winds to aflift the 



flames, that the body might be quickly confumed ; 
(Horn. Iliad \f/. 194.) At the funerals of high 
commanders, the foldiers and attendants made a 
folemn proceflion three times round the pile, to 
exprefs their refpect to the dead ; (Horn. IL vj/.) 
This was called irf^opi; (Statins Theb. 6. v. 213.) 
in this motion, they turned to the left hand, as ex- 
preflive of forrow ; (Stat. Theb. 6. 221.) Thefe 
motions were accompanied with fhouts and found 
of trumpet, (Valer. Place. Argon, lib. 3.) while the 
pile was burning; (Virg. jEn. n. 188.) The 
friends of the dead perfon flood by the pile, while it 
was burning, pouring forth libations of wine, and 
calling upon the deceafed \ (Horn. IL \J/.) When 
the pile was burnt down, and the flames had ceafed, 
they extinguifhed with wine the remains of the 
fire, and collected the bones and afiVs -> (Horn. IL 
v. 791.) which office was alfo performed by the 
relations ; (Hnt8us.) The bones were fometimes 
warned with wine and anointed with oil ; (Homer 
Odyff. . 7 1 .) and fometimes inclofed in fat ; (Horn. 
IL fy. 252.) It was ufual to place the body in the 
middle of the pile, and the bodies of the men and 
beails burnt with it were placed on the fides, that 
the bones might be eafily diftinguifhed ; (Hom.lL \}/.) 
The bones being thus diftinguifhed, they gathered 
the afhes which lay clofe to them ; which were dc- 
pofited in urns, called xaX-Trai, piaAai, x^w<r<rot, Aafl- 
txf,aju,(pi^o^a,croO>ixt,oroJ ( o^iia,&c. The urns were 
made of filver, gold, wood, ftone or earth, according 
to the condition of the dead perfon. The urns of 
people of rank were frequently adorned with flowers 
and garlands; fometimes they were covered with 
cloths, till they were depofited in the earth ; (Horn. 



//. . //. 4*.) The bodies lay in the urns, whert 
they were interred, with their faces upwards ; and 
the heads were fo placed as to look towards the 
rifing fun; (Thucyd. Schol.) The Megarenfians, 
it is faid, placed their dead towards the eaft, but 
the reft of Greece towards the weft ; (Plutarch. 
Solon. Milan. Var.Eift. lib. 7. cap. 19.) At Me- 
gara, it was the cuftom to bury three or four bodies 
in the fame fepulchre ; but at Athens, only one ; 
(Plutarch. Solon.) except in inftances of near rela- 
tionfhip; (Agath. Epigr. Ovid. Met. 4. 154. > 
Euripid. Alctfi. 365. Horn. II. ij/. Horn. Odyff.v. 
76. Ovid. Met. lib. n.v. 702. //. w. 795.) 


The early Greeks buried in places prepared 
for the purpofe in their own houfes; (Plat. 
Min.) The Thebans had a law to enjoin every 
one to provide a repoiitory for their dead in their 
own houfes. It was a common practice to bury 
within the moft public and frequented places of 
their cities; (Plutarch. T/iem. Xenoph. EAA^*. lib* 
7. Pindar. Schol.) Honours were fometimespaid, 
and tombs eredted to the dead, in temples - t (Plu+ 
tar eh, Arifiid.) as a high mark of public efteem* 
(Euripid. Med. 1378.) In later times they buried 
their dead without their cities, and chiefly by the 
highways. The Spartans were allowed to bury 
within the city, as it mould feem, to reftrain that 
fuperftition which was common among them, of 
being afraid of feeing or touching a dead perfon \ 
(Plutarch. Lycurg.) Every family had its peculiar 
place of interment, to be deprived of which was re- 



puted the greateft calamity ; (Jttjlin. lib. 3 .) There 
Was a law therefore to deprive thofe of the fepulchre 
of their fathers, who had wafted their inheritance ; 
(Laertius Democr.) 

The cdmmon graves in the earlieft ages of Greece 
we're caverns dug in the earth, called wroyatu; (Honi. 
//. w.797.) thofe of later times were paved with ftone, 
and arched over, arid adorned with as much art as 
their houfes; and it was not unufual for mourners to 
aflemblein thefe vaults to bewail the lofs of their re- 
lations; (Petron* Arbit.) Kings and men of high rank 
were ufualiy buried at the feet of mountains ;(Servws 
in &n. i i.Aurel. de Grig. Gent. Rom. Virg. /En. 
n.) Hence appears the cuftom of railing a mount 
upon the graves of perfons of high rank ; (Lucan. 
lib. 8.) which fometimes confided of ftone; (Euripid. 
HlppoL) fometimes of earth; which was called y^^y. > 
(Euripid* Htciib. 221. J fometimes ^ftvc-j/^a, (Horn* 
II. w. 80 1. //. $>.) %wn>u<r0ai rottpov, ( Anthol.EpigrJib* 
4.) oyKurix.1, vif/too-a*, &c. (Euripid. AnthoL lib. 3. g 
Trot.) and laid together with much care and art ; (Rom* 
II. 4>.) The ancient Mm/una, confifted of the grave 
or tomb, called alfo o-7ryjxiov, TU^C?, &c. 5 and of 
the ground furrounding the grave, which was fenced 
about with pales or walls, ufualiy open at the top, 
and therefore fometimes called mr*fyt)^ it was alfb 
called ysurov, D^iyxo?, in^icikwjU^ (Payfanias.) xgyn-if, 
rxMru, &c. Tombs of ftone were polimed with 
greater art; (Euripid. Alceft. 836. Euripid. Helen. 
992.) and anciently adorned with pillars of ftone ; 
(Lycopkr. Caff. 557. Theocrit. Diofcur.) called 
faov TreTfov, Kyot.\p at^ao ; (Pindar- Ntm Oaf. IO. 
Euripid. Alceft. 836. Hel. 992.) The pillars 
of ftone were called rjAi, containing frequently 
infcriptions in verfe of the family, virtues and fer- 

B a vices 


vices of the dead ; (Horn. II. x. 37 1 ^ 434. Pin- 
dar. Nem.Od. 10.) The Sicyonians had no infcrip- 
tions ; (Paufan. Corinth.) and the Spartans were 
only allowed to infcribe the names of thofe who 
died in war, or of women who died in childbed - 9 
(Plutarch. Lycurg.) Sometimes the infcription 
contained fome moral aphorifrn , or, when there was 
no infcription, the effigies of the dead man, or 
fome emblem of his character was added ; fdc. Tufr. 
Qiitejt. v. 23. Diod. 78.) Virgins had 
commonly the image of a maid with a velTel of 
water upon their tombs; (Pollux, lib. S.cap.j.) 
alluding to a cuftom of carrying water to the fepul- 
chres of unmarried maids. There were alfo various 
emblematical figures according to particular cha- 
racters; (Antipat. Epigr. in Lyjid.) Upon the tomb 
of Diogenes a dog was engraven, to denote the tem- 
per of his feet j the tomb of Ifocrates was adorned 
with the image of a fyrenj that of Archimedes 
with a fphere and cylinder. 

Sometimes they fixed upon the graves the in- 
ftruments which the dead had ufed -, as, the weapons 
offoldiers, the oars of mariners, and the tools of 
artifts; (Homer Odyff. A'. 75. Mneid. 4.) Hence 
their graves were called <rnjw,aT, jtxvn/xfKx, /uvn^ara, 
&c, (Horn. Odyff. w. 36. Theophr. Char. c. 14. 
Cattim. Epig. 18. 4. ArifiopL Eccks. 1 100. Thef- 
moph. 893.) To reftrain the excefs to which the 
ornaments of their tombs had been carried, it was 
ordered by Solon that no flatues of Mercury, or 
arched roofs fhould be made to them ; and that 
they mould not be greater than ten men could 
erect in three days. There was alfo another law, 
that not more than one pillar, not exceeding three 
cubits in height, mould be placed upon any monu- 
ment 5 


ment ; (Ctcer* de Legib. lib. 2.) It was ufual for 
their friends to pray that the earth might lie light 
upon them ; and for their enemies to pray that it 
might lie heavy upon them ; (Euripid. Alceft. 462* 
- Euripid. Helen. Ztf. Senec. Hippol. Fine. An- 
ihol. lib. 2. i? TTOV. Martial, lib. 9. Epit. Philan.) 

There were other honorary monuments erected to 
the dead, not containing their remains, and hence 
called Moravia, xi, cenotaphs ; (Virg. jEn. 3. 
304. 6. tp$.Odyff. *. zyi. Odyf. t. 584- 
Eurip. He/. 1255.) They were either erected to 
thofe whofe funeral rites had been performed ia 
another place; (Paufan. Attic, Meflenic. E/iac.G. 
Exotic*) or to thofe who had never obtained a 
proper funeral ; as, when any one had perifhed by 
fea, they erected a fepulchre, and repeated three 
times with a loud voice the name of the dead, to 
call his ghoft to the habitation prepared for it, which 
cuilom was called xj^aywyia. This practice was 
very ancient; (Pindar. Pythion. Od. 4. Mn. 6. 
O . Aufonius Prof at. Parent. Horn. Odyff. a. 64.) 
The fign by which honorary fepulchres were diftin- 
guifhed was commonly by ixf toy, a wreck of a (liip, 
fignifying that the perfon died in fome foreign 
country. To deface or damage a fepulchre, was 
efteemed a crime no lefs than facrilege, and thought 
to entail ruin upon all who committed it ; (fheocrit^ 
Idyll, xg. 207.) 


An oration was ufually made at the fepulchre in 
honour of the dead ^vt{w,(Lucian.deLuRu.) Thofe 
who died in war had an oration pronounced by a per- 
fon appointed by the public magiftrate,and which was 
an annual ceremony; (Cicer. deOrat.) It was thought 

i B a a great 


a great addition to the happinefs of the deSd to be 
highly commended in an eloquent oration ; (Plin. 
Ep. lib. 2.) Funeral games were frequently in- 
ftituted in honour of remarkable perfons ; (Herodo- 
tus. fhucydides, %. Plutarch. Timot. Horn. II. fy. 
274. OdyJJ. w. 85. Dionys. Halicar. lib. 5. Pau- 
fan. Arcadic.) The garlands given to vidors at thefe 
games were chiefly of parfley, which was thought 
to have fome peculiar relation to the dead. It was 
commonly believed that dead bodies polluted what- 
ever approached them ; hence arofe the cuftom of 
purifying after funerals; (Virg. ALn. lib. 6.) Till 
he was purified, the polluted perfon could not enter 
into the temples, nor communicate at the wormip 
of the gods; (Euripid. Jphig. Taur. 380. Sittdas* 
v. xaraActm. Ariftoph. SchoL Nub.) It was alfo 
unlawful for thofe to enter into the temples, who 
were called vrigoTrorpoi or JEvrsgoTrorfwi, (Hefychius.) 
alfo for thofe who were thought dead, but, after their 
funeral rites, recovered ; and for thofe who were re- 
puted to be dead in fome foreign country, and unex- 
pectedly returned ; (Hefychius.} They underwent, ia 
this purification, all the forms and cuftoms which 
were ufed to a new-born child, they were warned and 
wrapped in clothes ; (Plutarch. Qu#ft. Rom.) The 
houfe was alfo purified ; (Horn. OdyJJ] x. 48 1 . 
492.) The Spartans defpifed fuch fuperflitious 
follies ; (Plutarch. Lycurg.) 

When the funeral was finifhed, they retired to the 
houfe of the neareit relations of the dead, where an 
entertainment was provided, (Demoftk. Orat. dc 
Coron. Lucian. Dial, de LuR.) which was called 
arf^iiTTvov, *xfo<$i7rm, rapoj. 'This ceremony was 
omitted at the funerals of flaves ; (Cicer. de Leg. 
tib. 2.) This was an, ancient cuflgm 5 (Horn. 



Iliad .//. x- 28. //. $.Ody/. y. ^.Hejiod. 

E r- 735-) 

Sometimes the entertainment preceded the fu- 
neral , (#0/0. //. ty. 28.) The fragments which 
fell from the tables were confidered facred to the 
departed fouls, and not lawful to be eaten ; ( Athe* 
n#. ATVOO>P. //. iQ.-t-Diog. Laert. 8. 34. "TibulL 
i.. 6. v. ij.l'er. Run. acl. %.fc. 2.) Thefe crumbs 
were carried to the tomb, and there left for the 
ghofts to eat. Thefe entertainments confifled of 
flefh, and all forts of pulfe, (Plutarch. Problem.) 
beans, peas, lettuces, eggs, parfley, &c. They 
chiefly converfed at them upon the merits and qua- 
lities of the dead perfon ; (Cicer. de. Leg. z. 25.) 

At Argos, it was ufual to facrifice to Apollo, im- 
mediately after mourning ; and thirty days after, to 
Mercury. They gave the barley of the facrifice to 
the prieft of Apollo ; the flefli they took them- 
felves ; and having extinguifhed the fire of the 
facrifice, which they thought polluted, they kindled 
another, on which they boiled the flefh, calling it 
yxi/i<r/*a, (Plutarch. Grac. httfft.) from the fumes 
which afcended from the burnt facrifice, and which 
were called jm<r<ra. 

They ufually ornamented the tomb with herbs 
and flowers, efpecially with parflcy ; hence &to-0f 
rsAtj/8, .to fignify that a difeafe was defperate ; ( Plu- 
tarch. Timol.) purple and white flowers were accept- 
able to the dead, as amaranthusj (Philqftrat. Heroic. 
19.) Trotaf AEUXOC, (Theophr. lib. 6. 4 /u X t X ajI/ ' ) or tne 
jeflamine, with lilies, and other flowers ; (Virg. Mn. 
^5.79. ^.6.883.) The rofe was peculiarly grate- 
ful, (Anacreon. Qd. 53 .) as well as the myrtle; (Eu- 
ripid.Sophocl. Eleftr. 886.) Thefe were ufually 
called ^Tf, (P/iavorin.) from the expreflion of 

* B love 


love and refpect to the dead perfon ; or from 
becaufe they were ufually compofed of a colle&ion 
of various forts of flowers ; or from ^, becauls 
they were laid upon the earth. Garlands were 
however fometimes made of one fort of flowers, and 
frequently hung upon the pillars of the tomb. 
Garlands, (Frontimts, lib. i. cap. 2.) and the hair of 
the mourners were frequently laid upon graves; (So- 
f hod. Eleftr. Ovid. Epift. Canac. adMacart.) The 
grave-ftones were ufually perfumed with fweet oint- 
ments; ( Anacreon.) It was a practice alfo to run naked 
about {vpulcfotSifPluiarch.Alexandr.) Lamps were> 
fometimes burned in caverns ; (Petron. c. 1 1 1.) 

The victims of the facriflces to the dead, were 
black and barren heifers, or black fheep, (Horn. Odyjf. 
A. 29. Eurip. E/eftr. 513. Senec. CEdipod. 556.- 
JEn. 5. 97. 6. 243. Odyjf. x. 522.) which they 
ufually facrificed in cavities of the earth. The firft 
thing they offered was the hair upon the forehead of 
the victim, hence called 7ra^i, and to offer it 
wf^(r9* ; (Plom. Qdyjf. y. 445. Iliad. . 422. 
Eurip. Oreft. 96. ) Their common offerings were liba- 
tions of blood, honey, milk, water, &<:.,( SophocLEl* 
436. JEn. 5. 77. Eurip. Oreft. 115.) The Athe- 
nians were forbidden wxyifriv fixv, to offer an ox on 
this occafion ; (Ptytarch. Solon.) They ufually 
fprinkled barley flour upcn thefacriflce;f//(9w. Odyjf. 
X. 26.) Honey was feldom omitted, being conlidered 
as Oavaris <ru//,eoAfl^, a fymbol of death ; (Porphyr. in 
Antr. Nymph. Eurip. Iphig. in Taitr. 165. 633.) 
Hence the ghofts of the dead were called ^ 
the infernal gods/ufiAi^ioi, and their oblations 
p^ra. Thefe libations were intended to render the 
ghofts propitious, and called ^oat u^umi^ioi or ^AXTJJ- 
ioi i (Eiiripid. Iphi?. faur.. 159. Elettr. 509.) 



They were fometimes offered upon altars, which 
were ufually placed near the ancient fepulchres, 
with tables for their feafts at the (acrifices : fome- 
times they were poured upon the ground or grave- 
ftone, and offered to the deceafed in a certain form 
of words; (Euripid. Oreft. 112.) The water ufed 
upon thefe occaiions was called Aar^ov, ^fitwov AOUT^OV, 
and 7rw*ji*^a; (Eujlath. in Qdyjf. <x,.Suidas. Sopk. 
Eteffr. 436. ) When perfons, who had been married, 
died, there was a cuftom for women to carry water to 
their graves, who were called jy^uT^rf . When a 
child died, the water was carried by a child; on that 
of a virgin by a virgin. Thofe who died in their in- 
fancy had no right to libations, or other funeral fo- 
lemnities ; (Plutarch. Confol. ad Ux.) Thefe honours 
were paid on the ninth and thirtieth days after burial; 
(Pollux, lib. 3. cap. 10.) and again repeated if any of 
the friends of the dead perfon had been abfent at 
the folemnity. To make thefe libations, was TU/A- 
Gsvreu y**s ', (Sophocl. Eleft. 408.) 

Some part of the month AvOfn^iw* feems to have 
been fet apart for thefe ceremonies in many places, 
(Athene. Ast^oc-op. lib. 8. Hefychius. v. M**i.) 
the days of which were called /xta^ai u^ai; and 
fometimes airo$g&hs, (Suidas.) becaufe they were 
accounted to be polluted by their dedication to 
thefe ceremonies ; at which time the ghofts were 
thought to enjoy the feafts of their friends ; (Lucian. 
7rKnco?r.) Upon thefe days they called over the 
names of their dead relations, except thofe who 
had died in old age, or who had wafted their in- 
heritance, or been guilty of other crimes. When 
their friends went into foreign countries, they called 
ever their names three times ; this was the practice 

B JB 4 before 


before their departure; (Horn. Odyjf. i v. 64. 

fheocrit. Idyll.y. v. 58.) 

They had anniverfary days in which they paid 
their devotions to the dead ? which were called 
Ne/Agc-ia, becaufe they were celebrated upon the 
feftival of Nemefis, who was thought a protector 
of the honours of the dead ; (SuiJas.) fometimes 
called alfo Qgaux, ; (Hefychhts. Phavorinus.) and 
Tws<ri<x, ; (Suidas.) meaning the anniverfary of his 
birth, which was celebrated after their death with 
the fame ceremonies ; (Suidas. Hefychius.) Thefe 
were called Ncto-a. 

They who were perfons of valour and rank above 
the common level, had ^wVxf rma;, the honours 
of heroes ; to receive which was called avit*irfaj t 

Or TLTEV%EVQll Tl[AM )f OiXWI', KToOf^V Or iO-oXu/XTrtWV. They 

who were diihnguifhed ftill more, : were reckoned 
among the gods, which was called OsoTrcua. When 
thcfe. honours were oifered by their nearefh relations, 
they were rnoil acceptable ; when by their enemies, 
they were rejected ; (Sophocl. Eleffr. <v. 432.) Thefe 
honours were called oo-f, ^x 5 (Art/lot, dz Y'iriut.) 
(Demqftk. Macart. p. 677.) 

The ancient Greeks paid great attention to boys, 
which practice was encouraged by the laws, to 
excite them to noble undertakings -, (Athena, lib. 
13.) Thofe boys in Crete who were patronized, 
were honoured with the firft feats at; public exer- 
eifes, and, as a badge of honour, wore a garment 
richly adorned; thefe boys were called JCASITCI, emi- 
nent; (Strabot lib. 10.) The patrons of them 
were called <P;AWTO^?. They always took their boys 
from their friends by force, giving them previous 
$ notice 


notice of their intention, who, according to ine 
rank or character of the patrons, ufed more or lefs 
refiftance. At firfl they were -entertained by their 
patrons with hunting, and other fimilar diver- 
Jions, before they returned home. At their de- 
parture, the law provided that they mould receive 
each a fait of armour, an ox, and a cup, to which 
the patron ufually added, out of his own bounty, 
other prefents of value. When the boys returned to 
their own home, they facrificed the ox to Jupiter, en* 
tertained thofe who accompanied them in their flight, 
and if they had been rudely treated by their patrons, 
the law allowed them fatisfaction ; (Strabo, lib. 10.) 
During the time they aflbpate'd together, nothing 
contrary to the ftrideft laws of virtue paiTed between, 
them ; (Maxim, Diff. 10. Strabp, lib. 10.) 

Among the Spartans, this pradice was carried 
to a higher pitch of noble generality, infomuch 
that whoever exceeded the flrict rule of modefty, 
the laws condemned him to difgrace ; by which he 
was deprived of almoft all the privileges of free 
denizens ; (Plutarch. Apofh. Xenoph de Rep. Laced. 
Plutarch. Inflit. Lacon.) The fame practice was 
allowed the women toward their own fex ; (PIu~ 
larch. Lycurg.) If the boy committed any offence, 
the patron fuffered the punilliment of it; (Milan. 
Var. Hi/I. lib. 13. Plutarch. Lycurg.) This at- 
tachment did not ceafe with youth, but generally 
through life ; (Plutarch. Cleom.) At Athens, this 
attachment to boys was efteerned fo honourable, as 
to be forbidden to flaves; (Plutarch. Solon.) The 
Thebans encouraged this practice, to regulate the 
difpofition of youth; (Plutarch. Peloptd.) The 
fevere laws enacted againft immodeft indulgencies, 
are a fuiiicient proof of the innocence of this cuflom; 



for the boys guilty of tranfgreffing them, were de- 
clared infamous, and rendered incapable of public 
employments, and the perfons who proflituted 
them were condemned to die. The patron was 
called by the Spartans, no-TmAof, iwnwi^s ; or f77r- 
anAjjrj the favoured youth was called by the Thefc 
falians ai'm?; (T/teocrit. Idyll, . v. 12.) 


Lovers infcribed upon every tree in the walks they 
frequented, upon every wall of their houfes, upon 
every book they ufed, the name of the perfon be- 
loved; with the epithet X<*AJ or xaAo?; (Lucian^ 
Amat. Ariftoph. A earn. Euftath. Iliad . Ari 
jtcph. Vefy.) They ufually decorated the doors 
cf thofe they loved with flowers and garlands $ 
(Athena. Kb. 15.) they alfo made libations before 
them, and fprinkled them with wine ; (Ariftoph. 
SchoL in Plut. aft. i. fc. i.) When the garland of 
any one was untied, it was a fign of being in love ; 
(Athene, lib. 15.) as well as when a woman made a 
garland 3 (Ariftoph. Thefmoph.) When their love 
feemed unfuccefsful, they tried various arts to ob- 
tain the affections of him they loved. Sometimes 
they effected it by potions, called ^Xr^x $ (Juvenal. 
Sat. 6. 600.) the operations of which were flrong 
and dangerous, commonly depriving thofe who 
drank them of their reafon : (Plutarch. Lucult. 
< Cam. Nepos. Lucull.) Lucretius died in this 
way ; and Caius Caligula loft his reafon by 
the fame means ; (Stleton. in Call.) They were 
compounded of feveral ingredients ; as, hippo- 
manes, a piece of flefh upon the forehead of young 
colts, cf a black or brown colour, in fhape and 
like a fig, which the mares bite off as foon as 


they are foaled ; from which if they are prevented, 
{hey forfake their young ; (Ariftot. Plin. Colu- 
well. Virg. Mn. 4- 5 1 5- Paufan. Eliac. a. 
, Ovid. lib. i. Eleg. 8.) which is faid to be pe- 
culiar to the Lufitanian mares; (Virgil, Georg. 
3.271.) Some fuppofe hippomanes to be a plant* 
(Theocrit. Idyll. 6. 48.) The tongue of the luyg, 
a fmall bird, of what kind it is not fully agreed, 
(Suidas. Tzetz. in Lycophr. 310.) was efteemed a 
fovereign virtue in love potions ; (Pindar. Pythion. 
Od. 4.) Sometimes the whole bird was fattened to 
a wheel of wax, which they turned over the fire 
till both were confumed ; thus inflaming the per- 
fon. in whom they wiihed to create love. Others 
interpret Ivy%, to be a mufical inftrument ; and 
forne take it for all kinds of allurements. Several 
herbs ; infe&s bred from putrid matter; fifh, called 
the lamprey; the lizard ; the brains of a 
; the hair upon the extremity of a wolfs tail; 
and the bones of the left fide of a toad eaten by ants, 
were fuppofed to inflame to love. The bones of 
the left fide of a toad, when the flefti was eaten by 
ants, were fometimes caft into a veflel of water, 
in which thofe that funk, being wound up in 
a white linen cloth, and hung about any one, 
were faid to inflame him with love ; the bones on 
the contrary fide, with hatred. Other parts of the 
toad were ufed in poifonous compofitions; (Juven. 
Sat. 6. 658.) Sometimes the blood of doves; the 
bones of makes; the feathers of fcreech-owls ; 
bands of wool twifted upon a wheel, efpecially 
what had been bound about a perfon that hang- 
ed himfclf, (Propert. lib. 3. Eleg. 5.) were ufed 
ppon this occafion. There were alfo ofher ingre- 


dients of love potions : (Apuieius. Apolog.) There 
were other forts, as, rags, torches, all relics which 
Itad relation to funerals or dead bodies. Some- 
times a neft of young fwallows was placed in a 
veflel, and buried in the earth till they died ; when 
they opened the veflel, thofe birds found with 
mouths fhut, were fuppofed to be efficacious 
to allay the paffion of love; thofe with open 
mouths were fuppofed to excite it. For the fame 
purpofe were ufed bones (hatched from hungry and 
la venous bitches, becaufe they were fuppofed to 
derive fome part of the eager defire of thofe ani- 
mals into the potions j (Horat. Epod. 5. v. 14.) 

They had other arts of exciting love : fome 
thought the udder of an hyena, tied about the left 
arm, would entice to their affections any women 
they pleafed : others took WTU^, a fort of fmall and 
ted- olives, or, as fome fay, barley bran, which they 
caft into the fire, thus hoping to inflame love ; 
(^heocrii.) Sometimes they ufed aAp*T, flour, or 
tuAu/Aara ; (Sc/iol. in Theocr.) Sometimes they 
burnt laurel, (Iheocrit.) or they melted wax to 
ibftea the heart of her whom they loved. Some- 
times they placed clay, with the wax, before the 
lire, that as one melted whilfl the other hardened, 
fbhe who then rejecled them might be rendered in- 
capable of any impreffion from other charms, but 
eafy of accefs to themfelves; (Virg. Eel* 8. v. 80.) 
They were wont to imitate all thofe a&ions they 
wiilied the perfon they loved Ihould perform. They 
turned a wheel round, praying he might fall down 
before their doors, and roll himfelf on the ground ; 
(Theecrit.) They compofed an image of wax, and 
calling, it by the name of the perfon to be inflamed 


with love, placed it near the fire, the heat of which 
affected the image, and the perfon reprefented by- 
it, at the fame time; it was bound, to intimate that 
the thread of their affedions was tied j and they 
ufually drew it rhree times round the altar; (Vir- 
gil.) They fornetimes fprinkled medicaments upon 
feme part of the houfe where the perfon lived ; 
(^Theocritus.) Sometimes they contrived to get 
into their pofiefiion fomething that belonged to 
the' perfon whole love they defired. Sometimes 
they depofitecl ^underneath the threfhold fome of 
the pledges of their lover; (Virgil.) They alfo 
tied three knots to unite the beloved performs a- 
fedions with their own ; which number feemed, 
above all other unequal numbers, to be grateful to 
the gods. They alfo ufed. other incantations, as, 
the form of verfes, (Virgil.) and herbs and minerals 
ufed in other magical operations ; (Theocritus.) 

The paffion when once raifed was difficult to 
be allayed, and required more powerful medica- 
ments ; (Horat. Ovid. Met. i. v. 52.1. Ovid, ds 
Remed. Am.) Several remedies were prefcribed for 
this purpofe; (Ovid, Met. 10. v. 397.) fuch as 
agnus caftus, and the herbs unpropitious to gene- 
ration : or by ufing fome occult means, fuch as 
the fprinkling of the duft in which a mule had 
rolled herfelf; (Pliu. Nat. Hlfl. lib. 30. cap. 16,) 
the confining toads in the hide of a new flain bead 5 
(Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. 32. cap. 10.) all the minerals 
and herbs, which were efteemed amulets againft 
other effe&s of magic ; (Propert, lib. i. Eleg. 12.) 
Sometimes the infernal gods were invoked for their 
afliftance; (/B. 4. v. 638. Si!. ltd. lib. 8.) 
They were fuppofed to be cured of love, by wafh- 



ing in the water of Selemnus, a river in Achaia j 
(Paufan. Achaic.) 


The inftitution of marriage was introduced into 
Greece at the time of Croups; (Schol.AriJloph. Pint* 
773-) Some attribute the honour of its introduction 
to Erato, one of the mufes. Marriage was efleemed 
highly honourable in moft of the Grecian ftates, and 
much encouraged by their laws ; (JElian. Var. PL 
10. 2. Ariftot. CEcon. iii. and. vii.) The Spartans 
were fevere againft thofe who deferred, as well as thofe 
who altogether abftained from it; (Stob<zus 65 de 
Laud. Nupt. Dinar ch. contr. Demqfth. p. 41. 
Athena. 13. i. Pollux, 3. 4.) They were fubj eel to 
fevere penalties for this violation of the law ; fome- 
times compelled to run, once every winter* round 
the public forum naked ; and to fing a certain fong, 
proclaiming their infamy. They were fometimes 
excluded from thofe exercifes, in which young vir 
gins, contended naked \ (Plutarch. Lycurg.) Some- 
times they were dragged round the altar by women, 
who then beat them with their fids ; (Athene, lib. 
1 3.) They were deprived of that refpect which was 
ufually paid by the young to the old ; (Plutarch. 
"Lycurg.) By the Athenian law, all commanders, 
orators, or thofe intruded with public affairs, were 
to be married, and have children, and eflates in 
]and ; { Dinar ch. in Demofth.) 

Polygamy was not commonly tolerated in Greece; 
(Herodot. lib. 5.) although there are fome inftances 
to the contrary ; (AuL Cell. No ft. Attic, lib. 1 5. 
tap. 20. Diogen. Laert. Socrat. -Athene, lib. 13.) 
Some however contend that there even were inftances 
of polygamy i (Plutarch. Per id.) 



The Spartans were not allowed to many till they 
arrived at full ftrength ; (Xenoph. de Repub* Lac.) 
There was an old law to forbid the Athenians to 
marry, till they were above thirty-five years of age; 
(Cenforin de Nat. die, cap. 14.} Ariftotle thought 
thirty-feven a good age ; (Ariftot. Pdit. lib. 7. cap, 
16.) Plato, and Hefiod, thirty; (Hefiod. ^y, xa* 
ijjK. .313. and 693.) Women married fooner than 
men ; ( ArifiopL Lyjiftr.) fome of the old Athenian 
laws permitted them to marry at twenty-fix ; Arif- 
totle thought eighteen, and Hefted, fifteen, good 
ages ; (Hefiod. tgy. xai up. . 316.) 

The feafon of the year moil proper, according to 
the Athenians, was during fome of the winter months, 
efpecially in rotpuXwv, thus called for that reafon, 
which anfwers to January; (Euftath.inlLv. tferenf* 
Phormion.) It was moft convenient, when there hap- 
pened a conjundion of the fun and moon, as thcy 
then celebrated the feftival, called Qioyapix, mar- 
riage of the gods ; (Schol. Hefiod. yp.) The time 
of the full moon was efteemed propitious ; (Euri- 
-pid.Iphig. Aul.v. 717. Pindar. Ifthm. .) becaufc 
they had a high opinion of the moon's power in 
generation. Different clays were prefcribed ; fome 
fay the fourth was the moft convenient, becaufe it 
was dedicated to Venus and Mercury ; (Hefiod. 
7)jui. v. 36.) The moft unfit, were the fixteenth, 
and the eighteenth. 

They were forbidden to marry within certain de- 
grees of confanguinity, (Euripid. Andr.v. 173. 
Ovid. Met. lib. 9. v. 491.) asj brothers were for- 
bidden to marry fifters; fons, their mothers; and 
fathers, their daughters ; but nephews were allowed 
to marry their aunts; uncles, their nieces ; (Herodot. 



lib. 5.) The Spartans allowed marriages between 
thofe who had only the fame mother, and different 
fathers j (Phil. Judaus.) The Athenians were for- 
bidden to marry fitters by the fame mother, but not 
thofe by the fame father ; (PhiL Judx. lib. de Leg. 
Spec. Plutarch. Themiflocl. Athena, lib. 12. 
Plutarch. Cimon. Cornel: Nep. Cimon. Schol. Ari- 
ftoph. Nub. 1375 .) 

In moft of the Grecian ftates, citizens were re- 
quired to marry citizens. Where a citizen married 
a foreigner, their children were doomed to per- 
petual ilavery. If a foreigner married a free woman 
of Athens, any perfon might accufe him before the 
thefmothetze, where, if he was convicled, they fold 
him for a flave, and all his goods were confifcated, 
one third part of them belonging to the accufer, 
He who gave a foreign woman in marriage to a 
citizen of Athens, pretending that (he was his own 
daughter, was deprived of his privilege in public 
affemblies, and of other rights belonging to him as 
a citizen. If any man of Athens married a woman 
who was not free of that city, he was fined one 
thoufand drachms ; (Demqfth. in Near.) The fe- 
verity of the old laws in thefe inftances was after- 
wards fo mitigated, that the children of foreign 
women enjoyed the privileges of free-born citizens. 
Thefe laws were at different periods renewed and 
repealed ; (Plutarch. PericL pemoflh. In Eubiil.) : 

Virgins were not allowed to marry without the 
confent of their parents -, (Mufeeus Hero. v. 179. 
Euripid. Androm. Euripid* Iphig. in Aulid.) Men 
were } not permitted to marry without confuting 
their parents; (Horn. II. \. ^'.39. Cerent. Andr. 
aft. i. fc. i.I/.r. i^i.Odyff. Z. 286. Ovid, 
Met. iv. 60.) When virgins had no fathers, their 



brothers difpofed of them; when they had no 
brothers, their grandfathers - 9 when they had none 
of thefe relations, they were put tinder the care of 
guardians, called iTriT^oxoi or xvgw ; (Demofth. in 
Stepk. ^eft.) Sometimes hufbands betrothed their 
wives to other perfons upon their death-beds ; (De- 
mqflh. Oral, in Aphob>) There were feveral forms 
of betrothing; (Clem. Alexand* Stromat. lib. 2.) in 
which fometimes the dowry was mentioned ; (Xe- 
noph. Ku^oTT. lib. 8.) The perfons to be married 
plighted their faith to each other, and to their re- 
lations, (Achill. fat. lib. 5.) by the ceremony of 
killing each other, or giving their right hands; 
which was the ufual form of ratifying all agree- 
ments j (Euripid. Iphig. in Aul. 831.) The The- 
bans plighted their faith at the monument of lo- 
laus, a lover of Hercules, and who was believed to 
fuperintend the affairs of love ; (Plutarch. Pelop.) 

In the early times, women were purchafed by 
their hufbands, and married without portions j and 
the prefents of the hufbands to the women's rela- 
tions were called her dowry ; (Ariftot. Polit. lib. 2. 
cap. 8.) But this cuftom was foon laid aiide; 
(Euripid. Mad. 230.) Hence the eiTential differ- 
ence between yuvi and TTAX*X, wife and concubine; 
wives always having dowries, which the latter never 
had j (Platttus Trinum.) Hence thofe who married 
wives without a fortune, commonly gave them f - 
xwa, an inftrument of writing, by which the receipt of 
their dowry was owned, which gave her a title to 
greater freedom and diftinction j (Euripid. Andro- 
ma<h. 147.^ This cuftom was afterwards difufed 
at Sparta ; (Juftin. lib. 3. Plutarch. Apoph. 
. Var. Hift. lib. 6. cap. 6.) All the dowry 
c c permitted 


permitted the Athenian wives was afterwards limit- 
ed to a little furniture, and three fuits of clothes - t 
left men mould be inclined to marry from intereft 
rather than affection ; (Plutarch, Solon.) They 
who had no fons were allowed to entail their eilates 
upon daughters ; and every heirefs, called <7srixX^, 
was obliged to marry her nearefl relation, left her 
eflate iliould go out of the family : but, if her 
hufband fhould be impotent, (he might cohabit with 
his neareft relation. The hufbands of heireffes were 
obliged to cohabit with them thrice every month; 
(Plutarch. Solon. Euftatk. in II.) When there 
were any orphan virgins without inheritance, who 
were called 0i<r<rat, he who was next in blood was 
obliged to many her himleif, or fettle a portion on 
her according to her quality : if he was -3rVTaiw<no/4- 
*pdf, one of the firft rank, five minae or 500^ 
drachms : if ITTTTW, of the fecond rank, 300 drachms : 
if 171?, of the third rank, 1 50 drachms. If fhe 
had many relations equally allied, they all contri- 
buted in equal proportions; or if there were more 
than one virgin, their neareft kinfman was only 
obliged to marry or give a portion to one of them. 
If he refufed, he was liable to a fine of one thoufend 
drachms, which were confecrated to Juno, the god- 
clefs of marriage ; (Demojlh. Oral, ad Mac. c- 
rent:Phcrm. aft. i.fc. 2. AR. 2.^.3.) 

When money became afterwards more plentiful, 
the dowry given by thofe of the firft rank was in- 
creafed to ten min^, (Euftath. 1L 0.) and others 
in proportion. When virgins had no relations, 
and who had defcended from men who had been 
tifeful to the Rate, they were portioned by the pub- 
lic; (Plutarch. Arijiid.) The leve of money after- 


M A R R I A G K. 387 

Wards became their guide in marriage, (Plu+ 
tarck. Lyfandr.) rather than any other commenda- 
ble qualifications. Before the ufe of money was 
common, virgins brought to their hufbands eftates, 
(beep, oxen, &c. ; hence they were frequently called 
<*Apr<noii ; (Euflath. in II. .) In Crete, fitters 
received half the (hare of their brothers -, (Plutarch* 

To give a woman in marriage was called syyvocv, 
(Demofth. in Ner. p. 528. Milan. Far. Hift. vi. 
4.) ^if-yyuav, (Pollux, 3. c. 4.) xarcyyp&v, (Eur'lpld, 
Oreft. 1675.) Woven, (Horn. //. r. 291. Demojlh. 
in Near. p. 5-28.) and afpoguv 9 (Eurlpid. Elettr. 
24.) The betrothed man gave to the betrothed 
woman, as a pledge of his honour and love, a pre- 
fent named a^a, (Aul. Cell. 17. 2.) ?, (Me- 
nand. Fragjy. ex incert. Com. Ifaus Graf. 7 de Cir. 
Her edit. p. 513. Plant. Mil. Glorios. iv. i. n.) 
tfoov, (Horn. II. TT. 190. Odyjf. Z. 159.) and 
pvy,rfof ; (Hefych. Periz. ad. Milan, iv. i.) 

The dowry was named ?r^oij, /*iA*, and <po^v^ ^ 
(Eujiatkius.) When the wife brought a dowry, 
the hufband commonly made a fettkment to pro- 
vide for her in cafe of death or divorce, which was 
called airdT^Ji/**; (Hefychius. Pollux. Suidas; 
Harpocration.) fometimes avriftpi, a recompencc 
for her dowry, or w*-ooAo* from t7roA;uy, given in- 
ftead of a dowry. Where no fuch fecurity was given, 
hufbands, who were divorced from their wives, were 
obliged to return their dowry. Their heirs were 
bound to the fame, if they refufed to maintain the 
wives of thofe whofe eftates they inherited ; (Horn. 
Ody/.^.v. 132.) It was a cuflom at Athens, 
that if the hufband's eftate was confifcated, the 
c c 2 dowry, 


dowry of the wife fhould be afiigned to her. He 
who did not refbore to his divorced wife her dowry, 
was obliged to pay nine oboli every month for in- 
tereft during the time he retained it. If he neg- 
le&ed this, an action, called c-ms &x, was pre- 
ferred againft him in the odeum by the woman's 
guardian ^ (Demojlh. in Near.) One minx, or 100 
drachms, brought an intereft of fix oboli every 
month. The payment of the dowry was attefted 
by witnefTes, and on a written inftrument called 
W^QIXW*. If the woman died without children, her 
dowry was repaid to the perfon by whom me had 
been endowed ; (Ij f a. Orat. de Har. Pyrr.) and if 
the woman's fons came of age whilft Hie was living, 
they enjoyed the dowry, allowing her a competent 
maintenance j (Demofth. in PJuenipp.) Whatever 
wives might bring to their hufbands, over and 
above their dowry, were called vx^o^vx iTnw^oixoir, 
iTn^aAia and ctt7rouca. 

Before their marriage, the men provided for 
themfelves a houfe; (Hefiod.iy.$. 23. Tfieocrit* 
Horn. II. (3. 700. Valer. Place, lib. 6. CatuIL 
Epig. ad Mall.) Hence widows, whofe hufbands 
died foon after marriage, are faid to be left widows 
in a new-built houfe ; (Horn. II. % . 66.) 

The Athenian virgins were prefented to Diana 
before it was lawful for them to marry -, which cere- 
mony was called afxrita, the virgins themfelves 
a^xTct ; and was intended to appeale the goddefs, 
who had been incenfed againft fome Athenians 
for killing a bear. Virgins were wont to pre- 
fent balkets full of little curiofities to Diana, to 
gain leave to change their ftate of life ; CTheocrh. 
Idyll. . 66.) This was called xan^c^y, and the 



virgins xavn^cf 01, from the bafkets they carried. In 
fome places, perfons of both fexes, before their 
marriage, offered (acrifice to Euclia, or, as fome fay, 
Diana : (Plutarch. Ari/tid.) Sacrifices and prayers 
were offered to her, becaufe (lie might be appeafed, 
as a married life was odious to herj (Eurip. Iphig* 
in AuL i no.) Thefe were called ya/wiAioi fv^*, 
iroyjt/*a, Tj^oTfAfiOJ w^ai, or irfonXtiot, ; (Euftath. in 
II. |3. Euftath. in ll. /*.) Married perfons were 
called rcXcioi, (Bifet. In Arifivpk.'fhefmcph.) and were 
faid to be i (3*w nxnta. 

The gods of marriage are fo called, as Jupiter 
nAfiof , Juno, TiXna i (Suidas.) Sacrifices and other 
devotions were paid to them before the marriage, 
which were the fame as thofe offered to Diana ; 
thofe to Juno were called Hf arAfi<*, from her own 
name H^u. It was not allowed a virgin to marry, 
till flie had paid her devotion to Minerva in her 
temple in the citadel ; (Suidas.) She alfo invoked 
Venus, and the reft of the ytxpvXtoi 9toi, gods fuper- 
intending marriage; (Hefychius. Suidas.) At 
Sparta there was an ancient ftatue of A^o^m H^a, 
Venus Juno, to which mothers, whofe daughters 
were about to marry, facrificed ; (Paufan. Laconic.) 
The ancient Athenians paid the fame honour to 
Heaven and Earth, which were believed to have 
particular concern in marriages ; (Proclus. in Tim*. 
Platon. Com. 5.) The fates and graces received 
alfo the fame homage ; (Pollux ', lib. 3. cap. 3.) 
The day upon which this ceremony was performed, 
was ufually that preceding the day of marriage i (He- 
fychius.) which was commonly called y*pjA*, xa^i 
*if,from the cuftom of (having upon thefe occafions 9 
(Po/fax, lib. 3. cap. 3.) and prefenting their hair to 

c c 3 fome 


fome deity who prefided. over marriage; (Pollux^ 
lib. 3 .cap. 3. Lucian. de Dea. Syr. Paufan. Attic. 
Stat. <fheb. 2. Euripid Bath. 594.) The hair 
was called. TTAOX^O? fytTrrvgw, becaufe prefented to 
a god who had the care of their education ; as it 
was alfo ufbal to offer a lock of hair, when they 
arrived at maturity, which was, moft frequently, to 
Apollo; (Plutarch. hef.) fometimes to the deities 
of rivers ; from an opinion, that every thing was 
produced from and nourifhed by water. Hence 
the term, ^or^og, applied to watery deities; 
(Euftath. in II. $.) It is certain that they were 
accuftomed to preferve their hair, as a grateful of- 
fering to thefe deities for their prefervation of them 
in danger; (Horn. IL $. v. 140.) 

The parents or relations, before the marriage, 
offered facrifices to other gods who had fome care 
in thefe affairs, called irpyaptux, and v^ors^na ; 
(Euripid. Iphig. in AuL 718.) When the victim 
was opened, the gall was taken out, and thrown 
behind the altar, (Callus Rhod. lib. 28* cap. 21. 
Plutarch, de Conjug. Precept.) as being the feat of 
malice and revenge, and the averfion of thefe 
deities. The entrails were examined by the footh- 
fayers ; and if any unlucky omen happened, 
the contract was diffolved, and th nuptials pre- 
vented. If any ill omen occurred, without re- 
ference to the victim, the marriage was prevented ; 
(Ackill. Tat. lib. a.) The moft fortunate omen 
which could appear, was a pair of turtles, indicating 
lincerity of affection ; or the appearance of xowy*, 
crows, which were thought to promife long life 
from the length of their own lives, and the duration 
of their love ; when one of the mates dies, the other 



always remains folitary j (Alex, ab Alex.) Hence 
the appearance of a fingle crow bod^d reparation or 
forrow-to the married couple. It was ufual at this 
time to write over the doors of their houie, ptfn 
wro K*XW, let no evil enter; (Dio?en. Laert. in 
Diogen.) None were admitted to this feaft, who 
had not bathed, and changed their clothes; (Odyjf* 
^ ^i.Z. 27. Ariftoph. Av. 1692.) 

The garments of the bridegroom and bride were 
of different colours, (Arijloph. Pint. $$>.} and were 
ufuaily dyed, (Suidas, v. B7nra.) and, with their at- 
tendants, richly adorned, accord ing to their rank, and 
decked with garlands of various herbs and flowers ; 
(Euripid. Ipkig. in Aul. 903.) The herbs were thofe 
which ufuaily exprefFed fome alluiion to the affairs 
of marriage, as thofe facred to Venus, or <n<ruj,w, 
puxwv, <w*uov, &c. ; (SchoL inAriftopk. Pac.) cakes 
made of fefame were alfo given at marriages, be- 
caufe it was thought to be -rroAvyavof, remarkable 
for its fruitfulnefs. Garlands of wild afparagus 
were ufed, which, being full of prickles, but bearing 
good fruit, was faid to referable the bride, who had 
given her lover fome trouble in courting her af- 
fedions, which (he afterwards recompenfed by her 
pleafant converfation. The houfe, in which the nup- 
tials were celebrated, was alfo decked with a wreath, 
which was called repo; ya^Aioi/ ; (Bion. Idyll, i. 
SchoL Artftoph. Av. 160.) a peftlc was tied upon 
the door, and a maid carried a fievei (Pollux, 
lib. ?. cap. 3.) the bride bearing ^v^frcv, f^uyrr^oy 
or <p^jyi\rgov 9 (Pollux, lib. l. cap. 12. Hefy chins.) a 
frying-pan, or an earthen veffel, in which barley 
was parched ; to fignify that ilie muft attend to 
houfchoid affairs. 

c c 4 The 


The bride was ufually conducted in a car from her 
father's houfe to her hulband's in the evening; this 
Was called ay^-u/, or ayccrOa* ytwoiix/z ;( Sllidas.V.ZtvyQS. 
Euftath. 1L . and \.~-GatulL Epithal.) fhe was 
placed in the middle, her hufband fitting on one fide, 
and his friend on the other, who was called w^op^o? : 
the woman who waited upon the 'bride was called 

ffci/UjUKpicf, Tr^^vu^ipof, (Hefyehius, v. 

and W/*<PSUT*. When the bridegroom 
had been married before, one of kis friends attended 
the bride from her father's houfe, who was called vu/x- 
(Suidas. Hefychim. - Pollux, 1$. 3.) or 
Thofe were alfo fo called who afiifted in, 
forming the match, and conducting the affairs of the 
marriage; if women, they were called TT^V^^I^ 
Trfofv]Tiai,Scc. Torches were ufually carried by fer- 
yants before the bride, when (lie went toherhufband's. 
houfe; (Euripid. Helen. 728.- llcficd. Scut. Here, 
v. ^75.) They were fometimes attended with 
lingers and dancers ; (Horn. Iliad. |3. v. 490.) The 
fong was called a^ar^iok /xAo?, from a^a, the Chariot 
in which they rode ; the axletree of which they 
broke, when they arrived at the end of the journey ; 
by which $ they fignified that the bride was never to 
return to her father's houfe. The Rhodians were 
accuftqmed to fend for the bride by the public 
crier j (Horn. II. 2. 491. 2>r. Adelph. aft. $.fa 7. 
Evftath. in //. xO 

When the bridegroom entered the houfe with 
Bis bride, figs and other fruits were poured upon 
their heads, as an omen of future plenty ; (SchoL in 
Anjloph. Pint.) The day of the bride leaving her 
father's houfe was called ^oc-^at^T^i*, (Suidas. 

and celebrated as a fcftival, diftinft 



from the nuptial fblemnity 5 which was kept at the 
bridegroom's houfe, and began at evening, the time 
of the bride's arrival, A banquet was prepared for 
her reception, called yapo? ; (Horn. II. T,) hence 
Jan* yot,pw, is to make a nuptial entertainment ; 
(Horn. IL T. 2 99. Odyjf. $. 1 8.) it was prepared from 
refpecl: due to the gods of marriage, who were in- 
voked before; and that the marriage might be made 
public, (Athene, lib. 5. cap. i.) as it wasufually at- 
tended by a eoncourfe of friends ; (Cerent. Phorm, 
aft. 4. fc. 4.) 

During the folemnity, the gods of marriage were 
honoured with mufic and dancing. Thefe fongs 
were called D^VOHO* or ujuwt ; (Homer. Hefiod. 
Terent. Adelph.) from the frequent invocations 
made to Hymen, the god of marriage. Hymen or 
HymencBus was an Argive, who was received into 
the number of their gods, (Horn. Schol. IL v. v. 
593.) on account of a generous action exhibited, 
in delivering fome Athenian virgins from the viola- 
tion of the Pelafgians. Some derive the word * 
<rx v&uv, from married people living together j others, 
from v/aw, the membrana virginalis. 

During this entertainment there were feveral 
ceremonies ; one of which was that of a boy, co- 
vered with acorns and the boughs of thorns, carrying 
a baiket full of bread, and fmging i$vyo xxxov, evgw 
aptivov, I have left the worfe, and found the better; 
which feemed to fignify, that a married life was to 
be preferred to celibacy. The Spartans carried 
cakes made in various figures, called xu*C*if, whilft 
they danced and fung the praifes of the bride \( Athe- 
na, lib. io.Hefych.) 

When the dances were ended, the married pair 
ivere conducted to the nuptial chamber, termed 


japa, (Theocrit. Idyll. 27. 36.) xo-jciJW ^oi/xa, (Horn. 
Odyjf. r. 850. Suidas. Harpocration.) JU^TIM, 
( Pollux > iii. 3.) OaXa/AOf, and ny,?^ ; (Hefych. H- 
fiath. //. y. MufaiiS) 280.) in which was the nup 
tial bed, called Ar^o? xow&ois (Arijhph. PJ.IC. 84.4.) 
jv>i vvpQtiu,- (Pind. Nem. OcL v.) xAuuj ^y,a- 
i, and yafttxovj (Pollux, iii. 3. -- Meurs. Left. 
Attic. \\. 9.) It was richly adorned, and the coverings 
were ufuaily of purple, fD^ A 7 ^/. P^/. f/ ket. v. 
1402.) and fhrewed with flowers j (Apollox. Argon. 
4. 1141.) In the lame room there was ufuaily a 
lide bed, called xAw wa^urff, (Htfychius. Pollux^ 
lib. 3. cap. 3.) Before they went to bed, the bride 
wafhed her feet, (Ariftoph.. Pace.) with water, from 
the fountain Emaxfsxo?, to called from nine cifterns 
which it fupplied with water. It was once called 
Callirhoe. The water was brought by a boy, near- 
ly t related to one of them, and whom they cal- 
led XBTgopofpjj (Suidiis. -Pollux i lib. 3. cap. 3.) 
The bride was attended with feveral torches ; 
(Libantus Dec/am. 38.) round one of which the 
mother of the bride tied the lace which fhe took 
from her head; (Senec.Theb. v. 505.) At this 
folemnity, if was thought a misfortune, if the rela- 
tions did not attend^ and it was a cuftom, that 
the mother fliould light the torches when her fon's 
wife entered, the houfe ; {Euripid. Ph^nijs. v. 339.) 
The mother of the bride fometimes performed. this 
office; (Euripid. Iphig. in Aid. 731.) When the 
married couple were (hut up together, according 
to the Athenian law, they were obliged to eat a 
quince ; (Plutarch. Solon. Id. in Cottjiig. Precept.) 
The hufband then looted the girdle of his wife ; 
hence Autiv WMJK, is to deflower, and yuv>j Auo-i^wvof, 

a womaiji 


a woman who has loft her virg'mity. This girdle 
was not worn only by virgins, but ufed fometimes 
after marriage, to fecure them from the attacks of 
feducers; (Nonnus,.lib, 12.) Girls were called 
uproot, not having a girdle, as not being yet arrived 
at maturity. The young people flood without the 
door, dancing and linging longs, called *7n0a- 
>.auia,from 0x#uof, the bride-chamber, y and making 
a great noiie, which was called xruTna or xruTno* ; 
(Hefyckius.) One of the bridegroom's friends flood 
at the door of the chamber, who was called 0uf ug o? ; 
(Pollux, lib, 3. cap. 3.) All the longs were called 
Tpivfciof, and celebrated the praifes of the young 
.couple y (Theocritus.) 

In the morning the friends returned, faluted 

them, and fung 7n9*Aa/xa sy^-nxa, becaufe they 

were defigned to awake them. The . fong which 

they fung the preceding night, was called *7n0aAa/*a 

xojjcfcurixa, which was intended to difpofe them to 

ileep; (Theocritus.) The folemnity continued for 

fsveral days. The day before the marriage was 

called -jr^ouAjas, from auA*io"6<x> ro> i/u/^.(j)iw, to lodge 

with the bridegroom. The day of marriage was 

called <ya/Aoi ; the day following, iri^c, (Pindar.) 

fignifying a day added to the ceremony. Others 

call it ?ra7j, (Hefychius.) from TraXtv, a renewal of 

the ceremony. Others call it *7rauAt. The thircl day 

was called awauAia, becaufe the bride, returning to 

her father's houfe, feparated from the bridegroom : 

others fuppofe it to mean the ievcnth day of the 

marriage; (Hefychius. Suidas. Phavorinus. &c.) 

On the day called aTrauAia, the bride prefented her 

bridegroom with a garment, called HiroMhtTv^s* : 

gifts, on that day, were alfo prefented by the friends 



and father of the bride, fometimes called 
fometimes *7rauAia ; which chiefly confifted of golden 
vefTels, beds, couches, ointment-boxes, and utenfils 
for houfekeeping, which were carried by women in 
great pomp to the houfe ; they followed xwnpofof, 
a perfon carrying a bafket, before whom went a 
boy, dreiTed in white, with a torch in his hand. 
The bridegroom and his friends gave prefents to the 
bride, called avK\,\tvr^iak ', (Suidas,) hence the 
third day has been called awtxaAuTTTj^iov, becaufe 
the bride then appeared unveiled : they were alfo 
called 0f&> HT<X, o7TTjia, &ifn/*at, and TrgQe-zQiyxTygi*, 
becaufe the bridegroom might then freely converfe 
with the bride. Before marriage, it was ufual for 
virgins to wear veils, which were called XAAUTTT^OV or 
xaAuTTT^*, which they never ceafed to wear, in the 
prefence of men : (Euripid. Phaniff.) 


The Spartans feldom divorced their wives -,( Hero- 
dot Jib. 6. cap. 63.) It was very difficult for a woman 
to feparate from her hufband ; (Euripid. Med. 230. 
Plutarch. Alcibiad.) When a feparation of the men 
from their wives took place, it was called xAAni/, 
awoir/A7rfiv, otTroAufiv ', but when the wives left their 
hufbands, it was called a7roX7ri*v. Sometimes both 
parties agreed to diflblve the union ; when each 
might choofe a fecond mate ; (P hit arch. PericL 
Plutarch. Dsmetr. Faler. Max. lib. c. cap. 7. 
Strab.Geogr.lib.>].) It feems to have been not 
unufual to borrow the wives of one another ; (er- 
tuJLApol.cap, 39. Plutarch. Lycurg.) even flrangers 
were allowed this liberty ; (Nicolaus de Morib. ap 
Stoba.) Other adulteries, which were not founcU 



ed upon mutual confent, were deemed the mod 
heinous crimes, and feldom committed ; (Plutarch. 


The punimments inflicted upon adulterers were 
of various forts; in the early ages, this crime was 
the caufe of war and bloodfhed; (Herodot.lib. i.~ 
Lycophr. Caff'. 1291.) Offenders of this kind were 
fometimes Honed to death ; (Horn. II. y.) Rich 
men were allowed to redeem themfelves with mo- 
ney, which was called ^oi^xy^x, and paid to the 
hufband of the adultrefs ; (Horn. Odyff. 0. v. 329. 
354.) It was ufual for the woman's father to re- 
turn all the dowry he had received of her hufband; 
(Hom.Odyff. 0. v. 317.) Sometimes the adulterer 
was punimed with the lofs of his eyes; (Servius in 
Mneid. Apollodor. lib. 3. Lycophr. Ca/. $11. 
Valer. Max. lib. 6. cap. 5.) In Crete, they covered 
the adulterer with wool, as an emblem of effemi- 
nacy ; and thus he was carried to the magiftrate's 
houfe, by whom he was deprived of his civic 
rights; (Callus Rhodig. lib. 21. cap. 45.) The 
punimments of this crime at Athens feem to have 
been left to the difcretion of the magiftrate ; (Pau- 
fan.Baot. Eeradid. dePolit.Athen.)'by the laws of 
Draco, they were left at the mere}' of the perfon who 
caught them ; (Paufan. Boeotic. Demqflk. in Arijto- 
crat. Plutarch. Solon. Lyfjas. Orat.) By the laws 
of Solon thofe who caught adulterers, had liberty to 
caftrate or murder them. A man who ravifhed a wo- 
man was fined one hundred drachms; one who en- 
ticed her, twenty ; (Plutarch. Solon.) he who forced a 
free virgin, one thouiand drachms; and whoever de- 



flowered one, was' obliged to marry her ; (PL, 
Aulul.) But if the virgin or her mother had ac- 
cepted any prefent from the man, me was confider- 
ed as a common harlot ; (Terent. Adelph. aft. $.fc* 
2.) When any one was detained in cuftody on 
fufpicion of adultery, he might appeal to the thefmo- 
thetx, who referred the catife to proper judges, and 
they, if he was guilty, might impofe what punifh- 
inent they pleafecl, except that of death ; (Demofth. 
in Near.) There was a remarkable punifhment 
for this crime, called Tr^amA^tof or &$&vifq<nf ; hence 
they were called fwrfoixret ; (Juven. Sat. 10. 3 1 7.) The 
poor only were thus punifhed ; the rich might fatisfy 
with a fine; ; (Schol. in Ariftoph. Plut. aft. i.fc. 2.) 
Women thus offending were treated with the ut- 
moil feverity. If any one detected his unmarried 
fifler or daughter in this crime, he might fell her 
for a Have; (Plutarch. Solon.) Adulterefles were 
forbidden to adorn themfelves with rich clothes, or 
to vifit the temples $ and their hufbands were for- 
bidden to cohabit with them, on pain of a-n ( u;, 
infamy ; (Demofth. Orat. in Near.) but thofe who 
proftituted women, were adjudged to die; (Schol. 
.Ariftop/i. Pint. 168; Nub. 1079. Suidzs.) 


Concubines were called -8-aXAxt&f, and were 
ufually captive women, or bought with money, and 
always inferior to wives. They were permitted to 
keep as many as they pleafed, without offence. Yet 
the wives envied their huibands this freedom; (Horn* 
Odyff.*. 433. 11. /.447 Sense. Agam. 995.) Har- 
lotswere as common as concubines; and the ufe of 
* them 


them was not deemed immoral -, (Terent.) They 
were allowed to go publicly to thofe who hired 
them j (Plutarch. _Solon. -Philem. Delphi*. Horat. 
lib. i.fct. 2. $i.Cicer. Orat. pro M. C<tL) Se- 
vere penalties were impofed upon thofe who defiled 
women, citizens of Athens, yet foreigners had the 
liberty of keeping public {lews, and thefe harlots 
were called *, ftrange women. In early times, 
harlots never went unveiled, nor were they allowed 
to proftitute themfelves within the cities ; (Chryfipp. 
At Athens, they chiefly frequented the ceramicus, 
fciros, and the old forum, in which flood the temple 
of Venus TiWujmof, where they we re permit ted to prof- 
titute themfelves j as well as in a certain forum in the 
haven Piraus, called ro /xaxf a ; and this was called 

(Pollux.) In other ports there were feveral ftews. 
In fome places harlots were diitinguifhed by their 
apparel; (Clem. Alexand. P*dag. lib. 3. cap. 3, 
Athene, lib. 12.) It was forbidden to derive the 
name of a harlot from any of the facred games ; 
(Athene.) At Corinth, there was a temple of 
Venus, where beautiful damfels were prefented to 
her, who were maintained in the temple, and profli- 
tuted themfelves for hire ; (Strabo, lib. 8.) Hence 
o*0i*i* f to act the Corinthian, is fraifmip, to 
commit fornication ; (Hefychius.) Thus alto were 
ufed A<r*afii/, Ai-*av, and ^OWKJ^UV ; the Lefoians 
and Phoenicians being famous for this \\$i(AriflopK. 
Plut. aft. i. fc. 2.) Sometimes by their beauty 
they raifed confiderable eflates, and fometimes de- 
voted their leilure hours to fcientific ftudies, fre- 
quenting the fchools of philofophers^that they might 



render their converfation more agreeable to parti* 
cular pcrfons; (Plutarch. Per id. Athene, lib. 13. 
cap. $.) 


Women were feldom feen by any except 
their own family; when in the houfe they were 
feldom to be feen, and when they travelled, they 
were fhut up in a clofe vehicle; (Plutarch. The- 
miftocL Cornel. Nepos. Prxf. in Vit. Imp.) For 
this purpofe the Grecian houfes were ufually di- 
vided into two parts, in which there were difiinct 
apartments for the men 'and women. The part in 
which the men lodged was towards the gate, and 
called avfyw or aK^wvm? ; that afligned for the wo- 
men was called yumixuv, ywaixwvm?, or ywaixwirii?, 
and was the moft remote part of the houfe, and 
behind the auXu ; before which there were apart- 
ments, called * o<ty*os, and Tr^oauXiov ; (Horn. II. . 
v. 242.) The chambers of the women were called 
rryfot $*A*juo<, as placed at the top of the houfe, 
(Horn. //. 7.^.423.) to which they afcended by a 
ladder or x^a; (Homer. Euripid. Ph<enifs. 103.) 
Thefe rooms were fometimes called w, w*, or 
vrff , from w, eggs ; hence they were faid to have 
been hatched, when they were born in one of thefe 
chambers. The women, whether virgins or widows, 
were confined within their lodgings : their apart - 
' ment was called j0vwr, and guarded with locks 
and bolts; (Euripid. Iphig. in Aid. ^.738.) They 
were fometimes fo clofely confined, that they could 
not pafs from one part of the houfe to another with- 
out leave ; (Euripid. Phxn. v. 88.) New married 
women were almoft under as Uriel: a confinement as 

virgins * 


virgins; (Andromach. v. 876. Stobaus Serm, 72.) 
When they had once brought forth a child, they 
were not under fo ftrict a confinement ; jealous 
nufbands indeed kept their wives in perpetual con- 
finement; (Ariftoph. Thefmoph.) It was always 
thought indecent for women to go much abroad ; 
(Euftath. in //. Plutarch, de Prec. Connub.) 
and, when they did go, they veiled their faces; 
(Hom.Odyff. o. v. 208.) but the veil was fo thin, 
that they might fee through it ; (Euripid. Iphig. 
*Taur. 372.) No wife or matron was allowed to 
go from home with more than three garments; 
nor to carry with her more, meat and drink than 
could be purchafed for one obolus, nor a bafket oi 
more than a cubit in length. They were not al- 
lowed to travel in the night without a lighted torch 
before their chariots. It was afterwards decreed 
that no woman fhould appear in public undrefled, 
under the penalty of 1000 drachms. The officers 
who executed this law were called yvvot,Movop<n and 
yui/cuxo<rjuu>t ; and a tablet, containing an account of 
the fines thus incurred, was publicly expofed in 
the ceramicus, (Athene, lib. 6. cap. 9. Pollux, lib. 
8. cap. 9.) upon TrAa-nm?, a plane tree, which 
flood there ; (Hefychius. Euftath. in II. x.) It was 
ufual for women to have attendants, (Horn. Odyff. 
c.) who feem to have been grave and elderly, who had 
the care of their education, and were companions 
to them at home and abroad : they were called 
Tfo<poi. Sometimes old men attended them, (Euripid. 
Iphig. four.) and fometimes eunuchs, who performed 
the offices of maids ; (Terent. Eunuch, act. i.fc.2. 
Ammian. Mar cell. Hift. lib. 14.) It was the em- 
ployment of women, in general, to draw water, to 
keep fheep, and to feed cows and horfes ; (Horn. [L 

DP 9. V. 


0. v. 185.) to fpin, weave, and to work all forts of 
embroidery ; and they had apartments in their 
houlcs ufed for this purpofe, as ywxwiov, i?w 0Aa- 
jtxof, TaAatns^yo? ojxof, &c. . The management of the 
provifions and other houfehold affairs was commit- 
ted to their care, according to their rank and con- 
dition. The conduct of the Spartan women was 
different to that of other women of Greece. Their 
virgins went abroad unveiled, their married women 
veiled; '(Pint. Apoph. Laconic.) the virgins exer- 
cifed themfelves in running, wreftling, throwing 
quoits, and cafling darts ; they appeared, at their 
folemn feflivals and facrifices, naked as well as the 
men, obferving much modefly in their dancing and 
Tinging ; (Plutarch. Lycurg.) which cuftom after- 
wards tended to encourage the indulgence of vicious 
habits 5 (Plutarch. Num.) 


Thofe who wiflied to have children, made ample 
prefents and offerings to the gods, called T^Towar^ff, 
or TiT07rTi?, the third fathers, who were thought 
to have the care of generation. Some fuppofe 
thefe to prefide over the winds, (Suidas.) and that 
their names are Amaclides, Protocles, and Proto- 
cleon : others underfland, that they are the winds 
themfelves : others call them Cottus, Briareus, and 
Gyges, and that they were the fons of Ou^a^o? and 
F!, Heaven and Earth ; (Suidas. Hefy chins. Pha- 
vorinuS) &c.) The goddefs, who took care of wo- 
men in child-birth, was called EAfi0u*, or EtAtjOuna, 
fometimes ExcuOw; (Nonnus Dionys. 'Theocrit. Idyll. 
.) who was alfo ftyled uhwv fTra^wyo?, uhvut 


f a, &c. : fhe was fometimes called <p<r- 
, from bringing light. She was reprefented 
with a lighted torch in her hand. Some call her 
an Hyperborean, who came to Delos to affift La- 
tona in her labour ; (Paitfan. Attic.) others call her 
the mother of Cupid ; (Paufan. Bceotic.) and ftate 
that (be was more ancient than Saturn, and the fame 
with wMT]fc^, fate. Others make her the fame 
with Juno, Diana, (Horat. lib. 3. Od. 23. Horat. 
Carm. Secul.) the moon, (Cicer. de Naf. Deor. lib. 
2.) &c. The daughters of Juno were employed in 
the fame office, and bore the fame title j (Horn. IL 
A. 269.) Diana is hence called Moyoroxoj ; (Theo- 
crit.) Proferpina was alfo thought to have fome 
concern for women in labour ; if fhe is not the fame 
with Diana,- who was called in heaven SfAum, the 
moon ; upon the earth, A^TS/AK, Diana; in hell, 
Proferpina; and called by the terms, 
$<r&off, Tf ij*o<poff, &c. ^They invoked 
thefe goddeffes, that the women might be deliver- 
ed without pain, which was thought a high mark 
of divine favour, (Theocrit. Idyll. . 56.) and to be 
conferred on none but the chafte and virtuous ; 
(Plant. Amphit. aft. $.f. i.) They entertained the 
fame opinions, when women brought forth twins ; 
(Plant. Amphit. aft. $.f. i.) Women, at the time 
of delivery, held ufually in their hands branches of 
palm, as tokens of joy and an eafy delivery; (T/ieogn. 
Gnom. v. 5. Horn. Hymn, in Apollin. v. 14.) The 
Athenians at firft ufed none but nien -mid wives ; 
but women were afterwards permitted to ftudy 
phyfic, and to pra&ife this branch of it j (Hyginus. 
Fab. 274.) 




As foon as the child was brought into the world, 
they wafhed it with warm water, in a veffel, called 
Ao'jTfoi/; or anointed it with oil, in a veffel, called 
pwAo?; (Callim. Hymn, in Jov. v. 14. Plutarch. 
Lycurg. Lycophr. Caff, v. 319. Eurip. Ion. 1493.) 
The Spartans bathed it in wine, to flrengthen and 
brace it. The nurfes, called opqxzXyr.cpia, (Suidas.) 
then cut the child's navel, and wrapped it in fwad- 
clling bands, left its limbs fhould be disjointed; the 
clothes were called a-Tragywu. Tlv Spartans did not 
thus wrap their children ; who were accuflomed to 
cat meats, and to bear early hafdfhips; (Plutarch. Ly- 
citrg.) At Athens they were ufually wrapped in a 
cloth, on which was reprefented the Gorgon's head, 
becaufe it was defcribed in the fhield of Minerva,the 
protectrefs of Athens, by which children were com- 
mitted to her care ; they were fometimes placed upon 
bucklers, that, when they grew up, they might be 
induced to emulate generous and noble example^ 
(Theocr it. Idyll. KO.) The Spartans alfo obferved this 
ceremony ; (Nov. Dionys.lib. 41.) They fometimes 
placed the infants upon whatever might refemblc 
their future employment in life, as upon implements 
to winnow corn, called Atxi/a ; (Callimach. Sckol. hi 
Hymn. Jov.J Sometimes they were placed on a 
dragon of gold : which cuftom was inflituted by 
Minerva, in memory of Erichthonius, one of their 
lings, who had feet like thofe of ferpents, and, 
being left expofed when an infant, was committed 
by her to the euftody of two dragons; (Ewipid. 
Ion. v. 1 5. 1427.) On the fifth day after the birth, 
the midwives, having firft purified themfelves by 
warning their hands, ran round the hearth, with 



the infant in their arms, by which they offered it 
to the protedion of the houfehold gods, to whom 
the hearth ferved as an altar. This day was hence 
called Afoptufuv ypzo, or ApQifyopia.; and the pre- 
ients given, were called ysvtQxioi JWrKj (Hefych. 
JEfck.Eum.'j.) It was celebrated as a feftival; 
and, on this day, they received gifts from their 
friends. If the child was a male, the doors were 
ornamented with an olive garland ; if a female, with 
wool ; (Hefyckius.), The repaft confirmed of various 
things, but of x^apSu, colewort, in particular, as it was 
fuppofed to create milk; (Athene, lib. 9. cap. 2. 
lib.i. cap.i$.) The feventh day was celebrated with 
feftivities, on which day it was ufual to name the 
child, which was called 6fy*EU<r9a. This ceremony 
was fometimes performed on the tenth day; (Eurip. 
in Fragm. Mg. 14. Barnes, ad Eurip. Elettr. 126.) 
They fuppofed the child would now live, as infants 
of a weak conftitution ufually die before the feventh 
day; (Harpocrat.) The eighth day was fometime$ 
kept, and called yfvffottf ^^x 9 the birth day, be- 
caufe it was celebrated in memory of the child's 
birth. The fame day was kept every year during 
the child's life ; (Cerent. Phorm. aft. i.fc. i.) Some 
named their child upon the tenth day, and gave 
their friends an entertainment, offering facrifices to 
the gods; (Euripid. &g. Fragm.v. 14. Ariftoph. 
Avib.) this was called ^exartjif 9um, JSKXTW 7ro0ui,. 
&KOLTW eriour&i ; (Pollux ', lib. I. cap. I. Ariftot. Hift. 
Anim. lib. J.cap t 12. HefycJmis.Swdas. Harpo- 
crat. &c.) and by fome, ^<pi^o^i. When the 
child received its name, the friends were prefent ; 
and the name was ufually given by the father, who 
had the liberty of altering it as often as he pleafed; 
* Orat. adv. Boeot. vt^ wo^aToj.) it was 
J> D 3 ufually 


ufually that of any anceftor, who was eminent or 
illuftrious; (Schol. inDemqfth. Orat. de Mai. ob. Leg. 
Plutarch. Cimon. Ar/ftoph. Avib.) This was a 
cuilom of great antiquity; (Euflath. In Horn. 11 /. 
Horn. II. . 399. Odyjf. r. v, 406.) Their own 
actions, or other perfonal qualities, frequently gave 
occafion to their names; (Senec. CEdip. v. 812.) 
The fon of Achilles was called IIu^c?, from his ruddy 
complexion, or the colour of his hair ; afterwards 
NsoTTToAf/Ac?, from undertaking the management of 
the Trojan war, when young; (Plutarch, Marc, 
Coriol.) Sometimes they killed them, or expofcd 
them to danger in fome defert place ; which was 
called *>cTi0o-0aj, or awo-nO^a* ; (Eurip. Phanifs. 25, 
Ariftoph. in Nub. 531 . Fan. 1221.) they were ex- 
amined by certain perfons appointed for that pur- 
pofe, who held their court at a place called A^i ; if 
they were found healthy and well proportioned, they 
were ordered to be educated, and a certain portion 
of land applied for their maintenance ; if they were 
weak and deformed, they were ordered to be caft 
into a deep cavern in the earth, near the mountain 
Taygetus , which place was called AxoQtrys . Daugh- 
ters were mofl commonly thus treated. This bar- 
barous cuftom was prohibited by the Thebans, who 
ordered the children of thofe who were too poor to, 
piaintain them to be educated at the public charge j 
^nd when grown up, they were ufed as flaves $ 
(ALlian 7ar.Hifl.lib. 2. cap. 7.) Children were ufually 
expofed in their fwaddling clothes, and laid in a 
yeffel ; (Euripid, Ion. v. 16.) which is called or^axjv; 
(Ariftopk. Ran.) or x UT ?q? ; (Hefy chins.) The 
parents ufually put a collar, a ring, or a ftone, in the 
pa&et in which the children were expoied, either 
they might afterwards cijfcpvcr them, if they 



furvived, or to encourage thofe who found them to 
nourifh and educate them, if alive, or if dead, to 
bury them ; thefe were called irt^fycuu and -yvw^o-- 
poc.; (Euripid. Ion. 26. and 1431. Cerent. 
Heaut. aft. 4. fc. i.) Women, during their con- 
finement in childbed, were confidered as polluted ; 
(Iphigen. Taur. v. 280.^) When the fortieth day 
came, they keptafeftival, called Tsa-o-aaaxoros; when 
the woman, having been before purified by warning, 
entered into fome of the temples, which before (he 
was not allowed to do ; (Cenforin. de Natal, cap. 
n.) here me returned thanks, and offered facrifices. 
She prefented her garments to Diana, who was hence 
called XITUM j (Schol. Callim. Hymn, i.) and after her 
firfl child fhe offered her zone ; hence Diana was 
called Au<7iwi/*i ; (Schol. Apollon.) 

The Greeks brought up their children in their 
own houfes, (Horn. II. TT. iqi. Odyff. Z. 201.^ 
and they were nurfed by their mothers; (En- 
rip. Ion. 1360.^ women of the highefl diftindlion 
did not neglect this duty ; (Horn. II. %. 83. 
Odyff. A. 447.^ In fome cafes, nurfes were ad- 
mitted into the houfe; (Ody/. r. $1. Ody/. *. 
12.) and were called paia, (Horn. Qd. r. 482.^ 
TirOu, (Ariftoph. Eqittf. 713.^ r6jjvij, (II. Z. 389. 
Suidas.) TiQwnri(>ot 9 T(>o(pot. 

In the ftreet the nurfe ufed a fponge dipped in 
honey, which fhe applied to the mouth of the child, 
when it cried ; (Hefych. ad xuf *&> (Suo-^o-a.) To com- 
pofe it to fleep fhe fung, AaAa, |3aux.aAav ; and thefe 
fongs were called, j3vxA>jo-E?, (Hefych. Athene. 
14. 3.3 and wwia. When this method failed, the 
nurfe terrified it into quiet, with a figure called 
(Ariftoph. 'Thefmoph. ^i^. Ac/iarn* 
DP 4 582. 


582. Plant. Rud. aft. i. fc. 6.) hence the word, 
tl (Hefych. Arijioph. Av. 


There were children of feveral defcriptions ; as, 
the r>u<no, lawfully born the NcOoi, born of 
concubines, 01 o-xoriot, whole fathers were not 
known, and 01 wa^ma*, whofe mothers were impure 
before marriage, but were frill taken for virgins; 
and 0Tot, adopted children, Thofe were reputed 
legitimate children, who ^were begotten in lawful 
marriage. If the father was a citizen, and mother 
a foreigner, or if the mother was a free woman, 
and the father a foreigner, the child inherited mofl 
commonly the freedom of the city in which he was 
born ; although it was afterwards enacted that none 
fhould be legitimate who were not defcended from 
free parents; (Ariflot. Politic, lib. 3, cap. 5.) which 
law was afterwards enforced, or difpenfed with, as 
occafion offered ; (Plutarch. Pericl. Schol. Arijloph* 
Avib.) Left natural children fhould infmuate 
thernfelves into the roll of free citizens, fevere fcru- 
tinies were made in every borough, which were 
called $i&4>v<piw$, (Harpocrat.) by which thofe, not 
properly qualified, were ejected from the city. 
There was alfo a court of inquiry about fuch per- 
fons, held in the cynofarges, in the fuburbs of 
Athens. Thofe who had only one free parent, were 
deemed not of fo honourable a delcent, as thofe 
whofe parents were both citizens 5 (Plutarch. The* 
tnift,) Thofe of illegitimate origin were generally 
confidered in a difgraceful fenfe ; (Horn. 11 0. v. 28 1, 
. Ajac, v 1250. Euripid, Ion* v. 589.) 



If there were no legitimate children, nor relations, 
the baftards in fome cafes inherited the father's 
property , (Demoftk. Oral, in Macart. Ariftopk* 
Avib.) In any cafe, baftards were not excluded 
from fome ihare of their father's property. They 
were at firft allowed 500 drachms, or five Attic 
pounds, which were termed votaa, a baftard's por- 
tion ; (SchoL Ariftoph. in Suidas. v. votaa.) It was 
afterwards raifed to 1000 drachms, or ten Attic 
pounds. Their portion fometimes depended on 
their father's pleafure ; (Sopater.) Where there 
were no legitimate fons, the daughters inherited the 
eflates, and were obliged to marry their neareft 
relations, or to forfeit their inheritance. Thefe vir- 
gins were called TrsoixA^m^W, TraT^p^c*, 7nxA?oi, and 
[/.otvfcti, (Euftath. in //. u.) who, and their neareft 
relations, were empowered to claim marriage from 
one another; if either party refufed to confent, the 
other preferred an action, which was termed n<Jx- 
f<r0ai, which word was applied to other lawfuits: 
hence inheritances, about which they applied to the 
law, were called xAnfoyo/uai n&xi ; and thofe which 
they quietly poflefled, were called avsirdmoti. It is 
faid, that the neareft relation was obliged to claim 
his wife with her inheritance in the archon's court, 
if he was a citizen ; if only a fojourner, in the pole- 
marchus's ; which was called *an^>c#<r0ai, and 
might be done any month in the year, except in 
Schirrophorion, the magiftrates being then employed 
i<n fettling their accounts ; (Petit, in Leg. Attic.) 
This law gave occafion to a comedy of Apollodorus, 
entitled sTn^ixa^o/xci/oj, or TnJixao/*j/i ; ( < Terent 
Phorm,) When men had given a daughter in mar- 


riage, and then died without fons, the nearefl rela- 
tion might claim the heirefs and the inheritance j 
(Ifeus. Orat. de Pyrr. Hared.) They who had no 
legitimate iflue, were allowed to adopt any others j 
except thofe who were not mafters of themfelves, 
xuio savruv ; as, Haves, women, madmen, infants 
under twenty-one years of age, who were not allow- 
ed to make wills, or to manage their eftates. If 
the adopted perfon was a foreigner, he was made 
free of the city. The name of the adopted perfon 
was enrolled in the tribe of his new father, on the 
feftival called ayr,Ata, in the month of that name. 
In Sparta, adopted children were confirmed in the 
prefence of their kings. They were called vaike 
fit or iKnrowrot ; and ceafed to have any claim 
upon the family to which they originally belonged ; 
(Ifaus. dt H*red. Afiypk.) unlefs they firft re- 
nounced their adoption ; (Harpocfation, Ifaus de 
Hxred. Philoc. and Arift.) If the adopted perfons 
died without children, the inheritance, which they 
received, returned again. The Athenians forbad 
any one to marry, after he had adopted a fon, with- 
out leave from the magiftrate ; (Tzetzes. ChiL 6. 
Hift. 49.) If they then married, the adopted 
equally fhared with the legitimate children. It was 
not unufual for legitimate fons to divide equally 
by lot their father's eftates ; allowing a fmali por- 
tion to thofe who were illegitimate ; (Horn. Odyjf. 
%. v. 200.) Thofe, who had neither legitimate nor 
adopted children, were fucceeded by their nearefl 
relations ; (Horn. II. L v. 155.) who were called 
^jwraj 3 (Hefychius. Pollux. Hefiod. ^fheogon.) 




In fome ftates, liberty was given to the citizens to 
difpofe of their eftates. By the laws of Solon, (Plu- 
tarch. Solon.) men were permitted to beftow their 
eftates on whom they pleafed, upon certain condi- 
tions: ( I.) That they muft be citizens of Athens, not 
flaves nor foreigners, whofe eftates belonged to the 
public. (2.) That they muft be twenty years of age ; 
under that age they could only leave by will one me- 
dium of barley; (Ifeus de Hxred. Ariftarch.) (3.) 
That they muft not be adopted. (4.) That they 
fliould have no male children of their own. If they 
had daughters only, the perfons to whom the inhe- 
ritance was bequeathed were obliged to marry them; 
(Ifeus Or at. de H#red. Pyrrhi.) Men were allowed 
to appoint heirs to fucceed their children, if they 
happened to die under twenty years of age; (De- 
mojlh. Or at. 2. in Stephan. Tejt.) (5.) That they 
fliould be in their proper fenfes, and have the full ufe 
of their underftanding. (6.) That they mould not be 
under imprifonment or conftraint. (7.) That they 
mould not be feduced into it by the artifice or in- 
iinuations of a wife ; (Plutarch. Solon.) Wills were 
ufually iigned before feveral witnefles, who put feals 
to them for confirmation, and placed them in the 
hands of truftees, called fTn^nA^rai, who were com* 
pelled to fee them performed. At Athens, the afty- 
nomi or other magiftrates were frequently prefent at 
the making of wills j ( I fans, de Hxred. Cleonym.) 
When it was done in the prefence of the archons, it 
was called <JWj? ; (Suidas. Harpocrat.) Hence Jsvat 
and <Fia0<r9ai, are fometimes fynonymous ; (Ifetis. 
and to fucceed xar JWi/ and 

<fc.*fer*' by gift and will, are oppofed to 

by natural right. Sometimes the teflator 
declared his will before fufficient witnefles, without 
writing it ; (Plutarch. Alcibiad.) They began the 
form of their wills, by wilhing for life and health ; 
adding, that if they fhould be deprived of thefe 
bleffings, their will was as followed Erat /* u, 


The rewards of honourable and valiant actions 
were frequently inherited. Thefe chiefly confid- 
ed in the public education of their children, 
fuitable to their birth, if the parents died with- 
out eftates. Lyfimachus, the fon of Ariilides, 
received from the Athenians one hundred Attic 
pounds of filver, with a plantation of one hundred 
acres of land, together with the daily allowance of 
four drachms -, Lyfimachus, leaving a daughter, 
named Policrite, me was voted the fame provifion 
of corn with thofe who obtained victory in the 
Olympic games. The two daughters of Ariftides 
were each of them allowed three hundred drachms 
for their portions ; (Plutarch. Arijlid.) Children 
alfo participated in the difgrace of the dimonoura- 
ble actions of their parents; (Hom.<IL X. v. 138.) 
By the Macedonian law, men guilty of confpiring 
againft their king, fliould not only fuffer death, 
with their children, but all thofe who were nearly 
allied to them mould mare the fame punifhment -, 
(Q. Curt, lib. 4.) 


The children feem to have paid afliduous atten- 

tion to their parents fometimes in the lowefl of- 

fices -, as, by wafhing and anointing their feet j (Ari- 

* Jloph.) 


floph.) They were anxious to revenge the injuries 
of their parents; (Horn. Odyff. y. v. 208.) and 
to provide a comfortable fubliftence for their old 
age, which was called yn^f&wxfw ; and to per- 
form their funeral rites with decency; (Euripid. 
Med. v. 1032. Euripid. Alee/lid, v. 662.) Even 
when they undertook any bufinefs of danger, they 
were accuftomed to engage fome of their friends to 
maintain and protect them ; (Plutarch. Pelopid. 
Virg. Mn. 9. v. 283.) This provifion was called 
Tc<pta ', by the poets, fytTW^W, 6^27rT^a and Of ZTTTOC, ; 

(Horn. II. $. v. 478.) To be carelefs in this mark 
of affection was accounted a great crime, deierving 
of divine vengeance ; (Hefiod. Op. et Dier. lib. i. v. 
13.) The furies and other infernal deities were be- 
lieved to be always ready to execute the curfes of 
parents thus injured by their children; (Horn. 
OdyJJ'. . v 134. Iliad. *'. v. 454. Plato ds 
Leg. lib. n.) They were punilhed with a-n^a, 
infamy ; (Laerthis Solon.) This penalty was alfo 
incurred by thofe who had beaten their parents, 
and other progenitors. When any one became a 
candidate for the office of archon, if it appeared he 
had not honoured his parents, he was rejected. 
Children were not obliged to maintain thofe parents 
who had neglected to give them fuitable education ; 
(sEfchin. Orat. in tfimarch.) The fons of harlots 
\vere under no obligation to maintain their parents ; 
(Plutarch. Solon.) The difobedience and extrava- 
gance of children frequently deprived them of the 
care and property of their parents; ( 
Spud.) yet this was not allowed without a public 
appeal to the magiflrates appointed for that purpofe, 
where, if the charges againfl the children were al- 
lowed, they were publicly proclaimed by the herald 



to be difhinherited -, which was called onrowg 
vtov, and the perfon difhinherited was called 

; (Uefychius.) It was alfo called 
,' and to be re-admitted to the inheritance, 
j TO yti/of. Parents were allowed 
to be reconciled to their children, after which they 
could never again renounce them ; (Lucian. Abdi- 
cat. If aits, de Hared* Ciron ) When any one, 
through old age or infirmities, became unfit to 
manage his property, his Ton might impeach him 
before the Qfurogss, men of his own ward, who 
might inveft him with the immediate poffeffion of 
it ; (Ariftoph. Nub. aR. 3. ft. i. Cicero de Senecl. 
Schol. Ariftoph. Ran.) 


There were four times of eating every day ; ( Atlie- 
nx. lib. I. cap. g.) (i.) Axca-noy**, the morning 
meal ; becaufe it was then ufual to eat bread dipped 
in pure wine ; which was called GCMXTOV. This meal 
was alfo called agirov ; (SchoL in II. (3.) and fometimes 
howntrpogy the morning-meal. It was taken about 
the rifmg of the fun. (2.) AsiTrvoi/, fo called, becaufe 
after this meal, $n vovsn, it was ufual with them to 
return to the war or other employments ; (SchoL in 381.) (3.) AftAtj/ov, fometimes alfo called 
<T7r^KTjota, the afternoon meal. (4.) AO^TTO?, the fup- 
per, which was afterwards termed Jn-mj (Schol. in 
Horn. IL |3.) Some call the times of eating, Ax^ano-- 
H*a, Agirovy EvrrsgKrpoi.) and ASITTVCV ; (Athena,) Others 
enumerate only three meals in the day, and omit the 
AaAjj/ci/; (Athene, lib. 5. cap. 4.) Others only reckon 
two meals, aois-ov and JO^TTCJ; (Athene, lib. 5. cap. 4.) 
and that the other words, with the ancient Greeks, 
jncluded the fenfe only of thefe; (Odyjj\ |3. 20. 
Plutarch. Sympos. 8. Odyjf. A. 414.) 




Their meetings at entertainments were occafioned 
by their devotion to the gods ; if they indulged 
much in the ufe of wine and dainties, it was on 
a religious account ; (Athene, lib. 5. lib. 2.) At 
feflivals, they fuppofed the gods were prefent; (Ovid. 
Faft. lib. 5.) and on thofe days refled from their 
labour. They mofl commonly ufed moderation in 
their drinking ; and, having offered a libation to 
the gods, quietly returned home; (Athene, lib. 8. 
cap. 1 6.) The tiXonrivn, fometimes called svca^a and 
arvpGoXov fenrvov, was an entertainment given by one 
perfon. The SQ&VOS, was given at the charge of all 
who were prefent ; (Athene, lib. 8.) and was fome- 
times called diacvs? ; and the guefls <ruj/9ta<noTat and 
What they each contributed was called 
i(r(pog& 9 xMTx&oXyy (TiyA^cA?) ; and the enter- 
tainment was called &i?rm a-vptpogyrov, <rvfj,oX^&iov> 
aTTO (rvpSoXyS) xxr&GoXiov ; fometimes TO sx. XOIPS, &c. 
At Argos, it was called %uy. The perfons who col- 
lected the charge were called wr*. Perhaps the 
esnrvov (rvvot, e yu'yi[Aov or cui/ifcywyiof, may be the fame 
with *(savo? ; (Athene, lib. 8.) The Swcva fTnJWt/Aa, 
or s smhpuTu*, were entertainments in which fomc 
of the guefls contributed more than their exact pro- 
portion; which was called tteMovou. The ro euro 
cTTi^iJc?, was, when any one having provided his own 
fupper, put it into a bafket, and went to eat it at 
t he houfe of another - 9 ( Athena, lib.%.) It is alfo faid 
to allude to the cuflom of receiving in a bafket a 
piece of filver, or fragments of meat inflead of a fup- 
per; (Hefychms.) The ^>o, were generally mofl fre- 
quented, as mofl apt to promote fociety ; (Hefad. 
Qper. et. Dier. lib. 2. v. 340.) and condudled with 



more order and propriety; (Euftath. in Odyjf.u. 226.) 
At public feftivals they were fometimes intemperate 
and diforderly ; (Horn. Odyff. <*. v. 226.) The en- 
tertainment called ya^rj^ was the fame as eiXirMt. 
At the soavos, thofe who were prefent without join- 
ing in the charge of the entertainment were called 
a<ru/x?oA<H ; who were chiefly fingers, poets, or thofe 
who were invited to entertain the company ; (Athe- 
ne, lib. i. cap. 7.) Hence ourvpSoXot fometimes 
means an ufelefs perfon ; (Plutarcft. Coriol.) There 
were fometimes public entertainments, at which a 
whole city or tribe were prefent, which were called 
o-uo-o-iTja, iTKv$<MviKi> &c. or fometimes from the fort 

of company, as <fyao9c:i/jat, $nw fapocux, and {JViuimxa, 

?*Tx, puAfTixa. it was fometimes provided by 
the rich, by contribution, or from the public trea- 
fury. Thefe entertainments were conducted with 
the greater! frugality and decorum ; at which per- 
fons of ail ages were admitted. They were called 
by the Cretans, ai^eia; by the Spartans, fw/m; 
(Ariftot. de Repub. lib. 7. cap. 10. Plutarch. Ly- 


The Grecians were at firft fatisfied with the fpon- 
taneous fruits of the earth, and with the water from 
fountains and rivers; (Lucret. lib. 5.) In early times, 
the, moft common food at Argos was pears; at 
Athens, figs ; in Arcadia, acorns, the people of 
which country were hence called |3aAai/^ay0i, acorn- 
eaters ; (Milan. Far. Hifl. lib. $.cap. 39. Lycophr. 
Caff.v. 482.) Other nations of Greece generally 
ufed acorns : hence the trees, which bear acorns, 
were called payo*, from paysif, to eat ; (Ifidor. Orig. 
lib. 17. cap. 7. Macrob. in Somn. Scip. lib. 1. cap. 
10.) It was believed that they lived chiefly upon 


fooi)* 417 

acorns and berries ; and that the earth produced 
corn without cultivation ; (Hefwd. Oper. lib. i. v. 
1 1 6.) till Ceres taught them the art of agriculture 5 
(Paufan. Attic. Ackaic. Arcadic.) The art of 
making and baking bread was afcribed to Pan* 
At firft, barley was ufed before any other, fort of 
corn, (Artemid. lib. i. cap. *]i.Plin. Nat. Hi/I, 
lib. 1 8. cap. 7.) as the food of men; which after- 
wards was in ufe only among the poor, who could 
not obtain other provifion. 

Bread was called <x.%ro$, (Paufan.Arcad. 4.) which 
fometimes meant meat and drink -, (Horn. 11. .341* 
0. 507.) It was fometimes called <nroc; (Hef.toy. 
146.604.) It was generally carried in a bafket, called 
xaveoi/, and v-oivovi/ ; (Horn. Odyff. a. 147. tfheocr. 
Idyll. 24. 135. JfLn. 1.705.) Their loaves were 
baked either under the afhes, and then they were 
called, cTrodtroti a^toi, ( Athena. 3* 27. ) tykpv(picti 9 
(At hen*. 3. 25. Sttidas. Hefychius.) or in the 
oven, x^ifrfcvw ; and then the loaves* were called 
xiwa; (Athena. 3. 2.6.) and IVIHTW. The Greeks 
had another kind of bread, named pg* 9 which 
was made with a coarfer flour, fait, and water; 
to which oil was fometimes added ; (Hefych.SchoL 
Ariftoph. Pac. i. Atktnx. 14.) Barley meal was 
alfo in much ufe, called aApn-ov ; (Eufiath. 11. A. 
Suidas.) The portico at Athens where this meal 
was fold, was called aApirwi/ roa, (Hefych.) and roa 
aA<ptTo?rwAK ; (Ariftoph. Ecchs. 682.) The 0ov, 
was a compofition of rice, cheefe, eggs, and honey. 
It was wrapped in fig-leaves; (Schol. Ariftoph. 
Equit. noo. and Ran. 134.)" The PVTTUTOV was 
made wi^h cheefe, garlick, and eggs, mixed together; 
(Schol. Ariftoph. Acharn. 173. Equit. 768.) 

* E The 


The poor made their bread hollow, into which 
they put the fauce. It was called pwxxvi ; (Schol. 
Ariftoph. Pint. 627.) hence the word /onruAAa<r0a j 
(Ariftoph. Equit. 824.) The poor at Athens alfo 
lived on garlick and onions ; (Schol. Arifloph. Pint. 
819. and Equit. $97.) They had many forts of 
cakes, as TTV^M^H^ (Schol. 1 Ariftoph. Equit. 277.) 
<rn<r.*pff, (Ariftopk. Thcfm. 577 .) a^uXuj, (Arifloph. 
iPac. 1 194.^ *T*a, ( Ariftoph. Achani. logi.J ^EAT- 
rra, (Arifloph. Nub. 507. Pollux, J. 1 1 .) QIVOVTT*; 
(Ariftoph. Pint. 1122.) 

In early times, they wholly abftained from flefh, 
(Plat. lib. 6. de Legib.) becaufe they thought it 
unlawful to eat or to pollute the altars of the gods 
with the blood of living creatures; (Porphyr.) 
The firft of all animals ufed for food were fwine, 
who were thought ufelefs for other purpofes; (Cicer. 
lib. 2. de Nat. Deor.) For feveral ages afterwards, 
it was held unlawful to kill oxen, becaufe they were 
ferviceable for their labour. It was not ufual to 
kill young animals, (Athena. Horn.) becaufe it 
tended to the deftruction of the fpecies; hence, 
when fheep were fcarce at Athens, a law was enacted 
to forbid the eating of lambs which had never 
been (horn 5 (Athene, lib. i .) They were accuftom- 
cd in early times to road their meat ; (Servius in 
jEn. i. 710) vwy feldom to boil it ; (Horn. I/. <p. v. 
362.) In later times, at Sparta, they were frugal 
and temperate ; they had in their 2wc<rm*, public 
entertainments^ fimple and plain diet; the chief of 
which was /cu*f wj*o?, black broth ; (Athena, lib. 
4. tap. 6.) The poor fometimes fed upon grafs- 
hoppers, and the extremities of leaves ; (Arijtoph. 
Acharn. 1115.- Milan. Var. H/ft. JJ. 26. Ovid. 

FOOD. 419 

Faft. 4. 39 3-) The Greeks were lovers of filh ; 
(Ariftoph. Ran. nooj They were fond of eels 
dreifed with beet-root; which difli they called 
*7X At? fvTTUTAa*&yxvai ; (Ariftoph. Acharn. 894. 
Pac. 1014.^ They were alfo fond of fait fifh, of 
which the jowl and the belly were their favourite 
parts; (Schol. Ariftoph. Acharn. ybS.*- Athene 3. 
33, Ariftoph. Equit. 1 244.,) They ate fweetmeats, 
almonds, nuts, figs, peaches, and other fruits; 
which they called r^wxra, (Milan. Var.Hift. I. 31 .) 
TfxynpctTK, (SchoL Ariftoph. Plut. 190.^ tirmiriff 
jwara, (Athena. 14. IO.) irspiAarot } (Athene. 14. 
12 .) They called this part of the entertainment, 
&UTI T^aTrs^ai, the fecond courfes ; (At hen*. 14. 
10.^ They ufed Xa?, fait, in almoft every kind 
of foodi (Horn. II. . 214. Plutarch. Sympos. 6.) 

Any one who wifhed to cxercife the art of 
cookery with unufual care was expelled the cityi 
(Max. fyrr. Difll 7.) The Spartan cooks were 
hence called etyoiroioi x^ew? /*oi/, dreffers of flefh 
only i (Milan, lib. 14. cap. 7.) fome of the ancient 
heroes dreffed their own provifion ; (Horn. II. *'. tf. 
209.) Sometimes the xi^ux*? ferved as cooks; 
hence the ancient cooks are reported to have been 
0vnxu? c/wrfi0fy /killed in divination, and ^o*ravro 
yajwwi/ *, 9uo-;oy, managed marriage feafts and facri- 
fices ; (Athene, lib. 14. cap. 23.) 

In later ages, the art of dreffing food was held in 
better efteem ; in which the Sicilians were highly 
prized; (Athena, lib. 14. cap. 23.) hence Zixriuxn 
^ 7T^a, a Sicilian table, was ufed for one luxurioufly 
fpread ; (Suida$.) The Athenian entertainments 
were alfo very frugally given ; (Athena, lib. 4. cap. 

12 . 


3.) hence the term Arnxjiff, like an Athenian, is 
to live penurioufly ; (Athene, lily. 4. cap. 5.) 


Water, in the early ages, was the ufual drink : after- 
wards hot fountains were in great requeft ; (Plato 
Critia.->-Hom. Iliad %. v. 147.) It has been denied, 
that they were wont to drink hot waters ; (Pollux, lib. 
9. cap. 6. Athene, lib. 3. cap, 35.) which they 
only ufed for bathing, unlefs preicribed by ph?- 
ficians. Cold water was mod frequently drank, 
and, to render it very cold, it was ufual for them 
to temper it with ice, which they prefcrved during 
the ftimmer, wrapped in ftraw and cloths; (Pin- 
larch. Sympos. lib. 6. -Athene. Lib. 3. cap. 36.) 
The invention of wine was afcribed by the Greeks 
to Bacchus, to whom divine honours were paid on 
that account. Wine was called owoq, it is faid from 
OEneus, who firft difcovered the art of preffing 
wine from grapes j (Nicander. Athene, lib. 2.) 
Some fuppofe the vine to have been firft difcovered 
in Olympia ; others, at Flinthion, in Egypt ; (Athe- 
ne, lib. i.) It was the cuflom for matrons and 
virgins to drink wine 3 (Horn. Odyjf. ^.) who were 
fometimes cenfured on that account ; (Athene, 
lib. 10.) It was ufual alfo for infants to drink it ; 
(Horn. Iliad /. v. 484.) The wine was generally 
mixed with water; (Athene, lib. i. cap. 2.) hence 
cups were called x^ar^j, from the mixture made 
in them; (Homer Odyff. a.) Some afcribe this 
cuftom originally to Melampus > (Athene, lib. 6. 
cap. 2.) others, to Staphylus, the fon of Silenus : 
others fay, that Bacchus himfelf taught Amphyc- 
tyon, king of Athens, the practice of mixing wine 



. and water; who dedicated an altar to that god, 
under the name of o^oe, becaufe they now began 
to leave their entertainments o^oi, upright or fober; 
he alfo enabled a law, that only wine, mixed 
with water, fhould be drank at entertainments ; 
which law was afterwards revived by Solon ; (Plin. 
lib. 7. cap. 56. AtTien<. lib.. 1. cap. 2.) Some,, to 
one veffel of wine mixed two of water, others to 
two of wine mixed five of water ; or more or lefs 
as they pleafed; (Athene, lib. 10. cap. 8.) The 
Spartans boiled their wine upon the fine, till the 
fifth part was confumed ; and began to drink it at 
the expiration of four years; (Athena, lib. 10. cap. 
7.) Sometimes they were accuftomed ax^Tfr^o* 
mult, to drink wine without water, which they 
called ric-*u9i<ra, to act like Scythians ; who were 
much addicted to drunkennefs ; hence oMgaroinw is 
commonly termed <rxu9tr TFWV or <rxu9o7mti/ : and 
KXflarcTrotna, is called crxuOtni THXTJ?; (Athene, lib. 10. 
cap.. 7.) The Thracians drank their wine unmixed 
with water ; which they alfo frequently poured 
upon their garments ; (Athene, lib. 10, cap. 9.) 
hence G^axta Tr^ovrcxn?, the Thracian way of drinking, 
was meant ax^aTOTroo-ta, drinking wine unmixed 
with. water; (Pollux, lib. 6. cap. $.) It was the 
cuftom of fome to perfume their wine, which was 
then called woj ^u^ii/miff, (Mlian. Var. Hifl.lib. 12. 
cap. 31 .) and fometimes /AU^V>]?, which Cgnines a 
potion mixed with odours; (Hefyckius.) Several 
other ingredients were mixed with wine ; as, fome.- 
times aAipfTa, meal ; hence oivo? a7rijA^T^/*i>of, wine 
thickened with meal ; (At hen*, lib. 10. cap. 9.) 
They had many kinds of made wine, as, QMS 
wine made of barley; and QMS C^TO?, palm- 
E E 3 wine, 


wine, fometimes called oo? t^vrov. Oo$ was a 
general name for all made wine. 

They kept their wine in earthen veffels, called 
xfH*ot?; (Horn. IL i. 465. Euflath. IL t. 387. ) or 
in bottles, called *<TXOK ; (Horn. II. y. 247. Odyff. 
Z. 78. (3. 343 J Old wine was in bcfl repute; 
(Horn. Odyff. |3. 340. y. 391. Pind. Olymp. Od. 
y.) The mofl famous wines were, Tr^a/xi^o^, (Wiof, 
7u<ric?, x*o?, x^no-xuo?, fo&of, (Milan. Var. Hift. 12. 
31.^ and jtca^wTUf; (Hom.Odyjf. . 194.^ They 
fometimes mixed their wines with perfumes; (^Eli- 
an. Var.Hift. 12. 31.^ The ancient Greeks drank 
from horns of oxen ; (Euftath. II. v. 6.) They after- 
wards ufed cups of earth, (Athene, n. 3.^ wood, 
glafs, (Ariftofh. Acharn. j$.) brafs, (PoMux, 10, 
26.^) gold, and filver's (Athene, n. 3.^ Their 
names were chiefly, 

j (Athene. I IJ 
To- the pleafures of the table they added iinging 
and dancing; (Horn. Odyjf. a. 152. &<?/. Ariftoph* 
Ran. 1377. 


He who provided the entertainment was com- 
monly Called o f$"iotTwg, tfwv, %tiviuvy rns <rvins<riot{ 
nyjawv, (rvpTTOVis a^wv, <ru/X7rao-*a^oj, and by the 

tragedians otxo^/xwi/, &c. The perfons entertained 

Were Called ^aiTU/xovT]?, {JamAnj, fl-u^x?roTai, <ruv^J7r>p, 

fometimes xXTot, o-u-yxAnrot, 7rixA>jTo. Thofe em- 
ployed to invite the guells were called X^TO^I j and 
Jii7rvoxXTo^5 ; ^AiaT^o*, and "fAciaT^o;, from iXfor, 
which is the name of the table, on which the pro- 
yifion was placed in the kitchen ; (Athena, lib. 4. 



sap. 21.,) Sometimes to invite was called Karayfa- 
pm, to write down, from the cuftom of infcribing 
the names of thofe to be invited on a tablet. 
The hour was fignified by the invitation ; and as 
they numbered the hours by the motion of the 
fun, frequent ufe is made of crxi*, the fhade of the 
fun, and roi%iov, the letter of the dial ; (Arijloph. 
Condon. Suidas. Hefychius.) Relations often 
went uninvited ; (Athene, lib. 4. cap. 26. Horn. 
//. (3. 408.^ They, who were brought by thofe 
who had been invited, were called <na, umbne, 
(hades, from their following the guefts, as fhades 
<do bodies; (Plutarch. Sympos. lib. 7. Qukft. 6. - 
Horat.lib. z.fat. $.v. 22. Lib. i.Ep,$.2$.) They 
who iniinuated themfelves into the company where 
they were not welcome, were called /*u<a, mufca?, 
flies; (Plant. Panul. aEl. ^.fc. 3. v. 76. Plant. 
Mercat. aft. z.fe. 3. v. 26.) Flies were deemed 
an emblem of a man of courage, becaufe, when 
Beaten away, they return again; (Iliad . v. 570.^ 
They were alfo termed MUXOWJ, Myconians, from, 
^he poverty of that nation; (Athene, lib. i. cap. j.J 
and ITaf &<nroi, Parafites , (Athena, lib. 6. cap. 7. 
Pollux , lib. 6. (ap 9 j.} It was however ufual for 
friends to vifit at the houfe^ of each other at the 
times of entertainment, without waiting for an in- 
vitation ; (Euftath. in II. . Plato Sympos.) 

fhe number of guefts varied, as occafion of- 
fered, but feldom exceeded five; (Athena, lib. \. 
tap. 4. Lib. 15. cap. 3.} though in later times it 
was not limited . At the fl-ixro-ma, common meals, 
not more than ten were admitted; (Euflath. in Horn. 
11. (3. 1 26 .) At public entertainments the number 
was not limited ; (Diodor, Sicul.) Afterwards, to 
E E 4 prevent 


prevent confufion, no perfon at Athens was N allowcd 
to entertain above thir-ty at one time ; to enforce 
which law, men called yvvcuxoi'Ofjwi, were obliged to 
go to entertainments, and to expel thofe who ex- 
ceeded, that number; and the cooks, employed to 
drefs the food at entertainments a gave in their names 
every time they were hired ; (Athena, lib. 6. cap. 
1 1 . ) Men and women were never invited together ; 
(Cicer. Or at. 3. in farr. Cornel. Nep. Prof at. in 
Vit. Imp.) Reforo they went to an entertainment, 
they waQied and anointed themfelves; (Athene. 
lib. 4. cap. 27.) They who came off a journey wafh 
ed and clothed fuitable to the occasion, in the 
houfe of the entertainer, before the feaft ; (Horn. 
OdyJ. L v. 48.) They alfo wafh'ed their hands be- 
fore they fat down to meat ; (Horn. Odyff. ) It 
was ufual ailo to wa(h between every courfe a and 
after fupper; (Homer. Ariftoph. Vefp.) To wafh 
the hands before fupper was called wJ/ao-O** ; to wafh 
after fupper, a7rovi^ao-9at; and to wipe the hands, 

&7ro//,aa<r9ai, j/a7rcp.^^ao-9a{, UTroi^wizi. The napkin 

was called sx/xayaw, %igop.axTgov ; inflead of which, 
in early times, they uied o.Trou^y^Xiat, which were 
thefoft and fine part of the bread, which they after- 
wards caft to the dogs; (Homer.} In wafliing 
after fupper, they ufed ibme fort of o-/x^y^oj, a?ro- 
fu\I/wff x^ iv - ^ u ^ to ^ cour tne hands; (Athena, 
lib. 10. cap, nit.) After wafhing, the hands were 
perfumed with odours; (Athene, lib. 10. cap. ult.) 

When the guefts arrived at the houfe of enter- 
tainment, the mailer of the houfe faluted them, 
or one appointed in his place ; which was called 
o-7ra^o-&a; ; (Schol. in driftopk. Pint.) The moft 
common falutation was by joining their right 

BATHS. 415 

bands, as a pledge of friendfhip. This ceremony 
was very ancient; (Horn. Odyff. y. v. 3^,) Hence 
driao-9ai is -fometimes joined \vi-.h tttfflragtfrfai j {Ari- 
Jloph. Pint.) Sometimes they kiffed the lips, hands, 
kaees, or feet, in falutations. There was a parti- 
cular fort of kifs, called yv r t cv > f &*&**)' r X UT ?*> 
(Pollux.) the pot; when they tookt'aeperfon, like 
a pot, by both his ears ; which was chiefly ufed 
towards children; (Jibuti, lib. 2.) though iome- 
times by men and women ; (Theocrit. Idyll, s. v. 
132.) When the guefts were admitted, they did 
not immediately fit dova to table, but fpent fome 
time in viewing and commending the room and 
furniture ; (Ariftoph. Vefp. Athene, lib. 4. cap. 27.) 


It was a frequent cuftom to warn the body; 
(Eujlatkius.) Whenever they ceafexi from forrow 
and mourning, they ufually bathed and anointed 
themfelves ; (Horn. Odyff. <r. v. 170.) At the 
end of a battle, or of any great labour, or after 
a long journey, they ufually bathed in rivers; 
fArtemidor. lib. i. cap. 66. Homer. Odyff. . 
Mofck. Idyll. .v. ^i.^'Theocr. IdylL w. v. 31.) 
Virgins were obliged to bathe, and aecuftom them- 
felves to the fame exercifes as the men. If the fea 
was near, they repaired to it for this purpofe, rather 
than in rivers, the fait water being thought whole- 
fame ; ( Athene \ lib. i. cap. 19. Homer. Odyff.) 


Hot baths were very ancient. H^axAna AT^, 
the hot baths, fhewed by Vulcan, or by Minerva, to 
Hercules, when weary with labour, are celebrated 



by the poets. 0g^a Njt*p*v AT, hot baths of 
the nymphs, are mentioned; (Pindar. Ofymp. 12.) 
One of the fountains of Scamander is commended 
for its hot water; {Horn. 1L %.) A hot bath was 
provided for Hedior by Andromache, againft his 
return from battle ; (Horn. 11. x .) Neftor orders 
Offp* Aorr^a, a hot bath, to be prepared for him ; 
(Horn. II. A.) The Phseacians were very fond of 
the ufe of hot baths ; (Horn. Od)f.) Before B*x a , 
nta, baths, were in much ufe, veflels were ufed for 
bathing, called <*<ra^0oi, which fignifies JTU*AO or 
AX*""> a barm or veflel to warn. in, being derived 
ira^y, TO rw ex.vw pivvQuv, from taking away the filth 
of the body; (Phavorin. v. ao-a^*vdof.) This vefTel 
belonged to baths j (Pollux.) Public baths were 
unknown till later times; no fuch places were 
anciently allowed within the city ; (At ken*, tik. i. 
cap: 1 4.) The baths contained feveral apartments : 
the awroJvTiifw, in which they put off their clothes : 
the uTToxaurov or 7ru^Ta^ov, generally a circular apart- 
ment, and provided with irvf axaTrm, a fire that 
does not fmake, for the ufe of thofe who defired to 
fweat : the (3*7mrj? ev, a hot bath : the Aar^v, a 
cold bath : the Aimif ov, the apartment in which 
they were anointed. 


After bathing, they always anointed, either to 
clofe the pores of the body, or left the fkin mould 
be rough, when the body was dried ; (Euflath. in 
Iliad x.) In early times, they ufed oil perfumed 
with odoriferous herbs, efpecially rofes; (Plin. Nat. 
Hi/}, lib. 3. cap. i.) hence the term %o$ow Aaipi/, oil 
mixed with roles ; (Horn. 11. . v. 1 86.) and 00- 


cov I$MW and TfOuco/xsw; (Horn. II. %. v. 170.) 
There were different forts of oil ufed ; (Athena, 
lib. i 5. cap. n.) Solon prohibited men from fel- 
ling ointments ; the fame prohibition was in force 
at Sparta; (Athena, lib. 15. cap. 10.) Women, 
however, and effeminate men, were very curious in 
their ointments; particular fpecies of which they ap- 
plied to particular joints of the body; (Athene.) 
The feet were warned and anointed more than any 
other parts of the body ; hence they were called 
Aiwa^oi Tro&f ; (Homer.) Women were ufually em- 
ployed to warn and anoint the feet ; and it was 
ufual for them to exprefs their reipect by killing the 
feet; (AriJloph.Tefp.) 


There were feveral forts of feats ufed at enter- 
tainments; for the Grecians fat down at their 
meals; (Horn. II. x. 578. . 3 15.^ A*?fo?, was a 
feat containing two perfons ; and were commonly 
placed for the inferior guefts : 0^ove?, a feat, on which 
they fat upright, with <5>i/uf, a foot (tool, under their 
feet; Kxtr/uoc, a feat, on which they fat, leaning 
rather backwards ; (Athene, lib. $>cap. 4.) After- 
wards, when luxury and effeminacy prevailed, 
they exchanged their feats for couches, that they 
might drink more commodioufly ; (Plant. Stick, 
aft. $.fc. 4. v. 22.) In Macedonia, no one was 
allowed to (it at meals, before he had killed a 
boar without nets ; (Athene, lib. i. cap. 14.) It 
was the cuftom for children to fit at their meals; 
(Tacit. Annal. lib. 13. Stteton. Aug. cap. 64.* 
Sueton. Claud, cap, 32.) at the bottom of the couch; 



where alfo fat people of meaner condition ; ( Pin- 
larch. Sympos. Sapient. Donat. Vit. Cerent.) - The 
table was placed in the middle, round which flood 
the couches, covered with cloth or tapeftry ; upon 
thefe they retted, inclining the upper part of their 
body upon their left arms, the lower part being ex- 
tended at length, or fomewhat bent; their heads were 
raifed up, and their backs fometimes fupported with 
pillows. If feveral perfons reclined upon the fame 
bed, the firft was- on the upper part, with his legs 
ilretched out behind the fecond perfon's back : 
the fecond perfon's head was below the bofom of 
the former, his feet being placed behind the third 
perfon's back ; and in this manner four or five were 
placed ; (Gicer, Or at. in Pifon.) At the beginning 
of the entertainment, it was ufual to lie flat upon 
their ftomachs, that their right hand might more 
eafily reach the table ; but afterwards they turned 
upon their fides: (Plutarch. Sympos. lib. 5. hi<ejt,6. 
Hor at. lib. 2. Sat. 4. v. 37.) 

The guefts were ufually arranged according to 
their rank, the chief perfons holding the uppermoft 
feats; (Eiiftath. in II. g. v. 498.) Afterwards at 
public entertainments- there was o*o^ax.> k y ( To, a per- 
ibn appointed to call every gueft by name to his 
pror;er place. Heroes fat in long ranks, and the 
chief perfons were placed at the head of each rank 
on both fides of the table; which is the meaning of 
the word, ax^o.i, uppermoft ; (JLufiath. vi ll. . v. 
4tffi.Hom. II. i. v. 217.) Neptune entering the 
1 aft at. an entertainment of the gods, yet fat in the 
middle ; Jupiter was at the head of one rank, next 
to him, Minerva his daughter; who once gave 
place to Thetis -, (Horn, //, <*. v. ipo.) Juno fat at 



the head of the oppofite rank ; (Plutarch. Sympos. 
lib. i. Qutfft. i.) That couch placed the firft or 
neareft to the table, was thought the nioft honour- 
able ; fometimes the firft place of the middle couch* 
Sometimes they were feated promifcuoufly, without 
regard to rank or character ; (Plutarch. fimaJk 
Sympos. lib. i. -$u<ejl. 2.) It was ufual at Sparta, 
For the eldeft to go before the reft to the couches at 
the common hall, unlefs the king called any one 
before him ; (Euftath. in IL |3.) The table was ac- 
counted lacred ; through which means honour was 
paid to Jupiter, the god of friendihip and hofpi- 
tality, (Synefms Ep. 57.) who was called Sevw and" 
$*A*o?. Honour was alfo paid to Hercules, who 
\vas hence called Tgonrsgw and ATroTgcnrsgw. It 
was ufual to place the ftatues of the gods upon the 
table, and thus to offer libations to them; (Plutarch. 
Conv. Sept. Sapient.) To difhonour the tables of 
hofpitality by any irreverent behaviour was deemed 
criminal; (Juven. Sat. 2. v. no: Lycophr.-CaJJ*. 
v. 136.) The tables were originally made of wood, 
polifhed with fome art ; and the feet were painted 
in various colours, and formed in different fhapes. 
Hence the words, gsru, suf-oof, xuayoTri^a, &c. ; (Ho~ 
mer.) the form of the tables in ancient times was 
circular ; (Athena, lib. 1 1. cap. 12.) and afterwards 
extended in length ; (Euftath. in Horn.) They 
were cleaned with wet fponges ; (Horn. Odyff. a. v. 
112. Odyff. \>. verf. 150, Arrian. lib. J. cap. 26. 
Martial. Ep/g.J 

The tables, in early times, were fquare, (Euftath. 
Odyff. K. ijSJ and thofe belonging to the poor were 
generally fupported by three feet, and made of com- 
mon woods thofe belonging to perfons in higher rank 



were made of more valuable materials; adorned 
with plates of filver, and fupported by feet curioufly 
carved, and called after the names of heroes. The 
moil common fupport was a foot of ivory, caft in 
the form of a lion, a leopard, or fome other ani- 
mal. Some have fuppofed that a table was fct 
apart for each guefl ; (Homer. Athene, lib. i . cap. 
8,) although it was thought unfociable ; (At hen*. 
Kb. i. cap.%. cap. 10. T^aTr^a, fignifies the ta- 
bles and the meat placed upon them ; (Pollux, lib. 
6. cap. 12.) hence, TT^WTJ, fevrtfzi) f^iT< Tg i^ai, 
iignify the firft, fecond, and third courfes of meat ; 
(At hen*, lib. 9. cap. 2.) 

The fupper was the chief meal, of which thero 
were three parts; (i.) A?rva Trgooipw or T^OTTO^, 
was a repaft before fupper, confifting of bitter herbs, 
of coleworts, eggs, oyfters, O;I/O//,E;U, a mixture of 
honey, and other things ufed to create an appetite. 
(2.) Awrw, was the fupper, fometimes called xspaAij 
&nrvsj which was plentifully furnifhed from the 
former provifions ; (At hen*, lib. 4. cap. 4.) (3.) 
AiuTffa T^aTTf^a, the fecond courfe, which confided 
of fweetmeats of all kinds, called 

rta, &c. The Dorians, who called 
entertainments atxAa and o-uvaixAsja, called this 
courfe ?rxAia ; (Athena, lib. 4. cap. 8.) It was 
furnifhed with much profuiion and luxury; (At hen*, 
lib. 14. cap. ii.) although they were temperate 
and frugal in the ufe of it; (Herodot.hb. i. cap. 
jn^. Athen. lib. 4. cap. 10.) Where there was a 
great variety of difhes, a paper was ufually given 
to the mafter of the feaft containing the contents of 
each difli, who communicated it to the guefts. 



They were however very fparing in their provifion, 
and in the early times were fatisfied with one courfe ; 
(At ken*, lib. 15. cap. loj 

Before they began to eat, they offered a part cf 
their provifion, as a fort of firft fruits, to the gods ; 
which cuftom was religioufly obferved ; (Homer. 
Iliad. Horn. Odyff. Plato. Xenophon. Athens, 
lib. 4. cap. 27 .) The firft of thefe oblations was 
always made to Vefta, the chief of the houfehold 
gods ; they afterwards worshipped fome of the other 
gods; and then offered a libation to Vefta; (Homer. 
Hymn, in Veft. et Mercur. Cicer. de Nat. Deor. lib. 
2. Sckol. in Ariftoph. Vefp. Plato Euthyp.) 

During the entertainment all the guefts were 
apparelled in white, or fome gay colour ; (Cicer. in 
Vatin.) and decked with flowers, or garlands com- 
pofed of flowers ; which the mafter of the feaft 
provided, and brought in before the fecond courfe, 
or at the beginning of the entertainment ; (Athene, 
lib. 25. cap. 10.) They thus adorned their heads, 
necks, and breads, but often beftrewed the couches 
on which they leaned, and other parts of the room 5 
(Ovid. Faft.lib.$.) 

The invention of garlands has been afcribed to 
Prometheus, that men mould commemorate the 
punifhment which he had fuffered for their fakes ; 
(Athena, lib. 15. cap. $.) Others afcribe the in- 
vention of them to Janus, who alfo is faid to have 
been the inventor of mips, and the art of coining; 
(Athene, lib. 15. cap. 13.^ The firft garlands were 
alfo faid to have been ufed by Bacchus, and com- 
pofed of ivy ; (Plin. Nat. Hifl. lib. 16. cap. \.) In 
later times, they ufed ivy and amethyft, as pre- 
fervatives againft drunkenncfs ; (Plutarch. Sjmfos. 



Kb. 3. Qiirtft. i.) Some fay, the mod ancient gar- 
lands were made of wool; (tfheocrit. Idyll. 9.. v. 2.) 
It is certain they were made in the early ages -, 
{Athene, lib. i. cap. i$.) They were compoled of 
various flowers, in which, it was fuppofed, the god* 
chiefly delighted. At firfl the particular herb or 
flower, which was facred to any god, upon the feftival 
dedicated to him, was generally ufed ; but after- 
wards, any herbs were uled, according to the feafon, 
which were thought mofl conducive to refrcfhment ; 
(Athene, lib. 3. cap. 21. Lib. 15. cap. $.) 

Garlands were fuppofed to have influence 
upon the bodies of men; (Plin. lib. 21. cap. 3 ) 
Thofe compofed of rofes, were dedicated by Cupid 
to Harpocrates, the god of filence. The role was 
an emblem of filence, and it was ufual to place it 
above the table, to flgnify that what was there 
fpoken mould be kept private. 

It was cuftomary. at entertainments to anoint 
their heads with ointment to prevent fevers, and 
other complaints arifmg from intemperance ; (Athe- 
ne, lib. 15. cap. 13.^) Thefe arts of luxury and 
effeminacy were firfl introduced by the lonians - 9 
(Valer. Max. lib. 2. cap. 6.) Ointments were 
chiefly applied to the head, but other parts of the 
body ; the bread was adorned with garlands and 
ointment; (Athene, lib. 15. cap. $.) 

The apartment in which the entertainment was 
made, was fometimes perfumed by burning myrrh 
and frankincenfe, or other odours; (Athene, lib. 3. 
cap. 22.) 

The chief attendants at entertainments were, 
(i.) Evj*Tof**l3? fometimes called o-ufAiroo- 

TTtf, fw?jttj*, TaTTCTTCHO?, 7H TTjff 

*XTf ixAiw and *ATO?, the chief manager of the 
entertainment ; which was performed either by the 
mailer of the entertainment, or by another named 
by him : at entertainments where the expence was 
proportioned to all, he was elected by lots, or by 
the votes of the guefts. (2.) Ba<nXsvr was the 
next, and fometimes the fame as the former, called 
alfo f^TTiyo?, ragia^x *' &c. the king, whofe office it 
was to determine the laws of the table, and to 
obferve whether every one drank his proper pro- 
portion ; hence he was called opOaA^of, the eye. 
He was ufually appointed by lots; (Horat. lib. 2. 
Od. 7. v. 25. Cicer. Or at. in 7 err.) The guefts 
were olSiged to conform to the orders of the 
|3a<nAEu? ; (Cicer. in Epiftet. Anian Apoph.) Even 
the chief magiftrates, if the lots elected another, 
were compelled to yield obedience; (Plutarch* 
Symp'os. lib. i. cap. 10.) (3 ) Aair^o?, fo called, 
airo rx SotwQouy from dividing to each gueft his 
portion : hence entertainments were called fairst. 
In the early ages, the mafter of the feaft carved 
for all the guefts ; (Homer Iliad L v. 217. Iliad u. 
u, 626.) afterwards this office was deputed to 
fome particular perfon ; (Athene, lib. i. cap. 10.) 
This office was intended to prevent a-rao-taxia, the 
diforders committed at feafts : hence u; *V<m, 
equal entertainment, an expreffion often ufcd; 
(Homer Iliad u .) 

Perlbns of high character were fometimes helped to 
the beft parts; (Horn. Iliad p. ^.311 . Herodotus.) 
which, if too much for themfelves, they fometimes 
diftributed to others ; (Athena, lib. i. cap. n. - 
Euftath. in Horn.) In later times, the guefts were 
allowed, to carve for themfelves; although the 

F F ancient 


ancient cuftom was adhered to by temperate and 
frugal men, and efpecially at entertainments after 
facriiices; (Plutarch. Sympos. lib. 2. Quaft. ult.) 

The diftributers of the drink were commonly 
called <vo^cot, and about the Hellefpont myxv* ; 
(Athene, lib. 10. cap. 7 .) In the heroical feafts, 
the x*)^x? 5 heralds, commonly performed this of- 
fice; (Horn. OdyJT.a.v. 142.) Sometimes boys 
or young men filled the cups ; (Horn. Odyjj'. a. v. 
149.^ fometimes virgins attended for that purpofe ; 
(Euftath. in Iliad, y. At hen*, lib. i. cap. 8.) hence 
&Xo, fervants, were called by the name of Trunks 
x) vJi<rxi, boys and girls ; (Hefychius v. vouSt*.) 
They were fometimes of fuperior rank and fortune j 
(Athene, lib. 10. cap. j.} The fame cuftom was 
afterwards obferved at entertainments in the tem- 
ples, and at public facrifices ; (Athene, lib. i o. cap. 
7. Lib. 5. cap. 4.) By their beauty and cheer- 
fulnefs they were thought apt to exhilarate the 
guefts ; on which account, the mod handfome and 
the bed drefled were generally preferred -, (Horn. 
lliadS. v. 2. Iliad v. ver. 232. OdyJJ] o. v. 327.) 
In more modern times, high prices were given for 
beautiful youths, (Juven. Sat. 5. v. 60. Philo. lib. 
de Vit. Contempt.) to attend at entertainments -, 
the younger ojfo^ooi, to fill the wine ; thofe of riper 
age, vfyfopoi, to ferve up the water; for which 
offices they were warned and painted, and had their 
hair curled in different forms. 

Erery guefl feems- to have ufed a diftincl: cup, 
from which he draok when he pleafed ; (Horn. IL 2. 
v. 262.) which was very capacious ; (Athene, lib. 
ii. cap. 2.) The cups ufed after fupper were 
larger than thofe ufed at fupper ; (Virgil. Mn. i. 


v. 727.) In the houfes of lich men there was 
ufually a large xvXnaicv, cupboard, filled with cups 
of various fizes. The cups ufed by the ancient 
Greeks were plain, compofed of earth or wood i 
and when luxury began to prevail, of filver, gold, 
and other metals, curioufly wrought, and inlaid 
with precious ftones. They were fome times com- 
pofed of the horns of animals, which were tipt with 
gold or filver ; (Pindar. ALfchylm. Xenophon> 
&c.) Hence, it is faid, Bacchus was furnamed 
Taurus, as worshipped in the (hape of a bull, and 
painted with horns. Some think that x^ar^sf, cups, 
and xa<rai, to mix wine with water, are derived 
from xf*Ta, horns; (Athena, lib. n. cap. 7. 
Eiiftath. in Iliad, v. - in Iliad y.- and in Iliad 0.) 
The cups were adorned with garlands, and filled 
up to the brim ; (Virgil. /En. 3. v. 526. Homer 
Iliad K. v. 470. Athene, lib. 15. cap. 5. Athene* 
lib. i. cap. n.) In early times, the young men 
who ferved, always grefented full cups to men of 
great quality, and diftributed wine to the reft 
in equal proportions ; (Athena, lib. 5. cap. 4. 
Homer Iliad $. 26 1 . Iliad 0. v. 1 6 1 . Iliad p.) 
It was ufual to dri-nk firft to the guefls of high rank ; 
(Plutarch. Sympos. lib. i. $ii*ft. 2.) which was done 
by drinking part of the cup, and fending the re- 
mainder to the perfon whom they named ; which 
they termed TI^OTHI/CU/. In early times, they drank 
the whole cup ; (At hen*, lib. 5. cap. 4.) 
, The form of falutation was various; fometimes, 
when they drank to another they faid, x*if ; (Pin- 
dar. Nemeon.) fometimes he, who fent the cup, 
faluted his friend with vftirwt* <ro xaAw?, which was 
anfwered with Ai*u a?ro <r <&? ; which cere- 

F F 2 niony 


mony was called irgoirivw ^iAoTto-v ; 
He who received the cup, was faid 
e/AOia ;. they ufually drank whatever remained in the 
cup, or, if the cup was emptied, to take another of 
the fame fize; (Athena, lib. 10. cap. 9.) This fort 
of pledging went towards the right hand ; and hence 
called &jfi<nff, whence &iJWxf<r0at is interpreted 
irgoTFWM ^giaadafj (Horn. Iliad a. and i. Ettftath. 
in It. p. Horn. Iliad*, v. 597. Criti. Ep. in Anacr. 
Athene, lib. n.cap. 3.) This cuflom was called 
tv$ti(x, wen ; (Pollux, lib. 2. cap. 4*) fometirnes alfo 
called EV xuxAw TnvEtv ; and the aclion itfelf, syxunAo- 
7ro<n#; becaufe the cup, beginning at the uppermoft 
feat, was conveyed round the table -, (Plant. Perf. aft. 

s-fe- ') 

The manner of drinking however varied In 
different places : the Chians and Thafians drank 
out of large cups to the right ; the Athenians, out 
of fmall cups, to the right ; the Theflalians, large 
cups, to whom they pleafed, promifcuoufly. At 
Sparta, every man had his own cup, which a fer- 
vant filled as foon as it was emptied ; (Athena, lib. 
6. cap. 3.) It was alfo ufual to drink to abfent 
perfons $ to the gods firft, then to their friends 5 
and at every name one or more cups of wine, un- 
mixed with water, was drank off; (Cicer. Oral. 
3. in. Ferr. Afconius Pedian. Com. in Lo& Cicer.) 
Some of the wine they alfo poured upon the earth, 
as often as the name of any abfent perfon was 
mentioned; (Schol. in Theocrit. Idyll. 14. v. 18.) 
amongft their friends they mod commonly named 
their miflreffes; (Tibullus. Herat, lib. I. Od. 27.) 
Sometimes the number of cups equalled the num- 
ber of letters in their miftrefs's name ; (Martial, 
lib. i. Epig. 72.) There were alfo other ways of 
* numbering 

numbering the cups to be drank ; thus three, be- 
caufe of the number of the graces ; nine, becaufe 
of the mufes; (Aufonius. Horat. lib. 3. Od. 19.) 
which was expreiTed by H T^K, u rgts rgiu, either 
three or three times three. There was a faying which 
forbade the drinking of four cups, (the number 
four being inaufpicious) H rgw irne, v pr, TH-ra^a, 
Yet they fometimes filled ten cups as well as nine ; 
(Antholog. lib. 7.) They often contended who 
fhould drink moil ; which contention was fome- 
times of fatal confequence; (Athene, lib, 10. cap-, 
9.) Prizes were awarded to the conquerors, and 
fometimes there were drinking matches ; to the 
firft conqueror was given a talent ; to the fecond, 
thirty p\/(x,i ; to the third, ten JMV ; which ended 
in the death of moft of the competitors ; (Athene, 
lib. 10. cap. 10, Milan. Far. Hift. lib. 2. tap. 
41.) When any one drank off a large cup 
ftpup, or ?mur, without taking breath, he was 
applauded with ZWTEIK?, long may you live -, (Sui- 

At Athens, there were three public officers who 
attended at entertainments, and obferved whether 
every one drank his portion ; and were called otwa-rui) 
fometimes $p0aty*$ (Athene, lib. 9. cap. 6, andj.) 
They who refufed to drink, were obliged to leave 
the company, by that old law H 7n0i,u cwfa, drink 
or depart $ (Cicer. fufeul. hi*ft. lib. 5,) Some 
laws were enaded againft too much intemperance 
in the ufe of wine $ three cups were allowed , one 
for health, another for cheerfulnefs* and a third 
for fleep ; (Athene, lib. ^.) fometimes only two 
were allowed, one for the graces, hours, and Bac* 
ghus, the fecond to Venus and Bacchus j they 

? F 3 


who took the third cup, dedicated it to lufl and 


Unneceffary drinking was prohibited at Sparta ; 
(Xenoph. de Rep. Lacedam.) where it was ordered 
no one fhoukl drink for any other purpofe than to 
fatisfy his thirfl; and it was forbidden them to 
return from entertainments with a torch ; (Critias 
in Eleg.) At Athens, an archon, convided of 
being drunk, fuffered death ; ( Laertius Solon.) 
and others, addicted to company, were pu.nifhed 
by the fenate of Areopagus for wafting their 
time in idlenefs , (Athena.) In Mitylene there 
was a law, that whoever, when drunk, committed 
a crime, mould fuffer double punimment -, (Laer- 
tius Pittac.) 

There were feveral cups ufed on folemn occa- 
fions j as, (l.) AyaOa (ta^vo? x^artio, the CUp of 
good genius, by whom they underftood Bacchus, 
the inventor of wine ; in memory of whom, a cup 
full of pure wine was carried round the table, which 
all the guefls tailed , at the fame time offering a 
prayer to the god, that he would preferve them 
from intemperence and indecorum : hence 
, thofe who drink little, are termed a 

j (Hefychius.) This feems to have been 
done as foon as the table was removed. (2.) 
K^ar*j^ Aioj Swrnfo?, the cup of Jupiter, the faviour, 
which was mixed with water, and dedicated to 
Jupiter, who prefided over the air. (3.) 
Tysta?, the cup of health, which was called 
Tf, or pirmnrTfov, becaufe it was drank when the 
entertainment was ended, and they had warned 
their hands; (Athene, lib. 2. cap. 2. Lin. u. cap. 
I|. Lib. i. cap. 5. and 14. Pollux. ^ 


&c.) (4.) Kfurvif E^x, the cup of Mercury, to 
whom a libation was offered before they went to 
bed ; (Pollux.) 

Others make a different order of the cups 3 that 
the firft was dedicated to Mercury ; the iecond to 
Charifius, or Jupiter, fo called from pc a l? favour $ 
the third to Jupiter, the faviourj (Suidas. v. xj#- 
wg.) Others mention, one cup of wine mixed with 
water, dedicated to Olympian Jupiter ; a fecond to 
,the heroes ; a third, called TAEIO? , to Jupiter, the 
faviourj (Schol. in Pindar. Ifthm. Princip. Od. 6.) 
It is generally agreed that the facred cups were 
three in number ; (Athen* Jib, 10, cap. \i.) 

Before the entertainment was finiflied, a libation 
of wine with a prayer was offered, a hymn was 
fung to the gods, and other diverfions fucceeded ; 
(Xenoph. Conviv. Virgil. Jn. i.) fuch as, dif- 
courfes upon various fubjeds; reading books, 
^vhich was alfo fbijie.t;mes done during fupper; mu- 
fic of all kinds ^ mi^iickry j buffoonry ^ and other 
diverfions to create mirth 5 (Plato. Xenophon.) 
Mufic and dancing were ancient diverfions at en- 
tertainments ; (Horn. Qdyff.&.v. i$2. Il>ad a, 
jy. 603.^ both of heroes and gods, Apollo was 
called e^upjc, the Cancer ; (Pindar. 7 Homer. 
Athena, lib. i. cap, 19.^ Thefe .arnuiements were 
thought to become perfons of hoixour and feme ; 
(Cornel, ffep. in Vit. Qparvinond. Cornel, Nep. 
Pr*f. Fit. Illuftr. Imp.Cicer. fufcut. Qu<e/t. lib. i.) 
fo long as they were chafte and decent ; ({Lrodot. 
lib. i. gap. 28.) The lo.nians, more than the reft 
of Greece, delighted in wanton dances and fongs | 
, lib, 14, (ap. $,~Horaf. lib. 3. Od. 6.) 
F F 4 


The entertainments were anciently held only 
upon facred occafions, when hymns in praife of th* 
gods were fung ; to compofe the paffions and to 
improve the manners; (Athene, lib. 14. cap. 5.) 
They afterwards confifted chiefly of the praifes of 
heroes : and it was not till a later period, when 
loofe and improper fongs were ufed ; (Athena, lib. 
15. cap. 1 6.) The moft remarkable fongs were 
thofe called cncoAia, (Eujlath. in Qdyff. *.) which 
generally confifted of fhort verfes, (Sckol. Ariftoph. 
in Ran. In Vefp-) light and cheerful. There were 
three forts of fongs ^ one was fung by the whole 
company ; the fecond by the company in their 
turns 3 the third, by thofe who were well fkilled 
in mufic, called raoAioi/j fignifying crooked, as fung 
out of order ; (Artemon. Caffandr. lib. a. de Ufa. 
Carm. Conv. ap. Athen. lib. 15. cap. 14. Dicxarch., 
Jib. de Mtts* cert. a$. Ariftoph. Schol. in Vefp.) After 
the company had fung in a chorus, a mufical in- 
ftrument, a harp or lute, was carried round to 
each perfon, that thofe who underftood mufic 
might entertain the company. They, who did not 
play, held a branch of laurel or myrtle in their 
hands, to which they fung ; which was called *<>( 
&(pwv, or 9To? (jiuggwriv <x,iiv 9 to fing towards the 
laurel or the myrtle j (Hefychius.) This branch 
\vas alfo called aic-axoj or araxo?, becaufe the perfon 
who received it was obliged to fing; (Plutarch. 
Sympos. lib. i. Qu<cft. 2. Athene, lib. 15. cap. 
14.) Some of their fongs were <rxco7r-nx#, fatirical; 
fK 2 f wrixa, amorous ; and ffirvfou*, ferious, ( Eu- 
Jtath. in Odyff* .) which contained a moral fentencej 
(Athena* lib. 15. cap. 14.) Sometimes they con- 
fifted of the praifes of illuftrious men, including 


the peifon's name whom they celebrated; (Hefy- 
jM ttSm Ariftoph. Vefp. Athena, lib. 15.) 

When the mufic and fongs were ended, the 
fports began ; and the guefts, inftead of retting 
after meals, as in later times, were invited to wreftle, 
leap, run races, throw the quoit, and other manly 
exercifes ; (Horn. Odyff. y. v. 97.) 

There were feveral forts of fports and games 
pradifed by the Greeks ; (Meurfins. Bufrngerius.) 
among which was, in particular, the xcraSofi (Pol- 
/ UXt Athene.) which was firft invented'in Sicily. 
A piece of wood being erected, another was placed 
upon the top of it, with two dimes fufpended from 
each extremity, refembling fcales : beneath each 
dilli was placed a veflel full of water, in which 
flood a ftatue, chiefly of brafs, called /***?. They 
who played at the xorao?, flood at a diftance, hold- 
ing a cup filled with wine or water, which they 
endeavoured to caft into one of the dimes, that it 
might fall upon the head of the flarue under it. 
He who fpilled lead water, and forced the difh 
with moft violence againft the ftatue, was vidorious, 
and thought to reign in the affections of his miftrefs. 
The found caufed by it was called Aarag; and the 
wine caft, Mrayij or Aara. The ceremony, as well 
as the cup out of which the wine was caft, was 
called a-yxuXr, becaufe they turned round their right 
hand with dexterity. Hence XOTT#&H a.y^\m^ ; 
(JEfchylus.) The vefTels were called xorra^t or 
xoTTa^? ; and the prizes, XOTTJ, xorra^f ta, and 
xoTTcc^ot ; which were fweet meats, kiffes, or what- 
ever the company chofe. The game itfelf was 
called xoTraSc? xaraxrof. Of this fport they were 
very fond, and veffels were prepared, and houfes 


erected, for the accommodation of thofe who played 
at it. 

There were other forts of cottabus ; one in 
which a vefTci was placed full of water, with empty 
vials fwimming upon it ; into this, wine was thrown 
out of cups ; and he who funk the greateft number 
of vials, obtained the prize. Another was, in 
which they threw dice. Another was, a conteft 
who mould keep awake the lorigeft : the prize was 
commonly a cake, made with honey and fefame> 
cr wheat, (Pollux. SchoL Ariftoph. Equztifr.} and 
hence called (mc-a//^? or wu^a/tfaf ; (Artemidor. lib. i. 
(ftp. 74.) the latter of which words was hence ufed 
for any other prize; (Ariftoph. Thefmoph. Bquitib.) 
f hefe were the moil ufual forms of this fpojt - 9 
(Athene, lib. 10. \i.and 15. Pollux ', lib. 6. 
cap. 19, Ariftoph. Schol.inPac. Eujtath. in Iliad. 
R.Tzetzts QhiL . Hift. 85. Svidas. Hefychi- 
y, &c.j 

The guefis were fometimes amufcd with fuitable 
difcourfes 5 (Athena, lib. 10. cap. 5.) at which 
time they alfo converfed upon affairs of high im- 
portance; (Plutarch. Sympos.lib. j. cap, 9. Homer. 
Iliad i, v. 7o.) as it was fuppofed ? that the facul- 
ties were then quick and ipventiye ; (Schcl. /;; 
Ariftoph. Equit. Athena, lib. 5. cap. 4. Ammian^ 
Mar cell. lib. 18. cap. 5. Strabo. Geog. lib. 15. 
Tacit, de Mor. German. Dujiadas. Rer. Critic, lib. 
4. P hit arch. Lycurg. Plutarch. Sympos. lib. 7. 
$uaft. 9.) It is faid, that whatever was refolved 
FtjpexTf?, when fober, they deliberated upon at their 
entertainments ; and what they determined in their 
drink, jAfiOverxofAevoi, was examined again, when fober 5 
(Herodot. lib. i. cap. 133.) The fupreme cpuncu 


;at Athens Cupped every day together in the pryta.r 
neum; which was alfo the cuftom of the magif- 
trates at Rhodes ; (Euflath. in Iliad. /.) Hence it 
is faid, Bacchus was called EV*XK, prudent ccun- 
fellor; (Plutarch. Sympos. lib. 7. Qfaft. 9.) and 
the night was called fu^om, as the time of prudent 
deliberation ; (Plutarch. Sympos.) Sometimes the 
converfation at entertainments took a ludicrous 
turn; (Plutarch. Sympos. lib. 7. Qu<fft. 6.) hence 
<ny*7roGriov, is defined, a mixture of gravity and 
mirth, of difcourfes and actions ; (Plutarch. Ly~ 
curg. and Sympos. lib. 2. )u<tft, i, -Lib. 7. Qu<efi. 
9.) Sometimes they recited poems, or repeated 
ancient fables, or difcourfed upon philofophy, or 
refolved difficult queftions, as fuited the tafte of the 
company. Thofe queftions, which were defigned 
for amuiement, were called aiviypxr ; thofe which, 
were ferious, were called yi$oi 9 from a fifhing net ; 
(Pollux Jib. 6. ^.19. Clear cb. lib. I. de Par am. 
ap. Athene, lib. 10. cap. idt.) He who folved the 
queftion propounded, was honoured with a reward; 
he who could not folve it, was to fufftr fome certain 
punilhmcnt. The rewards were rp*vof ^ su^u^t*, 
^garland, and the applaufe of the company; the 
punimment was to drink, without taking breath, 
a cup of wine, mixed with fait; (Athene, lib. 10. 
cap. lilt.) or the reward was a diih of meat ; the 
penalty, a cup of fait and wine ; (Pollux, Onomaji, 
lib. 6. cap. 19.) Others fay, that a cup of wine 
was the reward to him who folved it ; if" no one 
folved it, to him who propounded it 3 (Pkqvoriib 
V* y*p0f. Eujlath. in II. -*..) But the rewards and 
penalties varied, according to the temper of the 
(Hefychius.) The common name of 



thefe and other queftions, was xuA^ia 
which were alfo called pwpovia *jTr^T#, (Pollux.) 
becaufe : they were fometimes repeated from me- 

He who gave the entertainment, fometimes dif- 
tributed gold or filver cups, as prefents to his 
guefts; (Athena. lib. \ i. cap. 3. Plutarch, Alexand.) 
This cuftom arofe, becaufe the company ufually 
poured out wine as a libation to Mercury, who 
was accounted the prefident of the night, and be- 
lieved to fend fleep and pleating dreams j hence he 
JS called V.VXTOS e7rw7njr5 and r t yvn^ ovtiouv. 

They alfo facrificed to Mercury the tongues of 
the animals which had been ferved up at the enter* 
tainment ; who, being the god of eloquence, was 
thought to be delighted with fucli homage. Some 
fuppofed that it was to invoke him as a witnefs of 
what had been faid ; others, that, by burning the 
tongues in the facrifice, it intimated that profound 
filence was to be kept of whatever had been faid ; 
(Schol. Apollon. Argon, i. v. 516. Eujlath. in Offy/fc 
y.) This cuflom was very ancient j (Apollon. Ar- 
gon, lib. i. v. 516. Homer.) 

In later times, libations were offered to Jupiter, 
furnamed rcXao?, perfect j (Athena, lib. i. cap. 14.) 
Other gods alfo fhared in thefe -offerings 5 (Homer. 
OdyJJ". y<) It was thought unlawful to flay long 
at entertainments which followed facrifices ; (Horn. 
Odyjf. y. Athene.) and the company ufually de- 
parted before funfet ; (Athene, lib. 5. cap. 4..) but 
at common entertainments, they feldom left the 
company before the morning ; (Plate. Horn. Odyjf* 



It was thought a mean employment to keep inns 
for the reception of ftrangers, which was therefore 
ufually performed by foreigners, or the lowed citi- 
zens ; (Plato de Legib. lib. 1 1 .) The ancient Greeks 
had no public inns; they chiefly lived at home, fatis- 
fied in the narrow circle of their own domeflic friends. 
It was indeed unfafe to travel without a guard; the 
land was infefted with robbers, and the fea with 
pirates, who plundered their goods, and fometimes 
cruelly treated their perfons : and it was thought not 
dimonourable to live by robbery ; (Plutarch. Tkefa. 
Thncyd. Hift. Principle.) Hence ftrangers and 
enemies were alike callec^^fto? ; (Hefychiw. Hero- 
dot. Caltiop.cap. 10. Pollux, lib. i. cap. 10.) The 
fea was cleared of pirates by Minos, king of Crete, 
who maintained the dominion of all thofe feas. 
The land robbers were deflroyed by Hercules, 
Thefeus, and other heroes ; from whofe time, there 
was little danger from ftrangers ; (Xenophon. Ly~ 
cophr. Caff'. 464.) In early times however it was not 
uncommon to treat ftrangers with great refpedr., 
and to fupply them with food and neceffaries, be- 
fore they inquired into their condition and country; 
(Horn. Odyjj: y. v. fy.Odyff. %.v. *$.Ody/. a. 
e v. 1 70.) It is faid to have been an ancient cuftom 
to have forborne to inquire before the tenth day, if 
the ftranger (laid fo long ; (Eujlath. in Iliad, g. v. 
174.) In later times, Cretan hofpitality was highly 
celebrated. In the cvca-inx, public halls at Crete, 
there were two apartments, the xoiprrn^ov, in which 
ftrangers were lodged ; and the v<^sw, the place 



of eating, in which they all flipped together. In 
the upper part of the avfyw there was a conftant 
table, fome fay two tables, (Athene, lib. 4. cap. $.) 
called T^aTrf^a, m<x, Jtuxn, or Ato? ms. In the dif- 
tribution of food, the ftrangers were always ferved 
before others, even before the king ; and fome of 
them were allowed to bear high offices in the ftate 9 
(Heraclid. de Rep.) Other Grecians, except the 
Spartans, are much commended for their hofpi- 
tality; (Tzetzes. Chit. 7. Hift. 130.) hence the 
Spartans were called &f<w$EMt, (Artftopk. Pac.) 
and gauAaraf, from their driving away ftrangers. 
They were however by no means neglected ', (Hero- 
dotus. Antonin. lib. 1 1.) but the opinion of their 
uncivil treatment of ftrangers feems to have rather 
prevailed, either on account of the extreme frugality 
and plainnefs of their diet ; (Athene. 4. cap. 6.) 
or becaufe ftrangers were admitted only ufurpnat 
iptfKiy on certain days ; (Shot, in Ariftoph. Pac 
Suid&s.) which cuftom was adopted to prevent the 
too frequent and promifcuous concourfe of other 
nations j (Libanius Declam. 24. Thucyd. lib. 2. in 
Oral. Puneb. Xenopk. de Rep. Laced. Pint arch. 
Lycurg* and In/lit. Laconic.) The Spartans were 
even prohibited from travelling into foreign coun- 
tries, left they mould introduce foreign vices and 
cuftoms at Sparta -, (Plutarch. Lycurg. and Apoph. 
Vakr. Max. lib. 2. cap* 6. Harpocrat. v. *.&- 

The ancient Greeks had a notion, that all ftran- 
gers were under the immediate protection of certain 
gods; as, of Minerva, Apollo, Venus, Jupker, who 
was hence called ftvoc, hofpitable; which was a name 
given alfo to other gods, who were fuppofed to pro- 



tect ftrangers ; (Horn. Odyff. 9. v. 269. Odyff. %* 
^.55.) thus the gods were fuppofed to travel in 
the habit of ftrangers; (Ovid. Met. lib. i. v. 213. 
Met. 8. v. 626. Homer. Odyff. . v. 489.) It 
may be obferved, that fait was ufually let before 
flrangers, before they tailed the victuals provided 
for them, as an emblem of union and love;, or 
that their friendmip would be durable, unfufpected 
and honourable ; (Euflath. in Iliad a. Sckol. in 
Lycophr. Caff.v. 135. 137.) It may however only 
be, that fait being conftantly ufed at the entertain- 
ments of gods and men, it was fuppofed to have a 
peculiar fanctity in itfelf : hence tao? aAa? ; (Homer.) 
ioj aAf ; (Arnob. contr. Gent. lib. 2.) The table 
alfo was thought to be endowed with an inherent 
fanctity, as well as fait. To oporgKTrsfyv, to have 
eaten at the fame table, was efteemed an obliga- 
tion to friendmip ; and aXa xat rgirt*9 7rot,&<z>vtiv t 
to tranfgrefs the fait and the table, or, to break 
the laws of hofpitaiity ; and to injure thofe by 
whom they had been entertained, was accounted a 
great crime -, (Demqfth. Or at. de fals. Legat, Ly- 
cophr. Caff. v. 134.) To o/Aorsyoi/, toconverfe under 
the fame roof, was thought fome engagement to 
friendmip; (Homer i. v. 635.) This friendmip 
was called Tr^ojma, and was ufually held more 
facred than the ties of kindred ; (Euftath. in IL .) 
and tranfmitted from father to fon, and even ren- 
dered cities more dear; (Plato de Leg. lib. i. 
Plutarch, in Nicia. Cornel. Nep. Cimon. Hero- 
dotus Clio.) Hence perfons thus united by the 
bond of hofpitaiity gave each other o-j/xgcAa, to- 
kens ; which, when produced, renewed their cove- 
nant of friendfhip; ( Euripid. Med. i;. 613.) Thefe 



tokens were mutual, and called %m<x. or tya gea 5 
which, by the ancient Greeks, were depofited 
amongfl their treafures, as perpetual memorials of 
their friend (hip ; (Euftatk. in II. .) In more 
modern times, they broke ar^yaAo?, a die, in two 
parts j one of which the gueft carried away, the 
other remained with him who entertained the 
ftranger ; (Sehol. Euripid. in Med. v. 613.) 

They who entertained private ilrangers, were 
called ihoirfoZsvoi : they who received other foreign- 
ers or public ambaiFadors, were called irfofaw : 
though this name is often given to thofe who en- 
tertained their friends of other nations. If he who 
received foreigners, inverted with a public office, 
did it freely, he was called 0Ao?rf o^ivo? ; (Tkucyd. 
lib. 3. cap. 70.) but the Tr^cJ-sj/oi, were more com- 
monly appointed to that office, either by the fuffrages 
of the people, or, in monarchical ftates, by the ap- 
pointment of the king ; (Herodot. lib. 6. JLuflatk. 
in Iliad y. Pollux, lib. 5. cap. 4, Suldas.) They 
alfo provided for them proper places in the theatre, 
prefented them to the king or popular affembly, or 
performed for them any other offices of hofpitality. 
Hence, he who promoted good or evil to another, 
was called TT^O gj/o? ; ( Iliad $.) This office 
was afterwards called *;*, which is interpreted 
^a^ir/Aara ^w^^ara, gifts ; (Hefychius.) and the 
officers 7ra>opoi, and ^voTTKsoc^ot. 

Whoever undertook a journey, firft implored 
the protedion of the gods. Before their departure 
into a foreign country, it was ufual to falute, and 
take leave of the gods of their own countries, by 
killing the earth; (Ovid. Met. lib. 13. v. 420.) 
which falutation was commonly praftifed at their 




arrival in any country; (Horn. Odyff. . v. 460. 
Ovid. Met. lib. $,v. 24.) by which they paid homage 
and invoked the protection of nn^a^m Q&oi, the 
gods who were patrons of that country ; who were 
alfo worfhipped by them, as long as they remained 
in that place. When they returned home, they 
faluted the gods of their own country in the fame 
manner, and returned thanks for their fafe return ; 
(Horn. Odyff. >. v. 354. Mfchyl. Agam.v. 819. 
Euripid.Hercul. Furent. v. 523.) 


To prevent the vices infeparable from idlenefs, 
great care was taken to accuftom boys and girls to 
induftry. The boys were early employed in learn- 
ing the elements of arts and faiences. The educa- 
tion of the Greeks, (except the Lacedaemonians) 
(Ariftot.Polit.c. viii. 4. Milan. Var HijL xii. 50,) 
chiefly confifted of letters, the gymnaftic exercifes, 
mufic, (for. Eunuch, aft. \\\. fc. a.) and painting; 
(Art/lot, c. viii. 3. Plutarch, de Mufic. p. 1140. 
Perizon. ad Milan. Var, Hift. j. \^.) 

If the fathers of boys were rich, or perfons of dif- 
tinction, they had private mafters for them, called 
TrauJaywyo*, (Plutarch, ye Puer. Rducat. c. vii. 
Horn. II. x. 831. Aufon. Idyll, iv. 21. Theocrit. 
Idyll, xxiv. 103.^ h$a<TKx\<n t (JVower. Polymath. 
iv. 19.^ and Traioor^Sflu j to form them to the 
fine arts ; (Ariftoph. Nui/. 969 .) The office of the 
9rJoTa, was only to exercife the bodies of their 
fchoiars ; (Mfckyn. Timarch. p. 17?. Cafaub. 
f/ieop/ir. Char ad. viii. Milan. Var. llift. ii. 6. ) 

The girls were clolely confined to the houfe j 
G o (Corns/. 


(Cornel, Nep. in Prxfat.) fometimes in the highefl 
flory of the houi'e ; (Horn. Odyff'. o. 516. and //. (3. 
514. Euripid. Jphig. in Aid. 738.^ Little was 
allowed them to eat, (far. Eunuch, aft. ii./f. 3. 
Xenoph. de Rep. Lacedxm. p. 537.^ and their waift 
was flraitened to render it more elegant; (Ter. 
Eunuch, aft. 2.fc. 3.) They were chiefly employed 
in working wool ; (Eujlath. in //. u.Xenoph. ibid. 
p. 534-J which was, in ancient times, an employ- 
ment pradifed by women of high ranks (Horn. 
QdyJJ. % . 97. Ovid. Heroid. i. v. 77. Xenoph. Hel~ 
kn. v. p. 443 ) Young women of the highefl birth 
were taught mufic, (Plutarch, in Lycurg.) poetry, 
(Paufan. Besot, c. 22. Milan. Far. Hi/I. xiii. 25.) 
and eloquence; (Athene, v. 19.) 

Reading and writing were at firft known by the 
limple term y%oif*u,&Tiw ; by which was meant a 
fcience which afterwards comprehended hiftory, 
poetry, eloquence, and literature in general. Young 
men of liberal fortunes ftudied phifofophy. There 
were gymnafia, and public fchopls for the purpofe $ 
(Perizw. ad &lian. Var. Hift. iii. 21.) The prin- 
cipal fchools at Athens were, the Academy, (Milan. 
Far. Hift. iv. 9.) the Lyceum, (Milan. Far, Hift. 
ix. 20 and 29. Cicer de Div. i. 13. Cic. Acad. 
Qutfft.i. 17.) and the Kuvoo-a^c?; (Hefychhts. Diog. 
Laert. vi. 13. Pauf. Attic, c. 19.) There was a 
fchool at Corinth, called Kgwtiov ; and others found- 
ed in many places 5 (Lucian. Dial. Mort. -p. 262. 
(ticer, Tufcul. Qu<eft. ii. 6 1 . Sueton. Tiber.) 


The progrefs of the arts in Greece was obfcure. 
he art of drawing arofe by chance ; fculpture 



owed its origin to religion, and painting to the im- 
provement of other arts. They firft learned the 
mode of exprefling the form of objects by fimple 
lines, from tracing, on the ground, or on a wall, the- 
outlines of the projecting (hadowof a body illumi- 
nated by the fun, or fome other light. At firft a 
{tone or a tree were objects of veneration ; (Paufan* 
lib.'], cap. 22 'Lib. 9. cap. 27.) Hence the fhapelefr 
flatues in the Peloponnefus, exhibiting only a (heath, 
a'column, or a pyramid, ( lib. 2. cap. 9.* 
Lib. 3. cap. 19. Lib. 7. cap. 22.) with a head on 
the top. In thefe arts, the Greeks imitated the 
Egyptians; (Plin. lib. 35. cap. 3. Strab. lib. 8.) 
In the art of painting, they were but little ad- 
vanced at the time of the Trojan war; (Horn. 
II. ft. 637.) but towards the firft olympiad, they 
exhibited more intelligence in their defigns ; (Plin. 
lib. 35. cap. 3.- Diodor. Si cut. lib. 4. Suidas, 
in AfcutaA.) Their colours were firft compofed of 
pounded brick-duft; (Plin. lib. 35. cap. 3.) The 
art of drawing in later times became a part of the 
education of the citizens ; (Plin. lib. 35. cap. 18.) 

Painting was a part of their education^ (Plin. 35, 
io. Ariflot. Polit. 8. 3.) It was termed 
(Plutarch, de Audiend. Poet, p, 17.) and 
(Xenoph. Mem. 3. io. Euftath. 11. y. 39.) The 
art was at firft fo imperfect, that painters wrote orj 
their pictures the names of the objects they wiihed 
to reprefent ; (jElian. 8. 8. io. 10.) One colour 
was at firft ufed, (Plin.) then five; (Cicer. Brut. 
c. 1 8.) and afterwards many. The inftruments 
and materials ufed were, 0xia$ and K&xua?, the 
eafel ; (Pollux, 7. 28.) Huaxtf and ILvaxia, the 
canvafs 3 AnxuOoi, little boxes, in which the painters 

c Q 2 kept 


kept their colours ; (Cic. ad. Attic, i. 14.) 
the wax ; X^^ara, the unprepared colours; 
paxa, the prepared colours ; A*9u, the flowers ; (Pol~ 
lux^lib. 7. 28.) I^apif, the ftylej and 
the pencil. The outlines were called 
TVoyfapu Exta; and S^tay^a^ta ; (PoUttfy 7. Q.%.) 
The finifhed pidure was called, Etxpy i (Pollux^ 7, 
a8. .///#. 14. 37. 47 J 


Mov(r*iHi, mufic, is fuppofed to be derived from the 
nine mufes; (IJi. Hifp. Orlg. i.e. 14..) and, according 
to the Greeks, either invented, ( Lfi. Hifp. Orig. 2. c* 
j j % Somn. Scip. i.} or improved by Py- 
thagoras; (Vofs. de Sclent. Mat hem. c. 20. i.) There 
were feven mufical notes confecrated to the feven 
planets TTram, to the moon : ITa^uTra-ni, to Jupiter; 
A^ai/oj, to Mercury : Mgo-u, to the fun : na^a/xs^rj, 
to Mars: T^TU, to Venus : N?JT>J, to Saturn; (Ariftot. 
Probl. Sefl. 19. Philand. ad Vitruv. v. 4. ^. 214. 
VoJJius de Sclent. Mathem. c. 20. 3. p. 85.^ The 
tone in which the muficians fung, was called Nojuo?; 
(tfhucyd. 5. 70. Arijioph. Equit. 9. Ariftot. Probl. 
1 2 . #. 28 . Plutarch, de Mujic. 1133. iSw/W^j in V.) 
The four modes were, the Phrygian, the Lydian, 
the Doric, and the Ionic; (Lucian.Harmon.p.$%$. 
Art/lot. Polity. 3. Athen. 14.5. P/in.f.^) Some 
add the CEolic. The Phrygian mode was religious; 
the Lydian, plaintive; the Doric, martial ; the Ionic 
gay and cheerful j the CEolic, fimple ; (Apulei. 
Florid, p. 342. Ariftot. Polit. 8. 5. j.) The mode, 
with which the foldiers were animated, was called 
; (Horn. II. X. v. 10. Ariftopk. SchoL ad. 



Ictiarn. ib.Aitl. GelL 16. ig.Suidas.) After- 
wards No/**; was applied to the words which were 
fung in thefe modes ; (Ariftoph. Schol. Equif. 9.) 

Their mufic was vocal or inftrumental -, (Art/lot. 
Polit. 8. 5.; 

. Mufical inftruments were either E^i/sur*, wind 
inftruments ; or Evrara, ftringed inftruments j (Pol* 
lux, 4. 8.) Their principal inftruments were, the 
lyre, the flute and the pipe ; (Plutarch, de Mufic* 

p. 1136.) 

The lyre was called KtQafaand $ofpy; (Euftath. 
II. &.. 38. //. <r. 569. Ariftoph. Nub. 1358.) 
Apollo was fuppofed to have invented it 5 (Bion. 
Idyll. 3. j.) Hence he is called $ogputTK ; (An* 
Jloph. Ran. 234.^) In ancient times kings and 
heroes learned to play upon this inftrument, (jElian* 
3. 32.) upon which were fung the exploits of 
heroes, (II. a. 186. Mn. i. 744. Arijlophy Thef- 
moph. 130.^ and of love; (Horn. Odyjf. 6. 266. * 
Anacr. Od. i) The ftrings were at firft of linen 
thread (Euftath. Horn. II. o. 570.) and afterwards of 
catgut ; (Odyff. $. 408.) There were at firft three 
ftrings, hence the lyre was called T^p^Jo? ; which 
was invented at Alia, a city of Lydia, and hence 
called A<rta? j (Ariftoph. Thefmoph. 126. -Plutarch, 
de Muftc.) It had afterwards feven ftrings, and 
hence called ETrra^o^cf, (Macrob. Saturn. 1. 19.) 
E7TTap9o<yyef, ( Etii'ip.) E7rrayAc<nro? ; (Pind. Nem. 
Od. 5.) The ftrings were touched fometimes with 
a bow, (Pind. Nem* Od. 5. /Elian. 3. 32.) fome- 
times with the fingers ; (Athene. 4. Jn. 6. 645.) 
To play upon this inftrument was called &$* 
(Ariftot. Polit. I. 4.) K^veiy IlA?ix.r^w, (AnthoL 4. 
1 6. p. 4.) Awxeiv, (Pind. Nem. Od. 5.) 


xf oveiv, and YaAAu* $ (Athene. 4. 25. * AriftopK. 
Schol. Avtb. 218.) 

The ^K/* was called AvAoc, which they ufed at 
feftivals, (Siddas in v. AuArjr^. Ovid. Faft. 6. 
659. Plin. 28. 2.) facrifices, games, (Ariftoph. 
Pac. $$Q.Horat. Epijl. L. 2. i. v. 98. Athena. 
14. 2.) entertainments^ (Cerent. Adelph. afl. $.fc, 
7. 77/'w//. 2. I.- i;* 86. Athene. 15. i J and fu- 
nerals, (Milan. Var.H. 12.43. Plutarch, de Mu~ 
Jic. p. 1136.) It is faid to have been invented by 
Hyagnis, a Phrygian ; (Athene. 14. 5. Ant hoi. i. 
j i .y They were generally made of the bone of 
ilags or mules; (Ariftoph. SchoL Acharn. 865.) hence 
called, N^fo* avAoi; (Anthol.^. 28. Epigr. 13.) 
They were thus firfl made by the Thebans ; CPo/- 
///A*, 4. 10.) They were alfo made of the bone of 
afles, (Plutarch, in. Corniv. p. 150.) and of ele- 
phants; (Propert. 4. 6. v. 8.) fometimes they were 
made of reed, or of box; (Pollux, 4. 10.) 

The pipe was called 2v^, and differed in found 
from the flute. The tone of the pipe was (harp* 
hence called Anrr^x^ ; (Callim. Hymn, in Dian. v. 
243.- Ovid. Metam. i* 708.) that of the flute was 
grave, full and mellow ; and hence it was called 
|3f*ftp*i (Ariftoph. Nub. 312. Euripid. Helen. 


Mufic was a part of the Grecian education; 
(Milan. Var. Hi/1. 7. 15. Athena, lib. 14.) and 
had an influence on their bodies, (ALlian. I. 14. 23* 
- Ariftat. Polit. 8. 5. Athens. 14.) as well as 
minds. Jt is faid to have cured ibme of their 
difeafes; (Athena. /. 14. Aul. Gdl. 4. 13.) 


I) R E S S. 455 


The ancient Greeks went with their heads un- 
covered ; (Lucian de Gymnas. p. 278.) afterwards 
they wore a kind of hats, called ILAoi ; (He/iod. t^y. 
546. Pollux, 7. 33;) itt^*; (Athene. 15. 13.) 
orlLAi&a; (Arijloph. Acharn. 438.) The women 
had their heads always covered. Their ornaments 
for the head were called KaAyTrr^a, a veil ; (Odyff. s+ 
232.) A/xtfv, a fillet, which went round the hair; 
(II. x* 468. Gravius in Hefiod. Theog. 916. v. 
1 1 8.) kgnhpvov, a veil, which came down upon the 
moulders ; (Eujlath* ad II. Z. 39. Horn. II. ^. v. 
470.) Kfxu<paA<??, a net which inclofed the hair; 
(Ariftoph T/iefm. \^ Eujlatli. ad IL %. 32.) 
MiTfa, fillets which bound the hair; (Arijloph. 
Y/iefm. { V. 264; -Grjeviits ad Hefiod. T/ieog. p. 916.) 
OTrto-Ooo-^fv^o^, a particular kind of net, with which 
their heads were adorned; (Pollux, lib. 5. 16.) 
The Athenians wore TTT<<ya?, grafshoppers of gold, 
(*Thucyd: i. 6.) as emblematical of their origin; 
(SchoL Arijloph. Nub. 980.) Women of rank raifed 
their head-drefs with fillets, called Sri<pa>7i v^-nXn ; 
(JElian. i. 18.) They wore pendants at their ears, 
called E/*^T<*, (Horn. II. a. 182. Odyff. 2. 296.) 
EvwTia, (Mlian. Var. Rift* i. 18.) EA*X^; (Horn. II. 
2. 401, Eujlath. in Odyff. a.) They alfd wore 
necklaces, called O^a ; (Horn* II. 2. 401. ^r/- 
ftoph. Lyjift. 409 } 

Drefs was expreiTed by Ec-9^, (JElian. Far. Rift. 
7. 8.) Eo-8jKa, (MliOKk i. 2.) Krfw^C Pollux, 10. 
12.) EI/A ; (Hefiod. Scut. 159. fow. O<s^ |3. 3.) 
The under-garment of men and women was ^trwv, 
f//o^. y/. p. 262. OdyJJ'.-r. 232. Athena. 13. 6J 
iHeredot. i. />, 4. Ov/< ^wor. 3. 14. 21.) 


a floating robe ; (Ariftopk. Lyjift. 45 ) 

The word fj/JWOat refers to the under-garment ; 
(Milan, i. 16.) Buckles were worn by women of 
rank along the tunic which reached from the 
fhoulders to the hands. Thefe were called Usowou, 
(Hoyt. Ocljf r. 256.) UooTrai, (Hon. II. X. 401.) 
and were ot filver or gold; (Milan, i. 18.) There 
was alfo a robe, called EyxuxAov QTMIOV, ( Ariftoph. 
I'kefm. 268.) ufed as an under-garment; (jElian. 
7. 9. Pollux > 7. 13.) IjuaTiov, or $ao?, Pal- 
lium, (Horn. IL j3. 43. Eiifiath. In Odyff. |3. 
Ariftoph. Thejmoph. 897.) was the exterior robe of 
the men; (Horn. I!. (3. 43.) The words relating 
to this garment, are n^tCoAAfir^ai ; (Horn. 11. |3. 43. 
Milan, i. 16.) AwtjSaAXiffftflji j (tuidas inV. 
Arljloph. Vefp. I 147-) A>i*!BJ^r|o'fl[i taaTiof ?r' a^ir^a, 
and szri ^gta ; (Athena, i. 18.) AvaSoAaiov; (Milan. 
7. 9.) Ilf^SoAaiov; (Suidas In V. 
Idyll, ii. 19. Hsrodian. 4. 7. 5.) 
(Xenoph. Mem. i. 2. 5.) XAatva, was a thick 
external robe, worn in cold weather; (Suidas.^ 
Horn. IL n. 224. Odyff. H- 529. /z;;J 487. Meurs. 
in Lycopkr.b3$.) it was fometimes fmgle, (Hom.IL 
CL. 230.) and fometimes double; (Horn. IL K. 134. 
O^J'//.' T. 226. Pollux, 7. 15 ) ^ajvoA^f, fSw/- 
Jj^ /' ^.J and <t>ajKo>Aj?, a robe nearly round, with- 
out ileeves, worn uppermoil ; (Hor. Ep. 1 1 . v. 1 8. 
Juven. Sat. 5. 79. Quint. 4. 3. 64.) Au<rof, 
AJJO-^JOV, a garment worn by both iexes. E^frf f, 
a kind of great coat of goat fkin, (Suidas.) which 
xvas alfo called Ma^uaf and BJJ^IOV ; (Suidas.) 
TfiGuv or T^tgwvicv, the cloak of philofophers and 
poor people ; (At hen*. 4. 28. Plutarch, de Fort. 
Alex. p. 330. Anftoph. Pint, 714. 843.) it was of 

a light 

DRESS. 457 

a light (luff; (Schol. in Arifioph. Pint. 714. Lu- 
cian, Dial. Mort.p. 263.) of which the robes of 
lawyer* were alfo made; (SchoL Arijloph. Vefp. 31. 
/Elian. Var. Hift. 5.5-) Eirupu, a (hort cloak 
which the women wore over their moulders ; (Athe- 
na, lib. 13. 9. Pollux, 7.) nnrXos, an exterior robe 
worn by women ; (Horn. II. Z. 289. Euflath. ad 
II. |3. //. Z. 442.) The men alfo wore a robe 
refembling this; (Eujiath. in II. g.) Zwr^ov, the 
girdle which was worn by women ; (Horn. Odyjf. Z. 
38.) SroXu, a long robe which came down to the 
heels ; (Milan. 3. 24.) Karwvaxn, a Have's habit, 
bordered at the bottom with fheep fcmi^Ariftopk. 
Eccles. 7 19. Lyffi. 1153.) Eg/t*if, a Have's habit, 
with one ileeve ; (Arijloph. SchoL Vefp. 442. &//- 
J^j.^ it feryed them for tunic and cloak ; (He/y- 
chius.) The citizens fometimes wore this drels ; 
(Milan. 9. 34. Xenoph. Mem. 2.7. 5.) Bair??, 
(Theocr. Idyll. 3.25. Schol. in 'Theocr. Idyll. . 
15. Hefych.) Ap0E, a drefs of fkin, worn by 
(hepherds; (Ariftoph. Nub. 72. Theophr. CharacJ. 
TTf^t ay^otxia?.) E-yHo^Cw^a, a cloak of ihepberds, 
girls, and flaves ; ( Pollux , 4. 1 8.) Xxa/xuf, a military 
drefs, worn under the tunic, the cuirafs, &c. ; (Milan. 
14. 10.) It was alfo worn by young men and 
women; (Ovid. Met. 5. 51.) XAan?> (Hefych.) 
a fine robe ; K^OXWTO? and K>ox&moi/, a faffron-colour- 
ed robe, worn by women ; (Arijloph. Eccles. 874.) 
a drefs of Bacchus ; (Arijloph. Ran. 46.) 2up^T^a, 
a robe which came down to the heels ; (Po//nx, 7. 
13. Hefych.) Gcfiffop, or 0ir?iw, a fu miner 
drefs. Sr^optoi/, a fort of kerchief, which women 
wore round their neck; (Ariftoph. Thefmoph. 146. 



Anatr. Od. 20. Catullus 65. 65. Martial. 14; 
138.) Y lAAto*, a bracelet, worn by women ; f/W- 
. Milan. 2. 14. Suidas in v. Yt\\u>t.) 

, flioes, (Ariflot. Polif. i. 6. Aul. Gelt. 
13. 21.) tied under the foles of the feet with 
thongs, called Ipawrss ; (Milan. 9.11.) To put on 
Ihoes, the word ua-o&iy was ufed, (Milan, i. 18. 
Ariftoph. Eccles. 269.) and to take them off, Xu*** 
and uTroAunv ; (Ariftoph. Thefmoph. 1194= Lyfift. 
949.) Shoes were alfo called Ilg&A* ; (Horn. II. |3. 
44. Odyjf. Hi 23.) AtaSafi^a, were (hoes worn 
both by men and women 5 (Pollux, y> io ; ) Sai^aAa; 
Savtoua, were the flioes of heroines, and of gay 
women 3 (Luclan. Dial. Deor. p. 2Ci8. ALlian. i. 
1 8.) BAauTosi, ihoes worn only in the houfe. 
KovtTTo^f?, flioes, like the former, (Ariftoph. Equit. 
885. *- jfelian. 6. n.) low and tight, n^t^a^^f, 
ihoes of women of good condition, (Ariftoph. Eccles. 

843. Lyfft. 45. 48. PollllX^ 7. 22.) K^rjTTJ^f?, 

(Milan. 9. 3. Herodian. 4. 8.) flioes, faid to be 
worn fometimes by the military; (Tali Max. 9. I; 
4.) They were alfo called Aprfihi ; (Pollux^ 7.22.) 
A^tauAa*, a large and eafy fhoe; (Euripld.Oreft. 140^ 
^rr, /wr. 1304; Pollux y 7. 22; ^r//>. SchoL 
Oreft.) n^c-txai, flioes worn by women; (Ariftophi 
Nub. 151.) Thofe worn by courtezans were white; 
(Pollux, 7. 22.) Aaxwvtxfli, (Ariftoph. Vefp. 1 153.) 
and A/AuxAatc^, Lacedemonian flioes, (Hefychius.) 
of a red colour; (Pollux, 7. 22.) Ka^anvaf, coarfe 
fhoes, worn by peafants ; (Xenoph. Exped. 4.- 
Hefychius. Schol. In Luclan. ad Philopfeud. p. 35.') 
Ejugarai, (hoes worn by comedians ; locks ; (Pollux, 
7. 22.) KoOo^ot, (hoes worn by tragedians j bufkins; 



(fertull. de Spefiac. \$. Virg. Ed. 8. 10. Propert. 
2. 25. 41. ^ulntll. 10. I. 68.) They were alfo 
called EpZafa, (hoes for men; (Schol. Arijtopk. 
-]. Span/i. in Ariftoph. Pint. 759.) 


The money of the Athenians was of three forts. 
Silver was firft coined, and afterwards gold, and cop* 
per. The mod common coins were thofe of filver, 
and which were of different value. Above the 
drachma, (nine-pence in Englifh) confifting of fi?c 
oboli; were the didrachma or double drachma, the te- 
tradrachma or quadruple drachma; below it, were 
the pieces of four, three, and two oboli ; after which 
were the obolus, and the. femi-obolus ; (fixpence, 
four-pence halfpenny, three-pence, three half-pence 
and three farthings, in Englim) ; (Pollux, lib. 9. cap. 
6.) The latter being found inconvenient for com- 
mon ufes, copper money was introduced , ( ' Ariftopk. 
in Ran. 737. in Eccles. Bio. Callim. ap. A then. 
lib. 15. cap. 3.) and pieces of that metal were 
ftruck, which were not worth more than the eighth 
part of an obolus ; (three fourths of a farthing in 
Englim); (Pollux, lib. 9. cap. 6.) The largeft 
piece of gold weighed two drachmas, and was worth 
twenty filver drachmas, (fifteen millings in Englifli); 
(Hefych. in X yc "-) Gold was fcarce in Greece ; 
it was brought from Lydia, and from Macedonia, 
where the peafants collected the fmall pieces, which 
the rains warned down from the neighbouring 
mountains; (Thucyd^ lib. 4. cap. 105. Ariftot.- 
Strab, lib. 7.) 



The computation of money among the Greeks 

was : 

. *. d> 

i obolus, the fixth part of a ? 

drachma - - - \ 
I drachma ----. 009* 

jo drachmas ----- 076 

100 drachmas or i mina - - 3 15 o 

I ooo drachmas or 10 minse - 37 10 o 

6000 drachmas or 60 minze, 7 rt 

equal to a talent - J 
10 talents ------ 2,250 o o 

100 talents ------ 22,500 o o 

I ooo talents ----- -225,000 o o 

Sometimes they ufed alfo filver coins, called 
tetradrachms, which were equal to about four 
drachmas. The more ancient tetradrachms were 
{truck till the time of the Pcloponnefian war. They 
bore on one fide the head of Minerva, and an owl 
on the reverfe. They were of rude workmanfhip, 
On thofe of lefs ancient times, the owl {lands on 
a vafe ; they alfo bore names or monograms upon 
them. Thefe were current during four or five cen- 
turies, and were of fuperior Ihape and ornaments ; 
(Paujan. lib. i. cap. 24.) The Athenian tetra- 
drachms have no date. The obolus was fometimes 
divided into chalci, and fmaller proportions. 

The value and proportions of Grecian coins. 

. S. d. q. 
Lepton -------oooo T 3 T V 

Chalcus -------oooo|4 

Dichalcus ------ o o o i r/ v 

* According to fome the drachma was 7^d. and according to others 8|<L 


MONEY. 461 

. S. d. q. 
Hemiobolus ------0002-^ 

Obolus ooi i^. 

Dioboius ------0022.5. 

Tetrobolus ------0050^ 

Drachma ------0073 

Didrachmon -----0132, 

Tetradrachmon Hater ---0270 
Pentadrachmon ----0323 

Thefe coins were generally of brafs, except the 
drachma, and the didrachmon, which were of 

The gold coin was the (later aureus, which weigh- 
ed two Attic drachmae, or half the ftater argenteus, 
and was worth 25 Attic drachmas, of filver, or in 
Englifli money - - - - - .1. os. ^d. 

The ftater Cyzicenus, exchanged for 28 drachma, 
the ftater Philippi, and ftater Alexandri, were of 
fhe value in EngliQi money of - - i8s. id. 

The ftater Daricus was worth 50 Attic drachma, 
and the ftater Croefi, were in value ^.i. izs. 

Weights reduced to Englifli Troy weight. 

lb. ox. dwts. grs> dec: 

Drachma -.,----006 2 ||. 

Mina --,.--- i 104 $ 

Talent ------- 65 o 12 5 -*|- 


Drachma ------ o o 2 16 9 

Mina ------- i 11010 

Talent ------- 67 7 5 o 



Greater 'weights reduced to EngliJJi Troy weight. 

lb. oz. dwtt. grs. 

Libra -------- o 10 18 13 | 

Mina Attica communis v - - - on 7 16 ^. 

Mina Attica medica - - - - i 2 n 10'^ 

Talent um Atticum commune - ^ 56 11 017^ 

Grecian feet reduced to Englijli. 

ngl.F. Inch. Dec. 

I Grecian foot makes - - i o, 0786 

i o Grecian feet make - - - 10 o, 7860 

i DO Grecian feet make - - - 100 7, 86 

The Greeks had different kinds of fladia, but 

the moft common were known by the name of the 

Olympian fladia. 

Eugl. Mil. Furl. Yds. Dec. 

Stadium - - - - - o o 201, 4278 
Grecian meafures of length reduced to Englifti. 

Paces. Feet. Inc. Dec. 

Daclylus or digit - - - o o o 7554 44 
Doron ------ o. 030218! 

Lichas - 007 5546 

Orthodoron r - - - o o 83101-^5. 
Spithame ----- 009 0656 i 

Foot ------ o i o 0875 

Hvypv, cubit - - - - oil 5984 I- 

Pygon ------ o i 3 ' 109 j. 

uj, larger cubit o i 613125 

, pace r 060 525 

Stadium ----- 100 44 5 

Milion ------ 805 5 o 

The Grecian fquare meafures were the plethron, 
or acre, containing 1,444, or 10,000 fquare feet, 
as fome affirm. The aroura was half the plethron. 
9 Attic 


Attic meafures of Capacity for liquids, reduced to 
EngiiJJi wine menfure.. 

Gals. Pts. Sol. Inch. Dec. 

Cochlearion - ? - - - o T ^ o 0356 ~ r 
Cheme T--r--o-g~ o 0712 -- 
Myftron - - - r -. - o ^ T o 089 -^ 
Conche - - - - r - o ~' T o 178 44 

Cyathus - - r - - - o .jL. o 356 44 
Oxybaphon -r-rrO^- o 535 |. 
Cotyle -----roj 2 141 J 

Xeftes ------oi 4 283 

Chous ----^-0625 698 

Metretes- - - - - - 10 z 19 626 

Attic meafures of capacity for dry things, reduced 
to Rnglifli corn meafure. 

Pecks.'Gals. Pints. Sd. Inch. Dec. 

CQchlearian - - - - o o q o 276 .^ 

Cyathus -----0002 763 

Oxybaphon ----00041 44 | 

Cotyle ------00016 579 

Xeftes ------00033158 

Ch^nix ------00115 705 i 

Medimnus ---*-4o63 501 

I N D E X 




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22, 214. 
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2 33* 


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go, 267. 

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UTT' Ev^yyi;j 218". 
a, 260. 
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, 262,. 
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> 9* 

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., 8S. 

tTtJa* 208. 
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AT7)THt6, 146, I57' 

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1, 290. 
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2 9 I. 

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, 4 21 
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147, 414. 

, 283 



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217, 238. 

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) 267* 
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29, 66* 

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35 I. 
, 416. 
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, 38. 



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ha., 22O. 
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159, 374. 

> 374- 

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t,, 39 5, 396. 
i, 26. 


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? ^l>t7, SO. 





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, 406. 
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23, 8o. 





a 220. 

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66, 169. 
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i' > 174. 

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siy, 224* 


336, 340* 

H 2 




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town, 387* 

221, 241 
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roi, 53- 
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424, 425 




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31, 59, 98, 232, 433- 


) $<>* 59* 
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* 316. 
r. a 223. 

> 223. 
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v, 206. 
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2 2 3. 
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28, 45, 93. 

33, 344. 


79, 82 



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oi, 41, 401, 424. 
t, 41, 401. 
vii;, 400. 
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, 385. 



yoe.fjt.ov, 393* 



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8 1 

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296, 2,97. 


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> 77- 
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, 339- 
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7r' stxa^t, 278. 


, 329. 

^ai, 419,430. 



; 206. 



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, 66, 75, 79. 
, 22* 

3 '4* 

a, 68 > 8 I, 114* 


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jtx,ot, 201. 
ij, 408. 
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oi, 44*9* 
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fyoj, 446, 
otj I59* 
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352, 376. 


, 68, 60. 
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owo-a, 70 


f, 228. 

cXx(y, 330. 
, 284. 
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9, 228. 
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AtoTroi, 343. 
Aio? ayytAot, 136. 
/3oyj, 230. 

|ma, 446. 







AovAot, 26, 434. 
Aouvat, 411. 

x7 290. 


ci, 283. 

, 230. 

j I54* 

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K,, 394* 
tvixct) 448. 

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88, 452. 
, 415, 416. 
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23 I 


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43, 415. 


29 I 

v, 279* 

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ry? y>j, 414* 
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, 406. 



KAaia, 204. 


, 234. 

Xos, 232. 

422, 433. 





EXXji/o^xa, 269, 270. 





, 20 1. 
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x>j, 8 I. 
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, 303. 



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83, 302. 
325- " 
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Erat/Xia, 395, 396. 



T>?V votw, 345* 
fc 3*7- 
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220, 395. 



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49, 297 

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) 345* 


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> 35* 
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o* 6so, 449* 

) 288. 
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TWV voottuV) 4^* 
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23 7^ 














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330, 339. 


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287. . 

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' 09- 





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Hgax*fia f 238, 241 

^ 69* 

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i 69. 

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339., 335* 
> 335* 


334, 3^9, 394. 

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3 2 ^* 
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230, 239* 
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146, 150. 


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I35 2 35- 




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214, 3^7* 
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s, 357. 
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37. 74- 






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297, 301, 
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j, 311. 
Mayyava, 313* 

Maysta*, 207. 

J'a 88, 417* 

Mata 407 

? 18. 

i, 327, 329. 

TTJTaJ, 1 I . 






Moyorox.o?, 403. 



<pongat, 293, 

, 328. 

, 2 1 6. 

, 1 8. 246, 

, 7 

t, 279. 
., 246. 
j, 452 
f 12. 

> 344* 



, 246. 

Etcroooj, 234* 
JAliTTUTM, 417' 

, 346. 

, 246. 

Nao?, 139. 

e?, 135, 137. 



t, 40. 
tf, 343. 


W O R p S. 

NExvsm, 246, 376. 



No6o, 26, 408. 
, 376. 

, 34. 
, 84* 91. 
No/xo?, 90, 179,452,4^3. 
33, 34. 


Noroj, U, 


eux.v) 9, 445 

II Oe 

t, 284. 



rsia, 9 


, 6. 


41, 437* 

13, 420. 






Owvo*, 197. 

?, 276. 


OAxot, 335. 



, 248. 

ov, lo. 
I O. 
o, 21 



ov, 447. 




Ofo?. 422. 

1 9O. 

j, 266. 


, 85* 

, 352, 376. 

136, 154, 179. 

136, 179. 

, 367. 

, 87- 
"po? 87. 
, 360. 40.6. 
at, 248. 

op*, 248, 255. 
, 206. 

evexa, 2O2. 

1 4 9. 

299, 303, 331. 

330, 437. 
333, 433. 


, 289. 
ay, 289. 
, 286. 

f/,oi f 40. 


2 48 

74, 357 
TLottav, 159' 



, 434. 

GiTot, 410. 
-xat, 434. 

iai, 449* 

r^fj 268. 
260, 265. 
, 62. 
, 398. 




Ilatytoi, 204. 
rUXra, 290. 

TlafjJoOMTlOl; 248. 

ria/x/Aap^ov, 266, 
IIajtA/4apot, 266. 
IIa/x. ( unx0, 154' 
TlavaQyvaiat, 248.,Q'ir)va,\')tov t 249* 
IlavaxEia, 25 I 
naK^aacna, 416. 

nav^a/^xot, 250. 

UavJ9/AO, 251, 258. 

na^Djbw?, 10, 399. 
nv^f 251. 

Ilav^ocro?, 5, 251. 
riaK^Wta, 251. 


v,, 64. 

, 68. 

,', 330. 

; j, 283. 



p*^ov, 291 
ot, 267* 

2 84. 

o(, 283. 

, 88. 

, 98, 136. 
j 17. 
JO 75. 

297, 298. 



33 J. 

j, 302. 





, 284. 
, 86. 

, 2981. 
Ilciga, 272. 



335, 338. 
, 4. 





^a>a, 237. 
> 281. 
* 296. 

15, 260, 273. 
, 298. 
, 298. 



34 2 ' 
3 OI> 

> 296. 
rieT7)xoro?, 3d. 

y|, 299* 
249, 457. 


, 456. 

45 8. 


Kj 372. 

> 47 

, 367. 

(5 15. 

j 286, 33^* 

, 369. 

, 208, 280. 

. 154. 



229, 252 
, 288. 




3 * " 

, 316. 








T 462. 

, 2l8. 


> 455* 

, 451. 





, 329. 





300, 313* 

, 313. 


, 326. 




, 158. 

3 Z 294* 29,5 

' at/ToxgTo^E?,, 44, 306. 


54 9 

49, 90. 



88, 3^5 

, 33^* 

, 252, 255. 


, 285, 




2 53 

2 53 





, 359* 

, 359* 
iotif 39** 














253, 592 

, 253, 389, 390. 




, 426. 

Pvf4MT t 335, 338 



i. 83, 


2 &*?**, 254. 

"Zctyrivovw, 315. 

2aAot, 347. 

TJjS, 297* 
, JIO. 


, 458. 


87, 139. 

, 254. 
viff 290. 
, 267* 

oj, 267. 
of, 283. 
ta, 254* 
, 33O. 
ta 59, 

, 236. 
139, 140. 
309, 310. 



t 418, 44 2 * 

, 212. 

a, 4^9 







23* 250. 




2X4] VI], 

J', O2. 


a^ta, 45 z * 
Mt) 23. 



ia, 254. 
^i6;vi 279* 


woe-*?, 421 
TTffitv, 421. 
jv, 421. 

) 3 2 S* 
, 293. 
^?, 293. 



, 234, 

a, 440. 
, 424. 





, 184. 
IO?, 272. 

146, 147, 306. 



, 261. 

, 26O, 26l. 
, 260, 26l. 
, 261. 

86, 290. 

, 162. 

, 178. 
, 287. 
t4J*J 455' 

cuVtc, 268. 
, 88* 

SEytKoi, 89* 
?j 240* 

39 1- 
, 86. 
, 86. 

j 86. 

, 86. 




2/roa*, 12, 15. 
SToi^f.ov, 423. 

27CUXCI, 12. 

, 342. 
, 4s 7 
, 331. 

/u.jjfoet^}?, 348. 
, 298, 34.0. 

, 298. 

, 30, 107, 295. 

, 342, 433. 



, 306. 
v oixri} 84* 




r> 344- 




4 298. 


311, 454^ 


li6, 416, 4l8, 

> 297* 

&, 298* 

tfTaf;pit, 298. 
v, 158, 
, 264. 
}tor } 221. 

, 264* 

3 1 6. 

, 300. 



, 340. 


, l66, 255. 
, 184. 


, 255* 

37, 74. 



s, 198. 


297, 433. 


f, jOI 
33 I. 

a, 256* 
gj, 286. 

, 256; 
a, 256* 


, 267. 
, 338. 

, 288. 

. 389 


, 389. 
Av0g0, 2O. 

261, 398, 301* 
tt, 36. 
> H5- 
'uv, %OO 
, 261. 

? XOT*, 66, 74. 
, 256. 





i 298. 




23 1 


, 231. 

, 65. 


34 2 




199. . 



?* 1 8O. 


257, 402* 


21, 152. 
2 1 8. 
, 453. 

, 286. 

> 37* 


3 29- 



> 33- 

401* 47' 


> 3H- 




ia, 430. 

, 86. 

y 86, 
2 7' 

, 86* 





hxy, 26. 
* 89. 
60, 77. 

iWt, 40. 
Yy<si<, 1 60. 

fo. f 25, 256. 

c., 148. 



wua, 336. 
, 369. 
ra*, 284* 

337, 338. 
cni;, 300. 


> 33^* 


Ct, 328. 

p, 192. 

r, 387. 
^ 3'^7 
, 369. 

Exta, 452. 


, 33O. 



, 458. 


run tfi(itv t 336^ 
] 8. 





, 264. 
, 261. 



o^ot, 154. 


t 403 


290, 544. 
, 290. 344. 

Kpot^?, 30O. 

, 284. 
, l8. 


ar^aJa, 229. 

222, 229. 
opoi, 229. 




13* 45* 
ct, 2*13. 

, 238. 
?, 76, 87. 

<J>a<7i?, 78, 83. 

?, 403 

, 359. 



u, 278. 




? 37 

, 378. 


, 453- 



2 2O. 


, 64. 
, 196. 
, 391. 

122, 391. 

tj 3 ^ * 




2 95 

, 33. 
, 416. 



, 258* 



, 285. 
j, 329, 
XaAxtotxta, 258. 
co?, 258. 
, l86. 

. 258. 
. 258. 

, 25 8 
nj/*a, 369. 

lpj 341. 
y 288. 




K K 



Xepn^, 156. 

, 346- 
' 332- 

170. ' 

> 170. 
, 156. 

Xt'TAa, 212. 

Xf~A<}, 4^4* 

XvTf*, 97, 406, 425, 

XvrpiH, 219, 259. 

315, 3 6 9- 

X9, 415. 

;;a oix>j, 82. 

ira; 148. 
r, 454 
, 458. 

. 77- 

* 77- 
*, 77. 

,.*, 114- 
54' 90, 101,. 



, 28l. 

, 212. 

)i, 12. 
*t, 198. 


2 3 0. 

ayo$, 230, 259 
9V ., 197- 
' 259, 376. 

QpKT[Jt.Va,l V)[Jt,p<X.l t 44 * 

ipa, 248. 

499 ) 



, oracle of, 
Academus, 16. 
Achzeans, I. 
A&ions at law, il2v 
Aftor, tragic, qualification of a, 

97. reward of, 97. 
Adopted children, laws relating 

to, 103. 
Adultery, laws relating to, 123, 

397. punishment of, 397. 

Jigean fea, i. 
* ,/Efculapius, divine honours paid 

to, 187. 
Aglaurus, feftival in honour of> 


Agraulos, temple of, 7. 
Altars, of the Qrecian, 140, 

how confecrated, 142, where 

erefted, 143. 

AmbafTadoors, of, 305. 
Amphiaraus, oracle of, 185 
Amp hidea* oracle of, i&8, 
Amphi&yons, council of, 4< 
Anaceam, 98. 
Anchors, of Ships, 334. 
Animals 7 ilain in Sacrifices, 
Anointing the body, 426* 
Apollo, temple of, ; i .-oracles 

of, 174. feftwals of, 22.5. 

Apparitors, belonging to Courts 

of JuiVice, 67. 
Aquedutfls^ 14. 
Arbitrators, 75, laws relating 

to. 115. 
Archemorus, Nemean games in 

honour of, 273. 

K K 2 Archonfe 

5 oo 


Archons, 3-29, their authority 
30 how appointed, 108. 

Ardalides, 187. 

Ardalus, divine honours at, 187 

Areopagites, duty of, 107. 
how chofen, 107. 

Areopagus, 56. ts power, 57 
time and manner of meet- 
ing, 58. 

Argivi, l. 

Armour, 285. dedicated to the 
gods, 321. 

Army, of the Grecian, 296. 

Arrows, 292. divination by, 

Arts, laws relating to, 120. 

Afties, divination by, 213. 

AfTemblies, public, 4.7. their 
time of meetings, 48. manner 
of holding them, 49. 

Aftronomy, 275. 

Afyla, 145, 

Athene, i. 

Athenians, what called, z. 
government of, 3.- divifion 
of, 3. boroughs of, 22. 

Athens, city of, i. founded, i. 
Inhabitants of, 2. ^-defcrip- 
tion of, 4. citadel of, 4. 
public treafury of, 6. ICK. er 
city of, 7. gates o 8. - 
ftreets> 9. ouildings of the 
lower city, 10. gyini alia, 
14. theat;es of, 17 H.;r- 
bours, 1 8. citizens of, 19. 
fojourners of, 22. flaves 
of, 24. i.lagiftrates of, 27. 
Archons of, 29.-*-inferiour 

magiilrates of, 33. public 
revenue of, 35. public trea- 
furers of, 36. public ex- 
penditure of, 38. public dif- 
tributersof.38. officers in the 
markets of, 39. maritime of- 
ficers of, 4o.-^oiHcers in the 
public fervice of, 40. coun- 
cils of, 46. Areopagus of, 56. 
Attica fides, 170. 

Bacchus, theatre of, 49. fefK- 
valsof,2i 8-222-228-244-254, 


Banifliment, 87. 

Barathro, 85. 

Bargains, relating to private, 


Barley, ufed in facrifices, 149. 
Bathing, 425. 
Baths, 15, 425. 
Battle, conduct before, 309. 
Beir, dead bodies placed on a, 

Belt, Grecian, 290. 

Birds, flain in facrifices, 151. 

divination by, 197. 
Booty, of military, 320. 
Boundaries, laws relating toi 


Bow, Grecian, 291. 
Boxing, of, 264. 
Boys, laws relating to, 124. 
Branch idze, oracle of the, 182. 
Bread of the poor, 418. 
Breaftplates, of, 287. 
Bucklers, 288. 




fcara, oracle at, 1 86. 
Burning of the dead, 365. 
Bufmefs, laws relating to, 130. 
Buying, laws relating to, 118. 

Cabiri, feftival dedicated to, 242- 

Cakes, ufed in facrifices, 152. 

Calculi, 61. 

Camels, ufed in battle, 284. 

Camps, of the Grecian, 307. 

Cecropia, 2. 

Cecrops, 1-2. 

Celibacy, penalties of, 382. 

Cenotaphs, 371. 

Ceramicus, 12. 

Ceremonies, before funerals, 

Ceres, oracle of, 1 87. feftivab 

of, 232-239-246. 
Ceryces, 98. 
Ceftus, 264. 
Chariots, 282. 
Chariot-races, of, 267-273. 
Children, laws relating to, 103. 

Chiliombs, offered in facrifice* 


Chorus, tragic, 97. 
Cirrha, oracle at, 1 80. 
Citadel, of Athens, 4. 
Citrzens, Athenian, 19. -laws 

relating to, joi. 
Claros, oracles of, 183. 
Cock-fighting, law relating to 


Codrus, 3. 

Coins, value of, 460. 
Combats, 259. 
Comedies, when a&ed, 96. 
Concubines, 398. 

ortina, 178. 

Corypae, oracle at, 184. 
Cottabus, 442. 
Cotys, feitival in honour of, 

Courts of juftice, 61. 

rier, office of, 105. 
riminals might plead their own 
defence, 1 1 1 . 

Crowns, prefented by the peo- 
ple, 109. ufed at facrifices, 


Cryftals, divination of, 211. 

Cups, ufed at Entertainments; 

434-43?. adorned vvithgar^ 

land?, 435. 
Curator, 26. 

Dagger, Grecian, 291. 

Dalmatia, i. 

~)anai, I. 

Dancers, rewards of, 98. laws 

relating to, 108. 
Dances, in honour of Neptune, 


Darts, of Grecian, 292. 

Dead, treatment of the, 35^. 
mourning for, 362. inter- 
ment of, 365. burning of, 
395. honours paid to, 371. 

Death, puniiliment of, 85. 

K K 3 Debtors} 



Debtors, kws relating to public, Du&ilis, 17. 


Defence, of harbours, 346. 
Defendant, condud of s in courts 

of juftice, 67. 
Delos, oracle at, iSo. 
Delphic oracle, 174. 
Deferters, punifhmcnt of^ 323. 
Diana, temple of, 1 1. feftwals 

of, 221-223-238-242-243- 


Diana Orthia, f efliyals in honour 
of, 227. 

Ditiyraa, oracle of, 182. 

Diodes, fe Hival in memory of, 

Difois, of the, 263. 

Diff fibsters, public, 38. 

Diviaadon, 170. by dreams. 
190. facri6ces, 193. birds, 
197. infe&s and reptiles, 
200. lots, 202. magical, 
207. iigns in the heavens, 


Diviners, 189* 

jDivifionfi of the i*my, 296. 

Divorces, laws relating to, 123- 

Dodona, oracle of, 171. 
Doivries, laws relating to, 1 22- 

Dreams, 191. interpreters of, 

Drefs, of the foldierc, 294-455. 
Drinking, manner of, at entcr- 

Jt5, 436. 

Duties, in time of peace, 43. 
in time of war, 43 filial, 4 1 z 

Earth, oracle of the, 188. 

Earthquakes, inaufpicious, 201. 

Education s 449. 

Eels, oiFered at facrifices, 151. 

Egytiaas, 2. 

Elephants, ufed in battle, 284. 

Eloquence, prize of, 271. 

Employments of women, 400. 

Engagements, naval, 347. 

Engines, to cad ilones, 316. 

Entertainments, laws relating to, 
130-415. of invitations to, 
422. Cu Horns at, 424-427. 

Epiftata, iSo. 

Eponymj, 100. 

Evidence, various forts of, in 
courts of j'jftice, 71. - 

Earpps, fe Rival of, 34. 

Eutrefis, oracle of, 183. 

Expenditure public, 38. 

Exportation of wares, laws re- 
lating to, -i 1 9. 

Falfe witneMes, 74. 
Pagination, 209. 
Feafls, after facrilices, 160. 
Feftival, to the Furies, 2^6. 
Feftivals, 213. laws relating to 

Fetters, puniihment of, 86-87. 



Groves, facred, 143. 

Guefts, at entertainments, 423- 

Gymnafia, 14. laws relating to, 

Gymnical exercifes, youth in- 

ftrucled in, 103. 


fields, facred, 145. 

Filial Duties, 412. 

Fireballs, 293. 

Flocks, laws relating to, $17. 

Fluteplayers, when employed 

Flutes, ufed at games, 273 

in battle, 312. at 


Food, 416. 

Foreigners, not to trade, 120. 
how received, 448. 

Forms of the army, 296* 

Fortifications, of, 313. 

Forum, 13. 

Freed fervants, laws relating to 

Funerals, laws relating to,i 26.- 
military, 317. private, 352 
ceremonies before, 357. 
proceflions, 360. Entertain 
ments at, 372. 

Games, 25 9- laws relating to 
96. at entertainments, 441 

Garlands, ufed at prayers, 16 
of pariley, ufed at funera] 
372.~of afparagus, ufed 
marriages, 391. ufed at en 
tertainmei'its, 43!. 

Gates, of Athens, 7. 

Guardianfliip, Jaws relating t 

Guards, 308. 

Graves, 369. 

Greeks, what called, i 

Halls, public, for ttadefmen, 14. 
Harbours, i S. defence of, 346. 
Harlots, 398. laws relating to, 

Hecate, feftival in honour of; 

Hecatombs, offered in facrifice, 

Heirefles, 386. 
Helena, feftival in honour of* 


Helisea, court of, 65-66. 
Hellas, i. 
Helmets, 286. 
Herbs, divination by, 209. 
Hercules, oracle of, 1 86. fefti- 
val of, 238-241. 
Herds, laws relating to, 117. 
Heroes, adoration paid to, 133. 
Honours, public f< 88. laws re- 
lating to, 109. paid to the 
dead, 371. inheritance of 

Horfe-races, 266-273. 
Horfe-foldiers, 281. 
Hofoitality to ftrangers, 445. 
Hunting, youth to be taught, 


K K 4 Hyacynthus, 



Hyacynthus, feflival in honour 

of, 257. 

Hybla, oracle at, 184. 
Hymn?, fung at entertainments, 


Javelins, of, 252. 

Ichra?, oracle at, 184. 

Idols, Grecian, 139. 

Illegitimate perfons, laws con- 
cerning, 103. 

Images, 148. 

Importation of Wares, laws re- 
lating to, 119. 

Imprecations, 162-167. 

Imprisonment i 85* 

Jhifarsy, puni foment of, 04. 

Infants, 404. 

Informers, ialfe, puni&ed, 132. 

Ingratitude, punifued, ^32. 

Inhabitants, 'diviilon of, 2. 

Inheritance of property, 408. - 
of honours, 4*2. 

Iro, oracle of, 188. 
Inlcripti, 2 : ;. 

In&riptions, monumental, 370. 

In feds, divination by, 200. 

Inftruments, snafical, ufed in 
battlr, 3 ii, at funerals, 365. 

Intelligence, military, how tent, 


Interment, of the dead, 365. 
Jouians, i. 
lithmian games, of the, 474. 

Judges, chofen by lots 69. 

laws relating to, 1 10. 
Judgments, public, 76.--private, 

79. laws relating to, ui- 

114. laws preparatory to, 

in.* how pronounced, 112. 
Judicial procefs, 66. 
JunO, oracle of, 188 feftivals 

in honour of, 231-237-242. 
Jupiter, temple of, u. oracles 

of, 171. feftivals in honour 

of, 227-245-248. 

Landmarks, kws relating to,i 16. 

Lands, laws relating to, 117. 

LariiTa, oracle of, 183. 

Laws, 89. the manner of pro- 
pofing, 90.annually revifed, 
91. relating to the laws, 99. 
itricl inquiry into, 100. 
tranfoibed into the public 
records, 101. 

Lawfuits, laws relating to, in, 

Leaping, 262. 

Legacies, laws relating to, 125. 

Levying foldiers, 109. 

Libations, offered to the dead, 

Liquors, 4^20. 

Literati, 25. 

Literature, youth to be in. 

iiructed in, 103. 
Logiibe, 28 107. 
Lots, divination by, 202. 
Love, tokens of, 378. potions, 




Lycus, ftatues of, 65. temple 

of, 74* 
Lyre, 453. 

Magical divinations, 207. 

Magiftrates, 27. inferiour 33- 
74. Jaws relating to, 106. 

Mariners, compacts between, 
laws relating to, 119. 

Marine officers, 40-339. 

Markets, 13. 

Marriages, laws relating to, 

Marriage, 3*82. age of, 383. 
feafon for, 383. 

Meals, 414. 

Meafures, Grecian, 462. 

Men, offered in facrifice, 151. 

Mercury, divine honours paid 
to, 1 86. fcftivalof, 236. 

Military affairs, 279. laws re- 
lating to, 131. puniihments 
and rewards, 131. armour, 


Minerva, temples of, 5. fefti- 

vals of, 235-248-253-254. 
Mines, laws relating to, 130. 
Miniilers, religious, 134. 
Money, 45 g.-^laws relating to, 

i 1$. computation of, 460. 
Months, how reckoned, 275-279 
Monuments of the dead, 368. 
Mourning for the dead, 362. 
Murder, laws relating to, 127. 
Mufic, youth to be taught, 103 

at entertainments, 441. 

art of, 452, 

vlufical Inftruments, 453. ufei 
at funerals, 365. at facri- 
fices, 159. 

Vluficians, employed at funerals, 

vlycenae, oracle at, 188. 

sfaval fpoils, 350, punimments, 
350. engagements, 347 
Inftruments, 333. officers, 


Demean games, 273, 
Neptune, temple of, 5. feftrvai 
in honour of, 251-252-253*. 
, oracle of, 188. 

Oars, ufed in Ships, 328, 

Oaths, 165. of vvitneffes, hovr 
taken, 71. of plaintiff and 
defendant in courts of juftice, 
69. laws relating to, 1 15. 
reverence paid to, 169. pu- 
nifliments of the violation of 
them, 169. 

Officers, public, 49-294-296. 
attending entertainments^ 7. 

Offices, laws relating to various, 

Oil, ufed in facrificcs, 148. 

Olympic games, 267. 

Oracles, 170-184. 

Orators, in courts of jufti^e, 72 
laws relating to, 108. of 
the Athenian^ 92. 

Ornaments, ufed at facrifices, 
155. Monu.Tienta 1 , 370. 


5o6 I N D 

Orobae/cfracJe of, 1 84. 
Orope, oracle of, 184. 
Orpheus, oracle of, 188. 
Overfeers of the navy, 109. 

Painting, art of, 450. 
Palladium, when inftituted, 62. 
Pan, temple of, II. oracle of, 

188 * feftival in honour of, 


Pantheon, temple of, ii 
Parafites, 98. 
Parafiti, 136. 

Parents, laws relating to, 103. 
Parfley, prizes of, 273-274. 

at funerals, 372. 
Parthenion, 5. 
Pafiphae, oracle of, i83. 
Patrae, oracle at, 187. 
Peace, of, 305. 
People, laws relating to the, 


Perjury, punimment of, 84, 
Pharae, oracle at, 186. 
Philofophers, laws relating to, 

Philofophy, youth to be taught, 

Phyficians, laws relating to, 


Pipe, the, 454. 
Plaintiff, in courts of law, 66. 
Plays, laws relating to, 96. 
Poems, recited at entertain- 
ments, 443. 
Poetry, prize of, 271. 


Polygamy, 382. 

Porticoes, 12. 

Prayers, ai racrifices, i57-i6i 
the time of, 162. cere- 
monies of, 162. 

Prefages, 204. 

Prefents, to the gods, 161. 

Prietteffes, 155. 

Priefts, of religion, 134. to give 
an'account of their priefthood, 
99. how elected, 1 02. an* 
thority of, 102. 

Private life, of the Greeks^ 
35 2 - 

Privileges of youth, 376. 

Proceflions, at funerals, 360. " 
at marriages, 392. 

Procurers, laws relating to, 124. 
Proedri, 49. their office, 50- 


ProphetefTes, 172. 
Prytanes, 49, offices of, 49* 

Piephiihi, a, 107. 

Ptous, oracle at, 184. 

Pugiles, 265. 

Punilhrnents, of criminal, 84. 
laws relating to, 114. 'Mi- 
litary, 323. Naval, 350. 

Purification, 152. after 'fu- 
nerals, 372. 

Pythian games, 271. 

Quxftors, how^chofcn, 107* 
Quivers, 292. 
^uoit, of the, 263. 



&aces,of, 266. 

Ram, uied in battle, 314-3*5. 
Receivers of public money, laws 
relating to, 116. 

Religion, 133. 

Reptiles, divination by, 200. 
Revenue, public, 35. 
Rewards, of public, 8-8. mili- 
tary, 324. 

Rharium, 150. 
Right of inheritance, 409. 
Rings, divination by, 210. 
Rites, preparatory to facririces, 


Robbers, laws relating to, 127. 
Rods, divination by, 203. 
Running, of, 260. 

Sacrifices, when and how per- 
formed, 85-145. matter of 
the, 146. time and manner 
of offering, 156. ceremo- 
nies after, 1 60. divination 
by, 195. after mourning for 
the dead, 373, before mar- 
riage, 390. 

Sacrilege, puniftiment of, 76. 

Salt, ufed infacrifices, 150. 

Salutation, at entertainments, 

Saturn, feftival in honour of, 243 

Scabbard, the Grecian, 291. 

Sea Service, of the, 326. Forces, 

Selling, laws relating to, 1 18. 



Senate, laws relating to decree 
of, ic i. laws relating to the, 
105. -of five hundred, 5.2.*- 
its power, 54. 

Senators of Five Hundred, $2U 
how elected , 5 3 .'qualifica- 
tion of, 63. how to deliver 
their opinions, 106. 

Sentence, how delivered incourts 
of juftice, 73-112. 

Sepulchres, laws relating to, 

Servitude, puniihment of, $ 

Sheep, the price of, 94. 

Shields, Grecian, 289. 

Ships, the fuppofed inventors *>t 
326. various kinds of, 327. 
divifions and ornaments of, 

Shouting, ufed in battle, 312* 
Sick r treatment of the, 355* 
Sieges, of, 313. 
Signals, of the Grecian, 309* 
Signs of the heavens, divination 

by, 200. 
Slain, treatment of the, in battle, 


Slander, laws relating to, 150. 

Slaves, 24. treatment of, 24. 
privileges of, 25. tortured to 
give evidence, 71. -laws re- 
lating to, 105. not to plead 
their own caufe, 1 1 1. 

Slings, of Grecian, 292, 

Sneezing, omen of, 204.. 

Societies, laws relating to cor- 
porate, 120; 



Sojourners, 24. their office at 
public proceflions, 95. laws 
relating to, 104. 

Soldiers, the pay of, 280 281. 

Songs, at the Pythian games 
272. at entertainments, 441 

Spears, of Grecian, 290. 

Sphragitides, 188, 

Spoils, dedicated to the gods 
1 6 1. naval, 350.-^ taken in 
battle, 320. 

Sports, laws relating to, 96. 
after facrifices, 160. at en- 
tertainments, 441. 

Stadium, 15. 

Stage, reftriclions of the, 97, 

Standards, of the Grecian, 309. 

Statues of temples, how placed, 

Strangers, not to join in chorus, 
1 08. hofpitality to, 445. 

Streets, of Athens, 9. 

Succeffion of property, laws re- 
lating to, 125. 

Swearing, manner of, 167. fa- 
crifices at the time of, 168. 

Swimming,youth to be inilrucled 
in, 103. 

Sword, Grecian, 290. 
Syndic, 107, 

Tables, ufed at entertainments, 

Tablets, on which the laws were 

engraved, 92. 
Tegyrx, oracle at, 184. 

Temples, 10. .'aw relating to 

the repairs of, 98-137.-*. 

where built, 138. refuge to 

malefactors, 144. 
Teftamentary Wills, 411. 
Tl.eatres, 17. law relating to 

fpedators at, 97. 
Theft, laws relating to, 129. 
Theomancy, 189. 
Thefeus, 2. temple of, 10. 
Time, of, 274. 

Tokens of friendmip, 447. of 
love, 37$. 

Tombs, 368. ornamented with 

flowers, 373. 

Tortoife, ufed in battle, 314. 
Trade encouraged, 13. 
Traitors, refufed the rites o^ 

fepulture, 354. punifhment 

of, 107. 

Treafurers, public, 36. 
Treafury, public, 6. tutelar 

gods of, 6. chapels in, 6. 

temples in, 6. 

Treaties, how engraved, 306. 
Trees, ufed in facrifices, 149. 
Trierarch, the qualification of, 

109. office of, 109. 
Trophies, 321. 
Trophortius, oracle of, 184. 
Trumpets, ufed in battle, 310. 

Venus, temples of, 7-10. fefti- 

valsof, 215-222. 
Verfatilis, 17. 

Viftims, of the facrifices to thj 
dead, 374. 




U'yfles, oracle facred to, 188. 
Voyages, 344 
Ufe of animal food, 418. 
Ufury, laws relating to, j!$. 
Vulcan, temple of , 10. feftival 
in honour of, 238, 

War, how proclaimed, 131-305. 

naval inftruments of, 338. 
Water, divination by, 212. 

drank at meals, 420. 
Water-glafles, divination by, 


Weapons, of war, 285. 
Weights, 461. 
Wife, of the &a,tf&ivq t 99. 
Wills, law relating to, 125- 

Winds, temple oi' the eight, n. 
Wine, uied in facrifices, 4 

drank at meals, 420. 
Witnefles, in courts of Juftioe^ 

yi.^-Iaws relating to, 113. 
Women, employments of, 400- 

not allowed to travel in tic 

night, 401. cuftoms of, ia 

childbirth, 402. 
Words, ominous, 206. 
Worftiip, laws relating to divine^ 


Wrellling, 265. 

Year, how reckoned, 375. 
Youth, law relating to the i- 

ftru&ion of, 103, privilege* 

of, 376. 



2. laft line but ope; before <vjkc, read and* 

4. 8 lines from the bottom; dele be* 

7 line 2 ; before encompaffcd* read and c was 

28-. line.- 10 ; for KftfoToj^Tot, read XtiporowToi. 

^ 6; line 10 ; for confifcattd^ read confifcate. 

73. line 20; for /^m & *74 read Wales 'were e$ucd ; for 
read av^j. 

^6. line 10. ; for enatted, read a&ett.. 
140. line 8 ; after /S^ra?, a comma. 
175. line 15; for Mio-o^tpaXow, read MserapQcthou 
219. line. 6; for K&OWOTJ;;, read XOO'TTOT*;?. 
222. line 3, from the bottom ; for Baxxaa, read 
239. HHC lalt ; fur /V, read was. 
244. line 22 ; for AiGoAia, read 
258. l^re 23 ; read nvpu.povq. 
272. title ; read Antiquities. 
278. line 5; for ^EO?, read pyvoq 
^.380 line 1,1 ; for vw, read v^wv. 
422. line 18; for rxvQoq, read 
427. title; for Cuuftoms, read Cufoms. 

Other liferal Errours may perhaps be found, wMch it is hop 
the reader will candidly correct. 

TuUijbed by the fame Autbor. 

J.s-Annotations on the Book of Geneiis, with Obfervations 
Doctrinal and Practical. 8vo. 5 s. 

II.- Sermons, in Two Volumes. 8vo. IQS. 

111. Alumni Etonenfes; or a Catalogue of the Provofts and 
Fellows of Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, 
from the Foundation in 1443. to the Year 1797; with an 
Account of their Lives and Preferments, collected from ori- 
ginal MSS. and authentic Biographical Works. 410 . I. i x, 

IV. The Sacred Kiftory of the Life cf Jefus Chrift ; illuilra- 
tive of the Harmony of the Four Evangelifts; to which is 
added, an index of parallel PafTages. For the Ufe of 
Schools. 3-r. 

Luke Hanfard, Printer, 
Great Turnftile, Lincoln VInn Fields* 


T r> 2lA 60m-3,'65 
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